Scrigroup - Documente si articole

Username / Parola inexistente      

Home Documente Upload Resurse Alte limbi doc  

CATEGORII DOCUMENTE




loading...



BulgaraCeha slovacaCroataEnglezaEstonaFinlandezaFranceza
GermanaItalianaLetonaLituanianaMaghiaraOlandezaPoloneza
SarbaSlovenaSpaniolaSuedezaTurcaUcraineana

AdministrationAnimalsArtBiologyBooksBotanicsBusinessCars
ChemistryComputersComunicationsConstructionEcologyEconomyEducationElectronics
EngineeringEntertainmentFinancialFishingGamesGeographyGrammarHealth
HistoryHuman-resourcesLegislationLiteratureManagementsManualsMarketingMathematic
MedicinesMovieMusicNutritionPersonalitiesPhysicPoliticalPsychology
RecipesSociologySoftwareSportsTechnicalTourismVarious

Early Abstract Language: Teaching Colour, Shape, and Size

education

+ Font mai mare | - Font mai mic







DOCUMENTE SIMILARE

Trimite pe Messenger
Web Development Seminar Participant Survey
HOW TO MAKE A LESSON PLAN
COMMON TEACHING METHODS
FORMAL AND NONFORMAL ENVIRONMETAL EDUCATION ON FORESTRY
COMS W4701x: Artificial Intelligence MIDTERM EXAM
Evaluation of Behavioural Treatment
Receptive Identification of Objects
School of Fine Art
Children’s Program Guidelines
SOCIALIZATION’S ROLE THROUGH THE EDUCATIONAL GROUP IN PREVENTING DELINQUENT BEHAVIOUR IN MINORS

TERMENI importanti pentru acest document

Early Abstract Language: Teaching Colour, Shape, and Size




The programs in this chapter are designed to teach the student to identify and label certain abstract properties of objects. Specifically, the student is taught to identify and label the colour, shape, and size of objects independent of the objects. In the case of colour, the student is taught that there are blue cars, blue cloth­ing, blue cups, a blue sky, a yellow sun, yellow cups, yellow clothing, and so on. The same is true of size and shape, as there exist both small and large persons, trees, and houses, and round and square signs, windows, and mirrors.

These are complex tasks for the student to learn, but because they are a part of everyday life, the student will benefit from mastering them. The student who under­stands a question such as 'Do you want the red or the blue shirt?' or comprehends an instruction such as 'Go get the little cup' or can express the phrase 'I want the big cookie' is likely to live a less frustrating life than a student who cannot make such distinctions. There is also a less obvious benefit in that the student who can discriminate and attend to environmental stimuli such as colour, shape, and size is more likely to be aware of and truly see her ex­ternal environment and less likely to remain isolated.

The order in which these programs are introduced (i.e., colour first, then shape, and finally size) represents their apparent degrees of difficulty, from easier to more difficult, based on informal observation. There are also some a priori reasons to believe that learning about the size of objects is more difficult than learning about the colour or shape of objects, given that size discrimination requires the student's attention to the relationship between two or more stimuli, whereas colour and shape discrimina­tions do not.

Colours

The Colours Program consists of both receptive and ex­pressive components. In the receptive component, the student is taught to touch, point to, or otherwise identify colours when you state the respective labels of those colours. In the expressive component, the student is taught to label colours by stating their respective names.

Before beginning to teach the student to identify and label colours, gather basic colour swatches (red, orange, blue, yellow, green, black, brown, white, purple, and pink) that are identical in all dimensions except colour (i.e., same size, shape, and texture). The colour swatches may be made out of construction paper cut into identically sized squares or rectangles for each colour. They may also be obtained from a paint store. Choose vivid colours as opposed to dull colours. Depending on the durability of the construction paper, you can use the swatches just as they are, glue them onto index cards, or laminate them. If a particular colour card becomes marked as it is used (e.g., by smudges), replace it so irrele­vant cues are not introduced. Otherwise, the student may learn to identify a card based on some impertinent cue rather than its colour.

Receptive Identification of Colours

Prior to beginning instruction in the receptive compo­nent of the Colours Program, the student should have mas­tered the matching of colours (see Chapter 12) and recep­tive identification of objects (see Chapter 17). The procedures for teaching receptive identification of colours are similar to those outlined for teaching receptive iden­tification of objects. After the basic teaching steps are presented in the current program, we explore problems that may be encountered in the course of learning and pose possible solutions to these problems.

Identifying the First Two Colours

Begin by selecting two targets that are highly discriminable from one another. The colours you choose should not only look different, but their labels should sound dif­ferent as well. For example, blue and black would not be an ideal first pair of colours to teach because the labels sound alike. Likewise, red and orange would not be an ideal first pair because these colours look quite similar. A good pair of colours to teach first may be red and blue.

Throughout the following steps, the student should be seated at the table across from you or at an adjacent side of the table. To illustrate the teaching the steps, we select red as the first colour (SDl) and blue as the second colour (SD2). The correct response to SDl is the student's pointing to (or touching) the red card. The correct re­sponse to SD2 is the student's pointing to (or touching) the blue card.

