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Pneumonia: Empiric Treatment Based on Patient Population
Predicting Protein Structure and Function from Sequence
The Digestive Process
BRAIN DEATH CRITERIA -important for exam
New Methods for the Diangnosis of the Intellectual Level of Subnormals
The F.I.T.T. Principle
Cardiac Pharmacology: CHF & (+) Inotropic Drugs


Iron deficiency is singularly the most widespread mineral deficiency in the world. It is believed that most women are iron deficient and or sub-clinically anaemic. This mainly is due to poor nutrition and menstrual blood loss.

The symptoms of Iron deficiency include fatigue, pale complexion, low blood pressure, intolerance to cold, obvious heartbeat on exertion, concave nails, or nails with trenches running across them. Iron deficiency can exist without a person actually being anaemic! Iron deficiency can cause too little stomach acid and iron mal‑absorption, similarly, can be caused by these problems. Those at greatest risk are children, pregnant women, those with heavy periods, vegetarians and those eating a poor diet (this would include most of the human race). Coffee is a great inhibitor of iron absorption.

The most common type of anaemia is pernicious anaemia resulting from a lack of B12 and Iron. There are many other types of anaemia. Anaemia means 'lack of oxygen'. In the blood, oxygen is carried by the red blood cells or erythrocytes. Haemoglobin is the oxygen carrying molecule of each erythrocyte and the production of this haemoglobin is entirely dependent upon an adequate supply of B12 and Iron. (Haem means iron). I would like you to consider two points.

1. Animal protein (meat and dairy) is the only souce of Vitamin B12

2. Coffee inhibits iron absorption and junk and processed food contain little iron.

From this you can see the importance of sufficient animal source protein, and the need to eliminate junk food from the diet, if one maintains safe iron levels. Iron is deficient in poor Western Diets (hamburgers, Chinese food, coffee, cakes) and is even more deficient in poor Vegetarian Diets. Iron is necessary for the Immune System.

Some other important factors need consideration:

1. Iron (and folate) supplementation inhibits Zinc absorption. This is important, given that Zinc is probably the second most likely mineral deficiency. (Take them 12 hours apart).

2. Iron and Vitamin E are antagonistic (take them 12 hours apart).

so  1. Improved diet is essential in treating Iron deficiency. Basically this means more whole food, sufficient animal protein and then eliminate sugar and stimulants (especially coffee). Richest sources of iron are liver, (and other organ meats), egg yolk, legumes, black strap molasses and parsley.

2. Supplements: up to 100mg of ferrous gluconate or ferrous fumerate can be taken safely for short to medium periods of time. 10‑20mg would be a safe maintenance dose. Vitamin C promotes Iron Absorption (5‑10g/day), B complex and especially B12, are essential. Zinc supplementation should be considered if iron is to be used. 50mg chelated zinc per day is quite safe, preferably taken 12 hours away from the iron. In severe cases of pernicious anaemia both iron and B12 should be given intravenously as well as orally.

To quote Adele Davis, except for strict vegetarians, 'anaemia is the price paid for being consumers of refined foods. If natural foods, grown on rich soils, could be eaten by everyone, most anaemia would probably be only of historical interest!'


Flatulence and wind are indicative of digestive inefficiency in the intestines and colon. You will remember that it is the liver and the pancreas which provide most of the digestive secretions for the intestines. The liver produces bile for the first stage of digestion of fats and the pancreas produces pancreatic enzymes, which reduce all of the food types to their primary components.

Other factors contributing to flatulence include the fermentation of foods due to food intoleration (allergy), constipation, inflammatory bowel disorders or possibly parasites like worms and especially Candidiasis (yeast infection).

Fermentation and wind are common in people who change quickly to raw food diets, especially if they contain lots of beans and pulses. Some of this wind may be acceptable, as beans do produce more gas, however most people will require digestive enzymes to support their struggling digestive organs. If these are not provided, then digestion can fail badly after a short period of time.

Longitudinal striations down the fingernails indicates poor absorption of nutrients. This can result from all of the above conditions.

so  1. Don't drink with meals.

