Basically, there are two types of diabetes. For the treatment of one, insulin is needed because the pancreas no longer manufactures insulin. This type is called insulin-dependent diabetes. For the treatment of the other, some chemicals are needed that can gradually release insulin from the pancreas so the diabetic can control the clinical symptoms. This type is called insulin-independent diabetes; the pancreas still has the ability to manufacture insulin.
Insulin-independent diabetes, established in the elderly and which can be regulated by the intake of 'tablet' forms of medication, is most probably the end result of brain water-deficiency, to the point that its neurotransmitter systems—particularly the serotonergic system—is being affected. The physiology of the brain is designed in such a way that it automatically begins to peg-up the glucose threshold so that it can maintain its own volume and its own energy requirements. The brain needs glucose for its energy value and its metabolic conversion to water. The prevalent consensus of opinion is that the bulk of energy requirement in the brain is provided by sugar alone. My personal view is that this is only the case if there is water and salt shortage in the body. Water and salt are absolutely essential for the generation of hydroelectric energy, particularly for neurotransmission mechanisms.
The reason and the mechanism for altering blood sugar levels is quite simple. When histamine becomes active in water regulation and energy management, it also activates a group of substances known as prostaglandins (PCs). PCs are involved in a subordinate system for rationed distribution of water to the cells in the body.
The pancreas—a very complex gland located between the stomach and the duodenum—other than being the seat of insulin manufacture is engaged in the production of copious quantities of a bicarbonate-containing watery solution. This bicarbonate solution is emptied into the duodenum to neutralize acid coming from the stomach. This is how the acid from the stomach is neutralized. It happens that while the stimulating agent, PG of the E type, may be involved in shunting circulation to the pancreas so that the watery bicarbonate solution can be made, at the same time it naturally inhibits the secretion of insulin from the pancreas. It acts like a very tightly operated servo-mechanism. The more one system has to be served, the more the other system will be decommissioned.
Why? Simply, insulin promotes movement of potassium and sugar into the cells of the body. It also promotes entry of some amino acids into cells. Accompanying the passage of sugar, potassium, and amino acids, water will also pass into the cell that has been stimulated by insulin. Such action will automatically reduce the available water that is more easily accessible from outside the cells. In a dehydrated state, the action of insulin would be counterproductive. The logic employed in the design of the body has therefore installed the two actions of water distribution to the pancreas and the needed inhibition of insulin action in the same agent—prostaglandin E. In this way, and at the expense of severe deprivation of some cells, water is made available for the act of food digestion and acid neutralization in the intestines.
As it happens, when insulin secretion is inhibited, except for the brain, the metabolism of the body is severely disrupted. In a dehydrated state, the brain benefits from insulin inhibition. The brain cell itself is not dependent on insulin for its functions While cells in most other parts of the body are totally dependent on the properties of insulin for their normal function. If we think about it, there is a natural logic to the ultimate production of insulin-independent diabetes in severe chronic dehydration. Why is it called insulin-independent diabetes? Because the body can still manufacture insulin, although it takes the influence of some chemical agents to promote its secretion.
This phenomenon of insulin inhibition with dehydration shows that the primary function of the pancreatic gland is directed at the provision of water for food digestion. Insulin inhibition is an adaptation process of the gland to the dehydration of the body.
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