► Step 1

Clear the table of all items. Present SDl by say­ing, 'Red,' immediately after placing the red colour card on the table in front of the student. Prompt and reinforce the correct response. Prompt by pointing to the colour or, if the point­ing prompt is not effective, use a physical prompt. Gradually fade the prompt until the student can respond to the SD without assistance. Over the next few trials, move the red card to various posi­tions on the table to avoid position cues. Place criterion at 5 out of 5 or 9 out of 10 unprompted correct responses. Then go on to Step 2.

► Step 2

Repeat Step 1 but use 'Blue' as SD2. Once SD2 is mastered according to the same criteria used in Step 1, go on to Step 3, using discrimi­nation learning procedures to teach the student to identify the red card from a display that in­cludes both the red and the blue cards.

► Step 3

Place both cards on the table and use a position prompt, placing the red card close to the stu-dent and the blue card at the far end of the table. Pre­sent SDl ('Red') and add a pointing or manual prompt if necessary to occasion the correct re­sponse. Fade the position prompt by slowly mov­ing the blue card in line with the red card until the cards are aligned with one another, approxi­mately 6 inches apart. To help avoid inadvertent position cues, randomize the left-right positions of the two colour cards on the table throughout the prompt fading process. Set mastery at 9 out of 10 or 19 out of 20 unprompted correct responses. Once the student masters the correct response to SDl ('Red') when both colours are placed on the table and their positions are randomly rotated, go on to the next step.

► Step 4

Position the two colours on the table such that the blue card is close to the student and the red card is placed at the far end of the table (i.e., use a full position prompt). Present SD2 ('Blue'). Further prompt if necessary and reinforce the correct response. Begin fading the position prompt by slowly moving the red card closer to the blue card until the two cards are placed side by side on the table. Randomize the left-right positions of the colour cards throughout the prompt fading process. Place mastery at 9 out of 10 or 19 out of 20 unprompted correct responses.

► Step 5

Place both colours on the table and present SDl ('Red'). Prompt if necessary, either by touching the correct colour card or using a position prompt. Reinforce. Fade all prompts and randomize the left-right positions of the cards. Place mastery at 5 out of 5 or 9 out of 10 unprompted correct responses. Then go on to Step 6.

► Step 6

Follow the same procedures used in Step 5 except present SD2 ('Blue'). Go on to Step 7 after the student responds correctly in 5 out of 5 or 9 out of 10 unprompted trials.

► Step 7

Place the red and blue cards on the table and then present SDl ('Red'). Prompt if necessary and reinforce correct responding. Randomize the left-right positions of the cards on the table. After the student responds correctly in 4 unprompted trials in a row, present SD2 ('Blue'). Because it is likely that the student will respond with Rl (touching red), given that this response was most recently reinforced, prompt to avoid an error. Fade the prompt over subsequent trials. After the student responds correctly in 4 unprompted trials in a row with the positions of the cards randomized, go back to SDl, prompt, and secure 3 unprompted cor­rect responses in a row before returning to SD2. With each differentially reinforced alterna­tion between SDl ('Red') and SD2 ('Blue'), it is likely that the student will make fewer and fewer errors. This is because SD1-R1 (your stat­ing the word 'red' and the student's pointing to the red card) is strengthened through reinforce­ment while SD1-R2 (your stating the word 'red' and the student's pointing to the blue card) is not reinforced and therefore weakened. In a similar fashion, SD2-R2 is strengthened while SD2-R1 is weakened. The two correct as­sociations, SD1-R1 and SD2-R2, become sepa­rate and robust entities. Such an outcome is anticipated for all skills that rely upon discrimi­nation learning.

As the correct associations (i.e., SD1-R1 and SD2-R2) are strengthened, reduce the number of consecutive correct responses from 4 to 3 to 2 before switching SDs. As a final step in systematically alternating between SD1 and SD2, switch between these instructions after 1 correct response to either instruction. The ad­vantage of doing so is that such a procedure avoids your reinforcing the student for perseverating on a single response. The disadvantage of this procedure is that it reinforces a win-shift pattern of responding. Therefore, place SD1 and SD2 in random rotation once systematic alternation after 1 trial involving each SD is reached, and place mastery of the discrimina­tion at 9 out of 10 or 19 out of 20 unprompted correct responses.

Learning to respond to colour implies that the student must learn to attend to the wave­length of a particular colour, a highly complex neurological phenomenon. In Steps 3 through 7 you help the student solve this task by enabling the student, through the use of discrimination training, to attend to colour. Once the student masters Steps 3 through 7, other colours should be acquired with increasing ease. Therefore, consider the mastery of the first discrimination to be a major achievement. To solidify this achievement, generalize the discrimination across teachers and environments. This will help make it more functional and eliminate in­advertent prompts that may have interfered with the correct discrimination.