2. Improve the quality of the diet, cutting down on processed foods, sugars, stimulants, fats and salt.

3. Use digestive enzymes containing ox bile and pancreatin. Usually 2 per meal will suffice. Cut down when condition improves. An improvement in the nails will be noticed in as little as 2 weeks.

4. Nutrients which support the liver and pancreas will help. Priorities would be Vitamin C (5‑10mg/day), Methionine, Choline, Inositol, B6 and Vitamins A and E.

Candidiasis, Allergies and Constipation

These will be studied in detail later in the course.


Worms thrive on poor diets. Always improve the diet. They can be further treated with drugs, or preferably with Homoeopathics, herbs or garlic. Nails that are flattened or with spoon shaped hollows can indicate the presence of intestinal worms. If the person is a continuous nail biter with these accompanying signs then chronic infestation is a definite possibility. Natural treatments for worms include the taking of garlic which creates a hostile environment in intestines. A beverage made from Quassia Chips (herbal) can also be effective.


It is critical that digestion be efficient if one is to be healthy. Even the simplest problems of burping, bloating, flatulence and abdominal discomfort are warning signs and must not be ignored.

There are many factors involved in failing digestion. Firstly, taking time to chew our food properly before swallowing is a must. Next comes that vital digestive organ, the stomach. It is here that we digest that most important food, protein. In the short term, we may be able to assist the digestion of protein by supplying HCI supplements, but this practice must not be continued regularly for long periods. The body will eventually reject them.

Any mild regurgitation, hiatus hernia, discomfort or flatulence must be viewed as clear signs that what you are taking in is not good for you. These are all attempts by the body to rid itself of that which it knows to be not good. Similarly, nutrients from undigested foodstuffs will not be sufficiently digested for absorption.

Stress can be an overexciter or inhibitor of the vegus nerve which controls stomach secretions. Stress must be reduced.

Drinking with food is going to dilute the acids and enzymes available for protein digestion.

Three other factors become critical in improved digestive function.


Nothing will work properly if there is not enough clean water. Similarly, this water must be available to the body. If thirst persists even after water has been taken, or if there is dry mouth or other signs of dehydration, a 'carrier' may be necessary to facilitate rehydration. Apple juice, lemonade, caffeine tincture and dandelion tincture are all acceptable 'carriers' and should be added to some of the glasses of water consumed each day. Salt can also help with rehydration.

People with thirst or dry mouth after drinking, add 1' of apple juice to their water a few times each day. If there is any reason to suspect salt deficiency, add it to the mineral water. Apple cider vinegar taken in apple juice or water at 1‑3 teaspoons per half glass of juice before food will improve the acid environment of the stomach and stimulate further acid production, (very good for old people). This should be sipped before or during all protein meals or at least at the main protein meal of the day.

Food Combining

Don't eat fruits or melons with each other or any other foods. For those who still present digestive problems, don't take meals with starch and protein together. Clearly identify the most likely starch offenders as beans and grains and the proteins as animal source protein, i.e. meat, fish, eggs and dairy foods.


Finally, over‑eating must be avoided. It will result in a large mass of undigested food and all of the associated problems that result from this. Overeating almost always has an emotional basis and this should always be addressed. It's often associated with trying to 'stuff emotion down with food' and a compensation for what your real needs are at the time. Who craves sweets and chocolate when they're feeling lonely and unloved?

Further Suppmentation

We have already considered 'B' Vitamins as necessary for the production of gastric secretions. Another supplement that can prove very useful is free form Amino Acids. We have seen that protein is vital for life so if there is any question about one's ability to digest, absorb or utilise protein then a period of 1‑2 months on Aminos may help enormously.


Vitamins are required by our bodies in minute amounts to maintain growth and normal metabolism. Vitamins are organic nutrients. Unlike proteins, fats or carbohydrates, vitamins do not provide energy or serve as building materials. Their function is the regulation of physical processes. Most serve as coenzymes.

