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Antisystemic Protest
Hunger, Poverty, and Economic Development
Peasant Protest, Rebellion, and Resistance
The Rise of the Merchant, Industrialist, and Capital Controller
Constructing the Citizen-Activist
The Laborer in the Culture of Capitalism
European Union - The European Integration
Western Africa and E.U. Politics


Abstract: A straight answer to the question why Romanians did and do leave their country, would seem inappropriate/hazardous. Without any doubt, even from its very beginning, the phenomenon of emigration had economic determinations, which are to be found in present time. It is difficult, however, to integrate such a complex process within a unique pattern.

Key words: immigrants, family, poverty, exprience

 Generally, the reason for migration lies in the local constraints (the lack of jobs) and the economic situation of the family (poverty). The main reason for leaving for work is earning money, this way the migration is based on request and recruiting labour. Coming from less developed countries, the emigrants, in most cases, take jobs which are normally refused by the citizens of the respective country, jobs which do not correspond to their social. Thus, in some countries there are jobs which are constantly done exclusively by the emigrants (for example the migration of romanian women in Spain to harvest strawberries, the migration of romanian nurses in Germany, in Spain for construction work and in Belgium romanians are second place as labour force in constructions after the polish and women are wanted for nettoyage and baby-sitting).

As we all know, Romania provides labour on the international labors market with low costs for the beneficiary.. The idea its that the work emigration abroad is beneficial not only to foreign employers and the market, respectively the economies of countries using romanian labour and in general, but also for the belonging community and, later for his native country[1]. The migration is not a personal event and many times the decision to migrate does not belong to the individual, it may belong to a larger group in the community.

Along with the grown ups, the work emigration is done also by young people who live with their parents and don’t have enough money tonbuy houses and raise a family. In the beginning they spend their money having fun, but, in time, they begin to earn money to build them a decent future.

The main reasons for emigration are: poverty, unemployment, the unbearably small salaries and the inability of the government to secure social protection to its citizens. These causes make those able to work leave the country and ask for asylum in well-developed countries, Belgium for example. Taking into account that the labour market of developed societies works selectively according to the needs of national economies, Belgium is mainly interested in workers specialized in constructions; the women are wanted for cleaning and baby-sitting and public services. Besides these, we can also mention the sentimental failures or professional deceptions.

Generally there are two types of departures: people who have someone known at the destination (another Romanian fellow who left before - network departures) and departures without that kind of relation (independent departures).

Most of those working abroad left through a national social network, but who exceed the bounds and include people not only from the emigrant’s community of affiliation, but also from the destination. Often, these people who became part of the destination network bear the nationality of that country where the emigrant settled and help him obtain the necessary documents for a legal sojourn or settlement, intermediate his employment, offer recommendations etc. This person is generally named „my belgian” or „my german” or „my french” or any other nationality[2].

Generally the emigration networks are deeply rooted in the communities of origin[3]. Depend in on the criterion on whose base the migration networks were built Ruxandra Ciobanu mentions five types:

1. Kinship and relation networks

2. Ethnic networks, usually throught local networks (ethnic networks in the case of the gypsies), which, in time, take the form of kinship based networks (meaning that after a period of time many member of the family leave).

3. Religious networks – departures by a network to a known person who already lives in Belgium, seem to describe the component of neoprotestant church of the wave.

4. Community networks – depending on the country of destination there may appears specialized networks for every country or diffuse networks (common social networks used for any destination, the reforest here is no single network of departure in every country.). However, we may say that there are many networks, more or less structured, which individuals use as strategies of departure and at destination. For belgium, and not only the first who leaves represents, in fact, the key-element of the networks because it brings another persons from that country, which he houses for a while and finds them jobs.

5.Networks built at destination these show the cases of the emigrants who, by working in Belgium, have made connections and can intermediate the emigration.

All these networks have lead to a progressive increase of the number of emigrants by reducing the risks and costs of migration.

At destination, the Romanians in Bruxelles find enough obstacles. The ones who leave on a contract have their own experience. These people, especially at their work places, find enough hostility, being considered competitors by their collogues. Thus, in most cases, the natives, taking advantage of the lack of experience in a cosmopolitan environment try to find ways to make them quit or they are often demoted. In time, things will get normal, but these experiences, unwillingly, affect the emigrant’s mind.