Identifying Additional Colours

Teach the identification of additional colours in the same manner as the first two were taught. In selecting the third target, choose a colour that looks and sounds different from the first two colours. If red and blue were used as the stu­dent's first targets, a good third target choice would be yel­low. Once the next target is selected, proceed through the same steps described in the previous section. When the student meets mastery criterion for the third colour, teach him to discriminate the third colour from each of the first two colours. Over time, increase the difficulty of the discriminations by, for example, contrasting blue with black or pink with red. Gradually increase the number of colours placed on the table at one time, moving from two to three or more cards. Between trials, remember to ran­domize the positions of the cards on the table. Less com­mon colours may be taught intermittently once the basic colours are mastered, allowing you to focus on the skills taught in other programs.

Generalizing Receptive Identification of Colours

Thus far the student has learned to discriminate among various colours when these colours are presented as swatches. This does not imply that the student can identify a par­ticular colour as distinct from other colours if this colour is displayed as a characteristic of an object. To accomplish such a task, the student must learn to abstract a common feature or property, such as redness or greenness, from several different kinds of objects. To do this, the student must be taught to recognize several forms in which the colour may be exemplified, hence the need for generaliza­tion training.

When beginning to teach generalization, continue to present the stimuli in 2-D form but replace the original stimulus cards with felt pieces similar in colour and size to the original stimuli. The student's success will be maxi­mized if the new stimuli are initially close in hue to the original colours. Once the student masters the discrimina­tions among these stimuli, vary their size by enlarging or reducing them. After the student is able to identify colours with the new 2-D stimuli, extend generalization by intro­ducing 3-D objects identical in all aspects except colour. For example, use blocks that vary in colour but have a constant size and shape. Then slowly extend the concept of colour in graduated steps to non-identical toys, food, furniture, and so on. Do not use objects that have several colours (e.g., a mul­ticoloured beach ball); instead, each object introduced should be coloured uniformly (e.g., a banana or a pen).

As new exemplars of colours are introduced, there will inevitably be some variation in their shades. For example, the original shade of blue taught from the colour card will not be identical the blue shades of jeans, toys, books, and so forth. Through such generalization, the student learns that there are many examples of a single colour (e.g., light blue, dark blue, royal blue). This type of generalization should be carried out gradually to facilitate the student's success at forming the concept of colour.

It may be tempting to teach colours intensively throughout the day and over several successive days given that there are many colours and thus many items to be mastered. This program could consume a great deal of time at the expense of teaching other skills. To avoid this, be certain to intermix other programs with the current program to extend the students' competence and break up the monotony.

Areas of Difficulty

If the student has difficulty identifying colours or learning to discriminate among various colours, try presenting the stimuli vertically as opposed to horizontally. That is, in­stead of placing the colours flat on the table, display them perpendicular to the student's line of vision such that they are at his eye level and therefore easier to see. This type of display may be accomplished by placing the colours on a felt board or easel. The vertical display should be considered a prompt and, as with all prompts, it must be faded over time.

If any given pair of colours (e.g., red and blue) is unusu­ally difficult for the student to discriminate, switch to an­other pair of colours (e.g., orange and green) or contrast one of the original colours with white (e.g., teach red vs. white instead of red vs. blue). If this fails, go back to SD1 ('Red') and compare SD1 with a contrasting stimulus the student has already learned to receptively identify, such as pointing to a shoe. When the student masters this discrimination, reintroduce Step 3 (the red-blue discrimination). Finally, if no progress is made after 3 or 4 days of training (broken up by play breaks and other programs), place the Colours Program on hold for a month or two, resuming colour train­ing after the student makes progress in other areas. If seri­ous difficulties continue after the program's reintroduction, consider the possibility that the student is colour blind. Be­cause this condition is sex-linked recessive, it occurs very rarely in females. However, approximately 1 in 10 males are colouring blind to some degree.

Some students successfully learn to identify colours in 2-D form but have difficulty identifying colours in 3-D form. In this case, a student may be able to identify a variety of colours when presented as coloured construction paper or felt pieces but unable to identify colours when they are a char­acteristic of a 3-D object. If the student experiences this problem generalizing the concept of colour, try having him match 3-D objects to their corresponding 2-D colours. For example, place on the table two of the 2-D colours first taught (e.g., yellow and green cards). Hand the student a 3-D object that is the same colour as one of the colours on the table (e.g., a yellow ball) and present the SD ('Match'). (The student should already be familiar with this SD from earlier matching programs.) After the student places the object on top of the correct colour, reinforce him and then immediately present the SD ('Yellow') while the ball is still on top of the yellow card and physically prompt the correct response. Once the student is able to point to (or touch) the requested 3-D colour while the 2-D colour is underneath it, fade the 2-D colour as a prompt. This may be done by gradually decreasing the size of the colour card so the object covers a greater portion of it over successive tri­als until only the object is left on the table.

If difficulties persist, introduce the expressive compo­nent of the Colours Program, as some students master ex­pressive components of programs before they master receptive components, and sometimes the acquisition of the expressive component generalizes to the receptive component. If the student continues to have difficulty, temporarily put this program on hold and teach the stu­dent shape discrimination, returning to the Colours Pro­gram at a later stage in treatment.