Ideally, our food should provide all of our vitamins. Some are produced in our bodies. No single food provides enough of all of the vitamins that we require. This is why a variety of foods is essential.

Avitaminosis refers to a deficiency of any vitamin.

Hyper Vitaminosis refers to an excess of one or more vitamins.

Water Soluble and Fat Soluble Vitamins

These are the two major groups of vitamins.

Water soluble vitamins are vitamins B, C and P (bioflavinoids). These are not stored for long in our bodies (about 3 days) and we require a regular supply of them. Water soluble vitamins are absorbed in our intestines and excesses pass out in our urine.

Fat Soluble Vitamins are vitamins A, D, E, F and K. These vitamins are absorbed in the intestines along with ingested dietary fats. They are stored in our bodies in certain cells or in our liver. Caution must be observed with supplemental 'fat soluble vitamins' because excess build up can be harmful. The unit of measure for most fat soluble vitamins is the International Unit or I.U. This is an expression of the biological activity of the vitamin.


Minerals are mostly inorganic substances. They make up about 5% of our total body weight and are found mostly in our skeleton. Minerals and Trace Minerals are absolutely essential to life. Indeed, the deficiency of a mineral is a grave affair.

The essential minerals include Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphorous, Sodium, Chlorine, Potassium, Iron, Iodine, Manganese and Zinc. Essential trace minerals include Copper, Selenium and Chromium.

Many minerals need to 'partner up' with an amino acid before they can be accepted onto a receptor site on the intestine wall. Hence the term 'chelated mineral'. Chelate means 'bind to', and supplemental chelated minerals are those which have been chemically 'bound' to a suitable amino acid. This saves them having to do it in the gut, and it greatly improves the absorptive ability of the mineral. Examples would be Calcium Chelate or Magnesium Chelate. A more specific example is Calcium Orotate, which is Calcium bound to the amino acid, Orotic Acid. Orotates are highly absorbable in bone.

Therapeutic use of Vitamins and Minerals

It goes without saying that we need to be always looking at ways of improving the quality and variety of our diet, so that we can maximise on the nutritional value of our food. There are, however, many reasons why it is just not possible for our food to provide all of the nutrients that our bodies require. We will study the reasons for these nutritional shortfalls, in depth, as the course progresses. Some of the main factors include poor soil, artificial fertilizers, early picking, processing and excessive storage. Then we have the bio chemical individuality of each person to consider. Also their stress levels, work load, history of past illness, etc. All of these factors make a mockery of recommended daily allowances (R.D.A.), especially for vitamins. For example, the RDA in Australia for Vitamin C is about 60mg per day. This is the amount required to prevent you from getting Scurvy, which is a fatal disease. The world's leading authorities, including Dr. Linus Pauling, Dr. Glen Dettman and Dr. Archie Kalerkarinos, all believe that we require approximately 10gms of vitamin C per day to maintain our health. This is something like 200 times the R.D.A. It is of interest to note that the American Food and Drug Authority, who set the U.S. RDA's, recommend a daily requirement of some 4.3 grams for chimpanzees: our nearest animal relatives. The recommended daily allowance of 60mg per day will probably prevent you from getting scurvy, but it has nothing to do with being healthy.

The following is a brief examination of the major therapeutic properties of each vitamin including recommendations for use and contraindications. We will begin with the Water Soluble Vitamins.

Water Soluble Vitamins


Almost all animals manufacture vitamin C in their liver. Those that don't include man, guinea pigs and some birds. Experiments have shown that rats will manufacture relatively large amounts of vitamin C when subjected to stress. Vitamin C is very much the stress vitamin, and our personal daily requirement will vary dramatically according to illness, emotions or other stress forms. It has been accurately demonstrated that our need for this vitamin increases substantially during times of acute infection. For example, heavy colds, pneumonia or AIDS.

What it does

Vitamin C is often considered to be the conductor of all other vitamins. It is an essential nutrient for a vast number of functions within our body. It is a liver metabolite, a powerful antioxidant and detoxifier, and is necessary for the production of the protein collagen, which forms the basis for our bones and connective tissue. Thus it plays a major role in healing wounds and burns because of its facility to form connective tissue in the scar. Vitamin C assists in Iron absorption. It is possibly the most important nutrient for our immune system.