However, most of Romanian emigrants accept jobs rejected by natives. At the same time, a main part of the illegal emigrants have neither education nor qualification, increasing the number of poor people and the children of illegal emigrants don’t have official access to medical services or education. Many of those who leave for work have crossed the border for the first time. It is a kind of a clash of civilizations. The lack of linguistic ability and the difficulties of professional recognition represent considerable barriers. Those who don’t have legal documents work on the black market with small salaries without insurance and in difficult conditions. Having reached the land of promise they seem to rebuild their biography, they change. Most of the emigrants are ashamed of their origin, of their native country, of their fellow countrymen, the deepest effects, and which will then have reverberations are the cultural ones. Afterwards some of them bring their children, their relatives, their friends, they found small communities.

Having come to Belgium, the emigrant begins to find work by various means. In time „the myth” is shattered and the emigrant realizes that, in order to live, he has to work, sometimes harder and more that he used to at home. Not speaking the language, as I have said before, is the first obstacle. But most of the times, heirs confronted to the absence of Belgian experience many people don’t understand this term. What exactly the Belgian experience means?

The Belgian experience means a period of adjustment to all that is representative of that country. Given the conditions of this system, with unemployment and a big competition, nobody will teach you what he knows, for fear you might take his job.

For example, in an asylum for old people, it is not difficult for a nurse coming from Romania to give the proper medication to old people. Everything is written on a list. It is very easy but nobody shows you how. You have to steal every movement, because there are other emigrant nurses who want to distinguish themselves. It is a continuous silent but sure struggle.

With the passage of time, you learn all these, you acquire the so-called belgian experience. Unfortunately, it takes time, during which you go through painful experience.

The enthusiasm of the beginning diminishes when you want to do something but you can’t or don’t know how. Depression follows, remorse, the thought of returning home, questions you have never asked yourself. In time the suffering ends, the character purifies itself and life goes on. People get used to this way of leaving. There are few those who don’t adjust and return to Romania. Their number increased immediately after 1990 but when they figured how the situation stood they returned to the capitalist hell. Disappointment passes. It follows a process of adjustment to the new conditions which force you to act differently. The inactivity makes you want any kind jobs, accomplish something. Starting from zero you build on a good ground.. The technology of the adoption country helps you to be efficient. The ones with initiatives and those who do not accept the quality of doers succeed rapidly. Usually recession – which seems to repeat itself every ten years - does not help at all. But in general people go on with their lives, they buy hoses 5 to 10 years after their arrival, build themselves new lives. At least materially speaking they are all satisfied.

Many of them miss the spiritual nourishment, the places people and habits. The first generation has always that emptiness in their souls. Their children, however, don’t feel their parents ‘restlessness, no longer live between two worlds. For them the other world exists through stories. They are moved only when hearing the name Romania and Romanian. Their children will feel less attached to their roots.

The so-called belgian experience is acquired in time and patiently but often leaves marks in the emigrant’s mind, which proves that the changes he experiences and the critical situations he faces, turn him into a mature person, change his life views and from the western mirage he once dreamt of remains only with the coldness of the world he has been adopted by.


Ciobanu, Ruxandra O. , The international migration and the change of community in Romanian Sociology, Tome II, NR 2, Polirom Publishing House, Bucharest, 2004.

Sandu, Dumitru,  The culture and experience of migration in romanian villages, in Romanian Sociology, Tome II, NR. 3, Polirom Publishing House, Bucharest, 2004.

Ruxandra O. Ciobanu, The international migration and the change of community in Romanian Sociology, Tome II, NR 2, Polirom Publishing House, Bucharest, 2004, p.129.

Ruxandra O. Ciobanu, ,quoted work, p.133.

Dumitru Sandu, The culture and experience of migration in romanian villages, in Romanian Sociology, Tome II, NR. 3, Polirom Publishing House, Bucharest, 2004, p. 179.

Ruxandra O. Ciobanu ,quoted work, p.134.

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