Expressive Labelling of Colours

In the expressive component of the Colours Program, the student is taught to identify colours by stating their respec­tive labels. Prior to reaching this level of instruction, the student should have mastered verbal imitation of colour la­bels such as 'blue,' 'red,' 'orange,' and so on. The stu­dent may have echoed various colour labels as he learned to identify them receptively (e.g., after hearing the SD ['Red'], the student said, 'Red,' as she pointed to or touched the red card or object). If this occurred, the stu­dent may master expressive labelling of colours at a rela­tively quick rate.

Labelling the First Two Colours

Select as the first target a colour label that is easily pro­nounced by the student, choosing words that the student mastered with good enunciation in the Verbal Imitation Program (Chapter 22). If the student has difficulty pro­nouncing two or more colour labels (e.g., the student has difficulty pronouncing the 'r' in 'red' and says 'ed' in­stead, or the student has problems with the 'gr' sound in 'green,' pronouncing it 'een'), go back and practice colour labels in the Verbal Imitation Program prior to be­ginning expressive labelling of colours. If necessary, accept one or two imperfectly pronounced labels on the condi­tion that all the team members agree upon exactly what response to reinforce. Then, over time, shape up clearer enunciation. It is not out of the ordinary to observe typi­cal children mispronounce certain words when first be­ginning to talk and later have these words shaped up to match the speech of other persons.

Throughout the following steps, you and the student should sit across from one another. Present each stimulus by holding it in front of the student, approximately 1 foot away from him. Remember that the display should be suc­cinct and discrete so as to facilitate the student's atten­tion to each stimulus presentation. In the following steps, we use 'Red' as Rl and 'blue' as R2.

Step 1

Present SD1 ('What colour?') and simultane­ously move the red colour card in front of the student's eyes. Immediately prompt the correct response by saying, 'Red.' When presenting the SD, say the word 'red' in louder volume than the question 'What colour?' to facilitate correct responding. As soon as the student says, 'Red,' reinforce him. Continue to present SD1 while gradually fading the prompt so the student learns to respond independently. The prompt may be faded by either lowering its volume or by stating less and less of the label over succes­sive trials, or probe with abrupt removal of the prompt. Set criterion at 5 out of 5 or 9 out of 10 unprompted correct responses.

Step 2

Introduce a second colour following the same procedures used in Step 1. That is, present SD2 ('What colour?') and simultaneously move the blue card in front of the student's eyes. Prompt the correct response immediately by saying, 'Blue.' Reinforce the correct response and fade the prompt over subsequent trials. Set criterion at 5 out of 5 or 9 out of 10 unprompted correct responses.

Step 3

Intermix SD1 and SD2, presenting one colour at a time according to the discrimination para­digm. Bring SD1 to mastery at 4 unprompted correct responses in a row, and then bring SD2 to mastery using the same criterion. Next, alter­nate between SD1 and SD2, switching after 3 unprompted correct responses in a row to each SD, then 2, then 1; then present SD1 and SD2 according to the random rotation paradigm.

When SD1 and SD2 are presented in random rotation, set the criterion for mastery of the dis­crimination at 9 out of 10 or 19 out of 20 un­prompted correct responses. Once the student masters the discrimination between SD1 and SD2, focus on generalizing the discrimination across other teachers and environments.

As with any mastery of intermixed SDs (as in Step 3 above), consider mastery of the first discrimination be­tween two expressive colour labels a major accomplish­ment. In all likelihood, additional discriminations will be acquired with increasing ease. Also remember to general­ize this and all other discriminations across persons and environments.

Labelling Additional Colours

Once the student is able to expressively label the first two colours, teach him to label additional colours. The third colour introduced should look different from the first two colours and should have a label that sounds different from the first two labels (e.g., white). It is also important to select a colour label the student can pronounce clearly. The procedures for teaching additional colours are the same as those used to teach the first two colours. Remember, only one additional colour should be taught at a time. After the student success­fully labels the third colour when presented alone, imple­ment discrimination learning procedures, intermixing SD3 and SD1, then SD3 and SD2, and finally alternating among all three SDs. Place mastery at 9 out of 10 or 19 out of 20 unprompted correct responses to randomly rotated SDs. Once the student successfully discriminates among all three colours presented in random rotation, continue to in­troduce new colours according to the same procedures.

Generalizing Expressive Labelling of Colours

Follow the same procedures used to generalize receptive colour labels to generalize expressive colour labels (see the previous section 'Generalizing Receptive Identification of Colours').

Areas of Difficulty

The methods used to address problems in the receptive component of the Colours Program can also be used to rec­tify problems that arise in the expressive component. For example, if the student has difficulty generalizing colour labels from their 2-D to their 3-D form, place the target 3-D object on top of its corresponding 2-D colour. Point to the object (e.g., a banana) while it is on top of the colour

EXPRESSIVE LANGUAGE

card and present the SD ('What colour?'). Be sure to grad­ually fade the 2-D colour as a prompt.

Another difficulty that may occur while generalizing the concept of colour to 3-D stimuli is that the student might become distracted by the 3-D stimuli. Minimize this problem by introducing neutral objects (e.g., blocks) and withholding favourite objects (e.g., toys) in the early stages of generalization.