So, think of Vitamin C for Immunity, Wound Healing and Detoxifying.

Deficiency Signs

These include slow wound healing (also check protein deficiency), loose teeth, bleeding gums, weak bones and connective tissue, easy bruising and scurvy.

Best Natural Sources

Fresh fruits and green vegetables, certain exotic fruits, potatoes and liver.

Supplemental Sources

Ascorbic Acid is pure vitamin C. Other varieties include mineral ascorbates like calcium and sodium ascorbate. These are calcium or sodium molecules bound to an ascorbate molecule. They are approximately 90% ascorbate (vitamin C) and 10% of the mineral, by weight. The recommended supplemental varieties are Ascorbic Acid or Sodium Ascorbate. The acid is pure, but can be too harsh for some stomachs. Sodium Ascorbate is cheap, neutral and well tolerated. The sodium molecule is split off at the renal interface and passes out of the body, unlike the sodium in table salt. Calcium Ascorbate, may be suitable if there is a deficiency of that particular mineral (e.g. calcium) but this should be tested first.

Official R.D.A. Intake

About 60 mg per day. In times of infection, Sodium Ascorbate can be taken orally at the rate of 2 level teaspoons per hour, for up to 18 hours per day. Diarrhoea will be experienced, when the body has sufficient C and no more can be absorbed across the gut wall. At this point, the dose can be slowly reduced. Note that if Megascorbate therapy is used it must not be discontinued abruptly. Always 'wean down' to the standard dose over a period of days.

Intravenous Ascorbate Therapy, using up to 60 grams of specially prepared sodium ascorbate daily, often produces spectacular results with viral infections, shingles, cancer, AIDS and many other diseases.


This is the name given to a group of essential nutrients that have certain characteristics in common. There are about 10 different B vitamins that comprise the B Complex Group. It is beyond the scope of this course to examine each individual B vitamin. They are all synergists, in other words, they all support each other, and are related, in their function. The list includes B1 (Thiamine), B2 (Riboflavin), B3 (Niacin), B5 (Pantothenic Acid), B6 (Pyridoxine) and B12 (Cyano cobalamin). Also included in this family are the accessory food factors Choline, Inositol, Folic Acid and P.A.B.A. Ideally, all B Group Vitamins should be administered together. This is almost as economical as using one individual B Vitamin and it eliminates the risk of high doses of one, unbalancing the availability of the others. There will, however, be some instances where a larger individual dose of say, B12 or Folic Acid (as for iron deficiency) may be in a person's best interests. This would still be best given in conjunction with a B Complex formula.

What they do

The B Vitamins are involved in the biochemical cycle which converts carbohydrates into glucose, and are therefore a necessary part of the bodies energy production cycle. They are also necessary for our nervous system and immune system. So, think of B complex in terms of energy, stress and immunity. Individually, the B Vitamins are involved in a vast number of different biochemical processes. As we have seen, B12 is necessary for Iron absorption. Folic Acid and B12 work closely together. B2 is necessary for the activation of B6 and B3 can be manufactured in the body, provided there is sufficient B6. They all work together. Generally speaking, B vitamins are sadly lacking in our nutritionless, over processed daily diet.

Deficiency Signs

These include, cracks at the corners of the mouth, painful, sore, red tongue, often very pointed. Skin disorders. Lassitude and weariness and possibly emotional disturbance. Alcoholics have a greatly increased requirement, especially for B1. Pregnant and lactating women require more of the B group vitamins, especially B6, B12 and Oral contraceptive pill users have an increased requirement for B6. Suffice to say, anybody on a junk food diet or a high stress lifestyle (or both, as is often the case) is unlikely to derive their B vitamin requirement from their food.

Best Natural Sources

Best natural sources are meats and livers, milk, eggs, whole grains and yeast. Some green leafy vegetables and beans also provide certain B vitamins. As you can see, this covers most of our food and is another good reason for variety in the daily diet.

