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Liaison Between Tanker and Terminal Before Cargo Handling

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Chapter 5

Liaison Between Tanker and Terminal




Before Cargo Handling

Emphasis is placed on the fact that the completion of a safe and successful cargo handling operation is dependent upon effective cooperation and co-ordination between all the parties involved. Exchange of information between the tanker and the terminal concerning Mooring arrangements is dealt with in Chapter 3. Certain additional information relating to cargo, ballast and bunker handling should be exchanged before these operations begin. This Chapter covers the subjects about which additional information should be available, and the aspects upon which agreement should be reached.

1 TERMINAL2S ADVICE TO THE TANKER

The following information should be made available to the responsible officer

1.1 Information in Preparation for Loading and Bunkering:

Cargo specifications and preferred order of loading.

Whether or not the cargo includes toxic components, for example- H2S, benzene, lead additives, mercaptans etc.

Tank venting requirements.

Any other characteristics of the cargo requiring attention, for example high true vapor pressure.

Flashpoints (where applicable) of products and their estimated loading temperatures, particularly when the cargo is non-volatile.

Bunker specifications including H2S content.

Nominated quantities of cargo to be loaded.

Maximum shore loading rates.

Standby time for normal pump stopping.

Maximum pressure available at the ship/shore cargo connection.

Number and sizes of hoses or arms available and manifold connections required for each product or grade of the cargo.

Proposed bunker loading rate.

Communication system for loading control, including the signal for emergency stop.

Limitations on the movement of hoses or arms.

1.2 Information in preparation for discharge:

Order -of discharge of cargo acceptable to terminal.

Nominated quantities of cargo to be discharged.

Maximum acceptable discharge rates.

Maximum pressure acceptable at ship/shore cargo connection.

Any booster pumps that may be on stream.

Number and sizes of hoses or arms available and manifold connections required for each product or grade of the cargo and whether or not these arms are common with each other.

Limitations on the movement of hoses or arms.

Any other limitations at the terminal.

Communication system for discharge control including the signal for emergency stop.

2 TANKER'S ADVICE TO THE TERMINAL

Before cargo handling commences the responsible officer should inform the terminal of the general arrangement of the cargo, ballast and bunker tanks, and should have available the information listed below:

2.1 Information in Preparation for Loading and Bunkering:

Details of last cargo carried, method of tank cleaning (if any) and state of the cargo tanks and lines.

Where the vessel has part cargoes on board, grade, volume and tank distribution.

Maximum acceptable loading rates and topping off rates.

Maximum acceptable pressure at the ship/shore cargo connection during loading.

Cargo quantities acceptable from terminal nominations.

Proposed disposition of nominated cargo and preferred order of loading.

Maximum acceptable cargo temperature (where applicable).

Maximum acceptable true vapors pressure (where applicable).

Proposed method of venting.

Quantities and specifications of bunkers required.

Disposition, composition and quantities of ballast together with time required for discharge and maximum light freeboard.

Quantity, quality and disposition of slops.

Quality of inert gas (if applicable).

2.2 Information in Preparation for Discharge:

Cargo specifications.



Whether or not the cargo includes toxic components, for example H2S, benzene, lead additives, mercaptans etc.

Any other characteristics of the cargo requiring special attention, for example, high true vapor pressure (TVP).

Flashpoint (where applicable) of products and their temperatures upon arrival, particularly when the cargo is non-volatile.

Cargo quantities loaded and disposition in ship's tanks.

Quantity and disposition of slops.

Any unaccountable change of ullage in ship's tanks since loading.

Water dips in cargo tanks (where applicable).

Preferred order of discharge.

Maximum attainable discharge rates and pressures.

Whether tank cleaning, including crude oil washing, is required.

Approximate time of commencement and duration of ballasting into permanent ballast tanks and cargo tanks.

3 AGREED LOADING PLAN

On the basis of the information exchanged, an operational agreement should be made in writing between the responsible officer and the terminal representative covering the

following:

Ship's name, berth, date and time.

Name and signature of ship and shore representative.

Cargo distribution on arrival and departure.

The following information on each product:

- Quantity.

- Ship's tank(s) to be loaded.

- Shore tank(s) to be discharged.

- Lines to be used ship/shore.

- Cargo transfer rate.

- Operating pressure.

- Maximum allowable pressure.

- Temperature limits.

- Venting system.

Restrictions necessary because of:

- Electrostatic properties.

Use of automatic shutdown valves.

This agreement should include a loading plan indicating the expected timing and covering the following:

The sequence in which ship's tanks are to be loaded, taking into account:

- Deballasting operations.

- Ship and shore tank change over.

- Avoidance of contamination of cargo.

- Pipeline clearing for loading.

- Other movements or operations, which may affect flow rates.

- Trim and draught of the tanker.

- The need to ensure that permitted stresses will not be exceeded.

The initial and maximum loading rates, topping off rates and normal stopping times, having regard to:

- The nature of the cargo to be loaded.

The arrangement and capacity of the ship's cargo lines and gas venting

system.