An effective prompt for many students who demon­strate difficulty learning to expressively label colours is com­bining receptive labels with expressive labels, allowing your receptive instruction to prompt the student's expres­sive label. For example, you may instruct the student, 'Point to blue' (emphasizing 'blue'), and then quickly ask, 'What colour?' while pointing to the blue card on the table.

Shapes

Receptive Identification of Shapes

In the receptive component of the Shapes Program, we outline procedures for teaching the student to identify var­ious shapes such as triangles, circles, and squares. The fol­lowing materials are needed to teach the Shapes Program: pairs of basic shapes (circle, triangle, square, rectangle, oval, heart, diamond) identical in all dimensions except shape (i.e., same size, colour, and texture). As done in the Colours Program, shapes may be cut out from construction paper. Before teaching this program, it is important that the student previously master the matching of shapes.

Identifying the First Two Shapes

To maximize the student's success in learning to identify the first two shapes, the shapes should look different from one another and their labels should sound different as well. Because the shapes circle and rectangle look different from one another and their labels sound different, they make a good pair of shapes to teach first. In illustrating the follow­ing steps, your saying 'Circle' is SD1 and the correct re­sponse to SD1 is Rl, the student's pointing to (or touch­ing) the circle. SD2 is your saying, 'Rectangle,' and the student's pointing to (or touching) the rectangle is R2. In the steps that follow, you and the student should be arranged at opposite or adjacent sides of the table.

► Step 1

Clear the table of all items. Place the circle on the table in front of the student, present SD1 ('Circle'), prompt the correct response, and reinforce. Prompt first by pointing to the shape. If this prompt fails, move to a more in­trusive prompt such as a physical prompt on the next trial. Fade the prompt over subse­quent trials. After the student correctly re­sponds to SD1 without prompting, avoid posi­tion cues by moving the circle into various positions on the table with each presentation of SD1. Remember to remove the shape be­tween trials to maximize the distinctiveness of the stimulus presentation. Place criterion at 5 out of 5 or 9 out of 10 unprompted correct re­sponses. Then go on to Step 2.

Step 2

Step 2 is taught in the same manner as Step 1 except that SD2 ('Rectangle') is used. Begin this step by removing all objects from the table. Present SD2 ('Rectangle') immediately after placing the second target shape on the table in front of the student. Once the student responds correctly to SD2 in 5 out of 5 or 9 out of 10 un­prompted trials, go on to Step 3.

Step 3

Present SD1 ('Circle') and use a position prompt by placing the circle close to the stu­dent. Position the rectangle at the far end of the table to minimize errors during the transi­tion from SD2 to SD1. Given the full position prompt, it is unlikely that the student will make an error in responding. However, if an error does occur, provide a more intrusive prompt such as a physical prompt in addition to a posi­tion prompt on the next trial. Fade the physical prompt first and then fade the position prompt by moving the rectangle in line with the circle while randomizing the left-right placements of the two shapes to avoid position cues. Once the position prompt is faded, the shapes should be placed approximately 6 inches apart in line with one another. If the shapes are placed too close together, the student's response may not be distinct and you may then have difficulty de­ciding whether to reinforce. Place mastery at 9 out of 10 or 19 out of 20 unprompted correct responses with the two shapes in line with one another and their left-right positions inter­mixed. Then go on to Step 4.

Step 4

Change the position of the two shapes such that the rectangle is close to the student and the circle is placed at the far end of the table (i.e., in a full position prompt). Present SD2 ('Rec­tangle'), prompt if necessary, and reinforce. Begin the fading process by gradually moving the circle closer to the rectangle on each trial, remembering to randomly alternate the left-right positions of each shape. After the circle and rectangle are placed side by side with their left—right positions randomized and the student responds correctly in 9 out of 10 or 19 out of 20 unprompted trials, go on to the next step.

Step 5



Place both shapes on the table and present SD1 ('Circle'). If necessary, prompt either by touch­ing the correct shape or by using a position prompt, reinforce the correct response, and fade the prompt over successive trials. Place mastery at 5 out of 5 or 9 out of 10 unprompted correct responses with the left—right positions of the shapes randomized. Then go on to Step 6.

Step 6

Follow the same procedure outlined in Step 5 except present SD2 ('Rectangle'). Place mas­tery at the same criterion used in Step 5 and then move on to the next step.

Step 7

Present SD1 by saying, 'Circle,' immediately after placing the circle and the rectangle on the table. Prompt if necessary, and reinforce. Ran­domize the left-right positions of the shapes. After mastery is reached (4 unprompted correct responses in a row), present SD2 ('Rectangle'). Because the student will likely respond with Rl instead of R2 given that touching the circle was most recently reinforced, prompt the response to avoid an error and then fade the prompt.

After the student responds correctly in 4 unprompted trials in a row with the positions of the shapes randomized, go back to SD1, prompt, and secure 3 unprompted correct re­sponses in a row. With the intermixing of SD1 and SD2, gradually alternate SDs after 3 unprompted correct responses in a row, then 2, and finally 1. Recall that the advantage of sys­tematically alternating between responses is that it avoids the student’s is being reinforced for perseverating on the same response. The disad­vantage of reinforcing systematic alteration is that it tends to produce a win-shift pattern of responding. To avoid such a strategy, place the presentations of SD1 and SD2 in random rota­tion. After the SDs is randomly rotated, set the criterion for mastery of the discrimination at 9 out of 10 or 19 out of 20 unprompted cor­rect responses. Consider mastery of this initial discrimination to be a major achievement. So­lidify it by generalizing the discrimination across teachers and environments.