Supplemental Sources

Most B vitamins are now produced synthetically. Certain studies have shown that synthetic B vitamins work more effectively when provided in a formula together with liver extract or yeast or both.

Official R.D.A. Intake

About 1mg per day for B1,2,3,5,6 and 1 microgram per day for B12.

Recommended Daily Intake

Most formulas provide about 50 times the R.D.A. per capsule. Presumably this is to guarantee that sufficient of each vitamin is absorbed. These doses are quite safe, as excesses are excreted in the urine. Follow the manufacturer's, or your therapist's, directions.

Therapeutic Dose

Generally speaking, the recommended daily intake of a B Complex vitamin formula will provide sufficient B vitamins. It is important that pregnant and lactating women get sufficient B vitamins, especially B12 and Folic Acid in cases of pernicious anaemia, B12 injections may be necessary to restore depleted body supplies.


Toxicity is not usually a problem if 1 or 2 tablets, taken from a reputable B Complex vitamin manufacturer, are taken daily. Follow the B vitamins such as B6. This is often sold for P.M.S. in 250 mg.


Some people may think that if 1 or 2 tablets per day are good then 4 to 6 tablets will be even better. Symptoms of B6 toxicity have been recorded at doses as low as 400 mg per day.

Please note that B Complex will usually produce yellow coloured urine. This is caused by vitamin B2, also known as Riboflavin. This is quite harmless and is to be expected. Riboflavin is often used as a food colouring.


The Bioflavinoids, collectively known as Vitamin P, always accompany Vitamin C in nature. They include a number of different water soluble factors the most common being Rutin, Hesperidin and Quercetin. It is believed that the bioflavinoids greatly increase the biological activity of vitamin C when the two are provided together.

The bioflavinoids function with vitamin C to maintain the integrity of blood vessels, particularly the capillaries. They also act as anti‑infective and particularly as anti‑inflammatory agents (great for arthritis sufferers).

There are no recommended daily allowances and apparently no known levels of toxicity. They are often provided as mixed bioflavinoids at about 5‑10% by volume of vitamin C preparations. They are indicated, with vitamin C, in any condition of capillary fragility, bruising or inflammation.

The richest sources include all of the fruits and vegetables which contain vitamin C.

Fat Soluble Vitamins


The name vitamin A, refers to a number of fat soluble compounds. The two that you should know about are Retinol and Beta Carotene. Beta carotene is also known as Preformed Vitamin A. It is the vegetable source precursor and must be converted to vitamin A in the liver.

Vitamin A is an important nutrient. It is also one of the commonest worldwide nutritional deficiences. Widespread, subclinical nutritional deficiency of this vitamin can be expected amongst those Westerners on poor quality diets; especially those diets lacking in yellow fruits and vegetables.

Vitamin A is associated with growth and development and is especially necessary for our eyes. It is mostly stored in the liver. Beta Carotene is a potent anti‑oxidant and free radical scavenger.

What it does

Vitamin A, as Retinol prevents drying of the eyes and corneal changes. It is essential for correct liver function and growth and development. Our immune system requires this vitamin and it is involved with correct calcium metabolism. Vitamin A soothes mucous membranes and is therefore valuable during any inflammatory condition involving epithial tissue. This would include skin conditions, sinus/bronchial conditions and gastro intestinal inflammation.

Deficiency Signs

These include night blindness and dry eyes, raised hair follicles, poor growth and development.

Best Natural Sources

Best natural sources for Beta Carotene are carrots, plus any dark green vegetables and orange and yellow fruits. The best sources for Retinol are fish liver oils also kidney, eggs, milk and butter.

Supplemental Sources

Retinol is available in tablet form, usually in doses of about 9000 i.u. per tablet. Fish liver oils in gelatin capsules provide about 4500 i.u. of vitamin A and 400 i.u. of vitamin D. These two vitamins are synergistic. They are both fat soluble and are often found together in natural sources. Beta Carotene is available in a supplement, but daily fresh vegetable juices are a much better source.