The maximum allowable pressure and flow rate in the ship/shore hoses or

arms.

- Precautions to avoid accumulation of static electricity.

- Any other flow control limitations.

The method of tank venting to avoid or reduce gas emissions at deck level, taking

into account:

The true vapor pressure of the cargo to be loaded.

The loading rates.

Atmospheric conditions.

Any bunkering or storing operations.




Emergency stop procedure.

A bar diagram is considered to be one of the best means of depicting this plan.

4. INSPECTION OF SHIP'S CARGO TANKS BEFORE LOADING

Where possible, inspection of ship's tanks before loading cargo should be made without entering the tanks.

A tank inspection can be made from the deck using ullage or sighting ports with, where applicable, the inert gas within the tank maintained at its minimum positive pressure. Care must be taken by the person inspecting not to inhale vapors or inert gas when inspecting tanks, which have not been gas, freed. Frequently tank atmospheres, which are, or have been, inerted have a blue haze, which, together with the size of the tanks, makes it difficult to see the bottom even with the aid of a powerful torch or strong sunlight reflected by a mirror. Other methods such as dipping and measuring the heel, or having the stripping line or eductors opened in the tank and listening for suction, may have to be used. It may sometimes be necessary to remove tank cleaning opening covers to sight parts of the tank not visible from the ullage ports but this should only be done when the tank is gas free, and the covers must be replaced and secured immediately after the inspection.

If, because the cargo to be loaded has a critical specification, it is necessary for the inspector to enter a tank, all the precautions contained in Section 11.4.2 must be followed.

Before entering a tank which has been inerted, it must be gas freed for entry and, unless all tanks are gas freed and the IGS completely isolated, each individual tank to be entered for inspection must be isolated from the IGS (see Sections 10.6.10 and 10.6.11).

5 AGREED DISCHARGE PLAN

On the basis of the information exchanged, an operational agreement should be made in writing between the responsible officer and the terminal representative covering the

following:

Ship's name, berth, date and time.

Names and signatures of ship and shore representatives.

Cargo distribution on arrival and departure.

The following information on each product:

- Quantity.

- Shore tank(s) to be filled.

- Ship's tank(s) to be discharged.

- Lines to be used ship/shore.

- Cargo transfer rate.

- Operating pressure.

- Maximum allowable pressure.

- Temperature limits.

- Venting systems.

Restrictions necessary because of:

- Electrostatic properties.

- Use of automatic shutdown valves.

This agreement should include a discharge plan indicating the expected timing and covering the following:

The sequence in which the ship's tanks are to be discharged, taking account of:

Ship and shore tank change over.

Avoidance of contamination of cargo.

Pipeline clearing for discharge.

Crude oil washing, if employed, or other tank cleaning.

Other movements or operations, which may affect flow rates.

Trim and freeboard of the tanker.

- The need to ensure that permitted stresses will not be exceeded.

- Ballasting operations.

The initial and maximum discharge rates, having regard to:

- The specification of the cargo to be discharged.

The arrangements and capacity of the ship's cargo lines, shore pipelines and tanker.

The maximum allowable pressure and flow rate in the ship/shore hoses or arms.

- Precautions to avoid accumulation of static electricity.

Any other limitations.

Bunkering or storing operations.

Emergency stop procedure.

A bar diagram is considered to be one of the best means of depicting this plan.

6 COMMUNICATIONS

To ensure the safe control of operations at all times, it should be the responsibility of both parties to establish, agree in writing and maintain a reliable communications system.

Before loading or discharging commences, the system should be adequately tested. A secondary stand-by system should also be established and agreed. Allowance should be made for the time required for action in response to signals.

These systems should include signals for:

Identification of vessel, berth and cargo.

Stand by.

Start loading or start discharging.

Slow down.

Stop loading or stop discharging.

Emergency stop.

Any other necessary signals should be agreed and understood.

When different products or grades are to be handled their names and descriptions should be clearly understood by the ship and shore personnel on duty during cargo handling operations.

The use of one VHF/UHF channel by more than one ship/shore combination should be avoided.

7 SHIP/SHORE SAFETY CHECK LIST

The recommended Ship/Shore Safety Check List should be completed in accordance with Appendix A.

The purpose of the Ship/Shore Safety Check List is to ensure the safety of both ship and terminal and of all personnel and it should be completed jointly by a responsible officer and the terminal representative. Each item should be verified before it is ticked. This will entail a physical check by the two persons concerned and will be conducted jointly where appropriate. It is of no value if it is merely regarded as a paper exercise.

It is emphasized that some of the items on the Ship/Shore Safety Check List will require several physical checks or even continuous supervision during the operation.

The Ship/Shore Safety Check List may be accompanied by an explanatory letter, for which a recommended text is given in Appendix A, inviting the co-operation and understanding of the tanker's personnel. The letter should be given to the master or responsible officer by the terminal representative. The recipient should acknowledge receipt of the letter on a copy, which should then be retained by the terminal representative.



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