Identifying Additional Shapes

Teach each additional shape in the same manner the first two were taught. Remember that the shape selected as the third target should look different from the first two shapes and its label should sound different as well. A star or square may be a good choice for the next shape. After the student responds to criterion for the third shape, teach the student to discriminate the third shape from each of the first two shapes. Over time, gradually increase the difficulty of the discriminations by, for example, con­trasting an oval with a circle or a rectangle with a square. At the same time, gradually increase the number of shapes presented on the table at a time from two to three or more. Eventually the student should be able to identify a shape (e.g., a circle) when that shape is placed on the table among several other shapes (e.g., a triangle, oval, rectangle, and star). Be sure to randomize the positions of the shapes as well as the presentation of the SDs. As is the case with teaching colours, the initial focus when teaching shapes should be limited to the commonly oc­curring shapes. The teaching of additional shapes should then be intermittently performed. This will allow for the teaching of other programs and will aid in strengthening recall (Chapter 31).

Generalizing Receptive Identification of Shapes

Begin generalization training by presenting drawings of the stimuli as 54- inch thick black lines on separate pieces of identically sized and shaped white paper. Then proceed with discrimination training, following the procedures outlined earlier. It may be helpful to use the original set of stimuli as prompts for the line drawings by placing the drawn forms next to the cut-out forms. The prompt pro­vided by the original stimuli can be faded by gradually de­creasing the size of the original shapes or by gradually sliding the original stimuli under the new stimuli.

Once the discrimination of line drawings is mastered, gradually move to variously shaped 3-D objects such as dishes, pots, pans, and foods (e.g., circular vs. rectangular-shaped cookies). Through the procedures outlined thus far, most students learn to abstract the attributes that form the concept of shape.

Areas of Difficulty

Although most students master the receptive component of the Shapes Program, individual differences in acquisi­tion of this skill invariably come into play. Should the student encounter significant problems discriminating between, for example, a circle and a rectangle, try con­trasting a circle and star or moving on to a completely different pair of shapes. If problems continue with the student's learning to identify shapes, consider once more subjecting the shapes to the matching component of the Matching and Sorting Program to ensure that the student attends to (can discriminate) the shapes. After the stu­dent masters this skill, reintroduce the receptive compo­nent of the Shapes Program.

Another procedure that may be helpful in facilitating discriminations is the introduction of a contrasting stim­ulus as outlined in the discrimination learning procedures (Chapter 16). The use of a contrasting stimulus is consid­ered a pre-training step and can be done by contrasting SD1 ('Circle') with a 3-D object such as a shoe or a sock. Because these stimuli are so different, it can be assumed that their contrast constitutes an easier discrimination than the original one. Thus, the student should more quickly learn to point to or touch the circle when SD1 ('Circle') is presented. If necessary, use position prompts and fades in the prominence of the contrasting stimulus over trials. In learning theory terminology, the student learns to inhibit the response to the second object when SD1 ('Circle') is presented. To state it differently, the student learns not to respond with R2 as the SD1-R1 as­sociation is strengthened.

Expressive Labelling of Shapes

Before beginning the expressive component of the Shapes Program, the student should have mastered 15 to 20 labels of objects and behaviours (Chapters 23 and 24) and the verbal imitation of at least two shape labels (e.g., 'circle' and 'rectangle'). If the student has difficulty clearly enunciating certain shape labels, try words of comparable meaning, such as 'round' instead of 'circle.' It is best to select those labels that are most clearly enun­ciated in verbal imitation and then, if necessary, shape their enunciation in pre-training sessions. Accept the stu­dent's verbal approximations only if they sound close to the correct pronunciation of the target label. Remember that the student's enunciation of the label must be clear enough for each team member to agree upon whether to reinforce the student's response.

Labelling the First Two Shapes

The procedures for teaching the expressive labelling of shapes is virtually identical to those used in teaching ex­pressive labelling of colours; however, in the present pro­gram, the shape stimuli replace the colour stimuli. In the ex­pressive component of the Shapes Program, teach the student to label the same shapes identified in the receptive component of this program. For example, if the student mastered receptive identification of the circle and rectan­gle, teach the student to expressively label these shapes as long as the student can clearly enunciate their labels. For illustrative purposes, let SD1 consist of the question 'What shape?' and the presentation of a circle, and let SD2 con­sist of the question 'What shape?' and the presentation of a rectangle. In the steps that follow, you and the student should sit on chairs opposite each other.

Step 1

Present SD1 ('What shape?') while holding up the circle, verbally prompt the correct response, reinforce, and fade the prompt by lowering its volume or saying less and less of it over subse­quent trials. After the student responds cor­rectly in 5 out of 5 or 9 out of 10 unprompted trials, move on to the next step.