Official R.D.A. Intake

If you eat a diet that is rich in carrot juices and green leavy vegetables, plus some eggs and dairy, you will probably be getting sufficient Vitamin A. However, as the liver is primarily responsible for the digestion of fat soluble vitamins and few livers are in 'first class condition', it is possible that a malabsorptive state may exist. Ideally, we need about 10,000 i.u. of Vitamin A per day. This could be provided by 1 or 2 glasses of carrot juice, which contains some 10,000‑15,000 i.u. of Beta Carotene per glass. Again, liver function is important because this organ must convert the beta carotene to Vitamin A.

Therapeutic Dose

Large amounts of carrot juice or juices from dark green and yellow vegetables will provide all of the Beta Carotene that a body can use. The liver will only convert to vitamin A as much as is required, and the rest will be stored in the fatty tissues of the body, giving them a decidedly orange colouration. This is known as carotenaemia.

Great caution must be observed with any doses of Retinol above 10,000 i.u. per day. Therapeutically, Retinol has been given in doses of up to 400,000 i.u. per day for long periods in attempting to treat skin conditions. Doses of up to 50,000 i.u. per day are reasonably safe, with the exception of pregnancy. Pregnant women should not take more than 15,000 i.u. of Retinol per day.


There appears to be no toxic level for Beta Carotene as found in juices. It is unlikely that large doses would be available as a supplement. Carotenaemia is not harmful, but is also not recommended. Two or three small carrot or vegetable juices per day is quite enough. Large doses of Retinol can be very dangerous. As we have seen, fat soluble vitamins are stored in the body. Large excesses will cause problems.

Pregnant women should not use more than 15,000 i.u. of Vitamin A per day. Toxicity symptoms with this vitamin have occurred at doses as low as 20,000 i.u. per day, however this is rare and up to 50,000 i.u. per day is considered safe. Overdose symptoms include fatigue, lethargy and headache and must not be ignored.


This fat soluble vitamin can be acquired either by ingestion (from food or supplement) or by exposure to sunlight. The sun's ultraviolet rays convert a form of cholesterol, known as ergosterol, to vitamin D. Vitamin A and D are synergistic and are often found together in nature, for example, fish liver oils, which are one of the richest natural sources of these two vitamins. Vitamin D aids in the absorption and assimilation of calcium and phosphorous and is therefore very important for the proper growth of bones and teeth, especially in children.

The condition known as rickets results from a vitamin D deficiency. Here, soft calcium and phosphorous deficient leg bones bow outwards. This condition responds well to vitamin D supplementation. Vitamin D also helps maintain a stable nervous system, normal heart action and normal blood clotting.

Best Natural Sources

These are the same as for Vitamin A. That is, fish liver oils, eggs, milk, butter and cheese.

Supplemental Sources

Vitamin D deficiency is not common. Fish liver oils would be a suitable supplement if required.

Official R.D.A. Intake

Official RDA is 400 i.u. per day. The recommended daily intake is 400 i.u. per day.


Toxicity is possible with all fat soluble vitamins. Therapeutic doses of up to several thousand i.u.'s per day have been taken but this would only be under strict medical supervision. 1,000 i.u. per day would be a safe maximum.


This name covers the family of compounds known as Tocopherols. The name comes from two Greek words, 'tocos' (child birth) and 'phero' (to bring forth). It was coined because vitamin E deficient animals were unable to have successful pregnancies. As with all fat soluble vitamins, the absorption of Vitamin E is dependent upon the effective digestion and absorption of fat. A problem here, could result in the malabsorption of vitamin E (and possibly vitamin A, D, K and F). One of the major functions of this vitamin is its role as a powerful antioxidant. It protects living tissues from the potential damage by oxygen and free radicals. Fats and oils quickly go rancid when exposed to the air or sunlight. Rancid oils are extremely damaging. It is the vitamin E in these foods that protects them from rancidity (oxidation). Vitamin E performs the same protective function in our bodies.