Step 2

Present SD2 ('What shape?') while holding up the rectangle. Prompt the correct response, re­inforce, and fade the prompt over subsequent trials. Move on to Step 3 after the student re­sponds correctly in 5 out of 5 or 9 out of 10 un­prompted trials.

Step 3

Intermix SD1 and SD2 according to the dis­crimination learning paradigm. Place mastery at 9 out of 10 or 19 out of 20 unprompted correct responses with the stimuli presented in random rotation. Once the student's responses reach mastery criterion, strengthen the discrimination over the next 3 to 4 days while generalizing the task across team members and environments. Later, generalize the discrimination across differ­ent exemplars of circular and rectangular shapes by presenting these shapes as line drawings and then as characteristic of 3-D objects. Next, go on to teach two or three additional shapes, one at a time, over the next 4 to 5 weeks.

Areas of Difficulty

It is important to maintain correct and clear enunci­ation of the shape labels; otherwise the task becomes too difficult for the student (the discrimination becomes un­clear) and the teacher (whether to reinforce becomes unclear). It is not unusual to observe a student who tries to combine two different labels into one label, as in com­bining 'rectangle' and 'circle' into 'recur.' On the one hand, this is a clever strategy on the student's part since it may maximize reinforcement and minimize effort. On the other hand, it puts the teacher at a loss as to whether to reinforce the student. If reinforcement is provided contingent on such responding, it may serve only to strengthen errors.

Size

Receptive Identification of Size

The Size Program is designed to teach the student the concept of size using the words 'big' and 'little.' The procedures for teaching size are exactly the same as those used for teaching colours and shapes; therefore, the teach­ing steps presented in this section are condensed. Once the basic teaching steps of the Size Program are intro­duced, special problems that may arise in teaching the concept of size are discussed and ways in which these problems may be solved are suggested.

Before being taught receptive size identification, the student should master the matching of various sizes. In addition, given that acquisition of the concept of size re­quires a complex abstraction and comparison among ob­jects, the student should master the less complex con­cepts of colour and shape prior to the introduction of the Size Program.

The following materials are required to teach the Size Program: pairs of 3-D objects identical in all respects ex­cept size (e.g., big and little red plastic apples, big and little blue rectangular blocks), 3-D non-identical objects of different sizes (e.g., big and little cars that are not exactly the same in aspects such as colour and shape), and pictures of big and little objects on flashcards and in books.

Keep in mind that size is probably the most abstract and complex concept the student is presented with at this point in her learning because mastery of size requires that the student discriminate (attend to) relationships be­tween objects (as in the Prepositions Program introduced in Chapter 27, which is similarly demanding). To help maximize the student's success in acquiring the concept of size, the first pair of objects selected should exaggerate size differences. For example, introduce a baby's tennis shoe versus an adult male's tennis shoe. In illustrating the following teaching steps, the correct response to SD1 (your saying, 'Big,' and presenting an adult-size tennis shoe) is Rl (the student's pointing to or touching the adult-size shoe) while the correct response to SD2 (your saying, 'Little,' and presenting a baby-size shoe) is R2 (the student's pointing to the baby-size shoe). For each of the following steps, sit across from the student at the table and clear all items from the table before each trial.

Before going on, note that the student is not likely to learn anything about size in Step 1. Rather, the student may learn to identify a tennis shoe in response to your vo­calization 'Big.' This process is similar to the Receptive Identification of Objects Program (Chapter 17), in which the student learned to identify a shoe when you re­quested, 'Shoe.' The same result can be said to occur in Step 2 below, when the student learns to identify a tennis shoe when you say, 'Little.' However, Steps 1 and 2 are considered to be essential for the introduction of Step 3, where the student does in fact learn about size.

Step 1

Place an adult's tennis shoe on the table in front of the student and say, 'Big.' Prompt the correct response and reinforce. Prompt by pointing to the big object or use a manual prompt if pointing is inadequate. Fade the prompt over subsequent trials. Once the stu­dent independently responds correctly, move the big object to various positions on the table with each subsequent presentation of SD1 in this step. When the student responds correctly without prompting in 5 out of 5 or 9 out of 10 trials, go on to Step 2.

Step 2

Remove SD1, the adult shoe, from the table, and then present SD2 by saying, 'Little,' and placing an item identical to the big item ex­cept in size (i.e., in this case, a baby's tennis shoe) on the table in front of the student. Once the student meets the criterion for SD2 (5 out of 5 or 9 out of 10 unprompted correct responses), subject SD1 and SD2 to discrimi­nation learning procedures as described in Step 3.

Step 3

State, 'Big,' while placing the adult's tennis shoe close to the student and the baby's tennis shoe at the far corner of the table. If the posi­tion prompt does not occasion the correct re­sponse, provide a manual or pointing prompt in addition to the position prompt on the next trial. Fade the manual or pointing prompt first and then fade the position prompt by moving the little object in line with the big object over subsequent trials. Randomize the left-right po­sitions of the two objects on the table through­out the fading process to avoid irrelevant posi­tion cues. Place mastery at 9 out of 10 or 19 out of 20 unprompted correct responses when the two objects are positioned linearly approxi­mately 6 inches apart with their left-right positions randomly intermixed.