What it Does

In addition to its antioxidant properties vitamin E plays other major roles, particularly as an essential nutrient for the heart muscle (myocardium). Given that 1 in 2 die from cardiovascular problems, this is significant. Vitamin E improves circulation, and greatly reduces the danger from blood clots (thrombosis). It is marvellous for removing scar tissue, both externally and internally. It can be used to great effect with vitamin C to aid in recovery after surgery, wounds, broken bones and particularly burns.

Vitamin E is necessary for the endocrine system and is often useful with thyroid conditions. Finally it will help remove scar tissue from the liver (say, following Hepatitis) and is needed for good kidney function.

Deficiency Signs

There are no reliable deficiency signs, however heart and circulatory problems, scars and wounds and exposure to pollutants would all be indicators for a larger requirement of this nutrient.

Best Natural Sources

Best sources are fresh vegetable oils, nuts and fresh wheat germ. Eggs and dairy foods also provide some vitamin E, as do green leavy vegetables.

Supplemental Sources

These include wheat germ oil in gelatin capsules and synthetically produced Tocopherols. Wheat germ oil in capsules should not be 'too old' or they will go rancid and be of more harm than good. D Alpha Tocopherol Succinate is a synthetic vitamin E that is suitable, and well absorbed. Note that the only suitable vitamin E supplements are those known as D Alpha Tocopherol. The DL Alpha Tocopherols are unsuitable synthetic substitutes. Avoid them.

Official R.D.A. Intake

About 10 i.u. per day.

Recommended Daily Intake

This would be more like 100‑200 i.u. per day as a regular maintenance dose. Up to 500 i.u. per day is quite safe, even as a maintenance dose.

Therapeutic Dose

Many reputable Doctors have written papers of the successful use of vitamin E in doses of up to 10 gms per day, (equivalent of about 15,000 i.u.). With some exceptions, therapeutic doses of 2,000 i.u. per day would be quite safe. Recent information from America sets the maximum effective daily therapeutic dose at about 750 i.u. per day.


Doses of about 1,000 i.u. per day should be taken 'ad infinitum'. Because vitamin E strengthens the heart muscle, caution must be observed with people who have suffered heart problems. They certainly need vitamin E, but the dose should be built up slowly, over a period of weeks, and blood pressure should be monitored, especially with hypertensive patients. Caution needs to be exercised by anybody taking anticoagulant drugs because vitamin E will improve circulation and increase the risk of bleeding in these people.

Note that rancid oils and fats are dangerous oxidisers and producers of free radicals. Foods like wheat germ, nuts and oils must be fresh and stored in the refrigerator to prevent them from going rancid.

Think of vitamin E as an antioxidant, antithrombotic, for healing scar tissue and strengthening the myocardium.


This name is used collectively for the essential fatty acids. This refers to the unsaturated fatty acids which come mainly from vegetable oil sources. These are considered more desirable than saturated fats from animal sources. As we have seen, the fatty acids are essential as basic structural components for our cells.

Good sources include all fresh vegetable oils, Evening Primrose oil, Max E.P.A. (fish oils) and micellised essential fatty acid supplement.


The name, vitamin K, is an abbreviation for 'koaglulations' (Danish). Its principal function is the production of blood clotting factors, particularly Prothrombin. Vitamin K comes from foods like green vegetables, liver and cereals. It is also produced by the intestinal bacteria in our gut. Deficiency of this vitamin is uncommon, except for new born babies, who can be at risk from haemorrhaging due to low vitamin K levels.


The nutritional value of our food has been reduced to such an alarmingly poor level that most people will not get all of the vitamins and minerals that are required by their bodies to maintain health and wellness. Similarly the stresses and strains of modern living call for a much higher nutritional intake. This cannot be achieved by eating more food. In my opinion, most people require some form of low dose supplementation daily. Certain groups will require even more. These will include pregnant and lactating women, those with known deficiencies and the elderly. Indiscriminate Supplementation, especially with mega doses of vitamins and minerals is far too 'hit and miss'. Supplements should always be regularly checked for compatibility with the body and the dose and variety should be adjusted and rotated according to changes in lifestyle.

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