Step 4

State, 'Little,' positioning the baby's tennis shoe in front of the student and the adult's tennis shoe at the far end of the table in a full position prompt. Provide additional prompts if necessary and reinforce correct responding. If additional prompts are used, fade these first, and then proceed to fade the position prompt. Randomize the left-right positions of the objects on the table throughout the fading process. Go on to the next step after the student responds correctly in 9 out of 10 or 19 out of 20 unprompted trials.

Step 5

Present SD1 with both objects on the table. Prompt if necessary, reinforce the correct re­sponse, and fade the prompt over subsequent trials. Set the criterion for mastery at 5 out of 5 or 9 out of 10 unprompted correct responses with the left-right positions of the objects ran­domized. Then go on to Step 6.

Step 6

Present SD2 and follow the same procedures outlined in Step 5. After the student responds correctly in 5 out of 5 or 9 out of 10 un­prompted trials, go on to Step 7.

Step 7

Place the big and the little objects on the table in line with each other. Present SD1, prompt if necessary, and reinforce the correct response. Randomize the left-right positions of the objects over trials. Place mastery at 3 unprompted cor­rect responses in a row. When this criterion for mastery is reached, present SD2 and prompt the response to avoid an error. Fade the prompt. Af­ter the student performs 3 unprompted correct responses in a row, return to SD1, prompt, and secure 2 unprompted correct responses in a row first to SD1 and then to SD2. Next, alternate between SD1 and SD2 after 1 unprompted cor­rect response to each SD. Present SD1 and SD2 in random rotation as soon as possible in order to avoid reinforcing systematic alternation be­tween Rl and R2. Place mastery at 9 out of 10 or 19 out of 20 unprompted correct responses.

Generalizing Receptive Identification of Size

After the student masters identifying big and little ob­jects using one set of 3-D objects similar in all properties except size, introduce additional sets of 3-D objects by following Steps 1 through 7 of the preceding section. Stimuli such as stacking cups or stacking dolls seem ideal for such a task. Remember to teach only one pair of iden­tical objects at a time. Set the criterion for mastery at 5 out of 5 or 9 out of 10 successful identifications of novel (i.e., untaught) pairs of identical objects. To help the student reach this criterion, it may be helpful to teach approximately five pairs of identical objects and then probe with a new pair of objects. If the student can suc­cessfully identify the big and little objects from this new pair without teaching, generalize this skill across other objects, teachers, and environments. If the student is not successful with identifying big and little objects when presented as novel pairs of objects, continue to teach pairs, probing new pairs of objects periodically to test for generalization.

After the student masters the receptive identification of 3-D objects identical in all properties except size, in­troduce non-identical 3-D objects. Start by presenting objects that are very similar but not identical. For example, introduce a little stuffed toy horse versus a big plastic horse. Gradually introduce increasingly different objects such as a little cup versus a big bucket and, eventually, a i pen versus a pillow. Set the criterion for mastery of gener­alized non-identical objects at 5 out of 5 or 9 out of 10 un­prompted correct responses.

Once the student meets the criterion for mastery of non-identical 3-D objects, introduce objects in 2-D form. It may be helpful to first introduce objects depicted in 2-D form that are identical in every respect except size (e.g., present photographs of the objects initially used in this program). Initially probe for generalization by with­holding prompts. If the student does not respond cor­rectly to the probed trial, follow Steps 1 through 7 de­scribed in the previous section to teach the 2-D object discrimination. Set the criterion for mastery at 5 out of 5 or 9 out of 10 unprompted correct identifications of big and little identical (except in size) objects depicted as 2-D stimuli. Then introduce non-identical pictures of ob­jects followed by pictures in books.

As a final test for generalization, reverse the SDs of the objects taught. In other words, present an object the student learned to identify as little in a context in which the object is big, and vice versa. Keep in mind that this is a difficult step for almost all students to master, so be pa­tient with you and the student.

Areas of Difficulty

If from the start the student has difficulty learning to re­ceptively identify size, introduce a different set of objects and place the original pair of objects on hold. The stu­dent's difficulty may be specific to the first set of objects. If the student continues to have difficulty and is unable to make progress in identifying size after several weeks of teaching, consider temporarily postponing this program and reintroducing it at a later stage in treatment.

When reintroducing the program, follow Steps 1 through 7 using a different set of objects from the set(s) with which the student experienced failure. Also, you might try an alternative teaching procedure: Teach 'big' using one pair of objects, then generalize to other pairs of objects. Next, teach 'little' using a different pair of ob­jects, later generalizing to other pairs of objects. Finally, work toward random rotation of big and little objects, fo­cusing on one pair of items at a time. This teaching pro­cedure allows the student to gain more experience in identifying big and little objects separately before requir­ing discrimination among sizes. Some students are more successful when size is taught in this manner. If the student is not able to discriminate size among big and little objects after several weeks of teaching using this proce­dure, discontinue the receptive task and introduce ex­pressive labelling of size.

Expressive Labelling of Size

Before teaching expressive labelling of size, the student should master verbal imitation of the words 'big' and 'little.' If words of comparable meaning are easier for the student to enunciate (e.g., 'large,' 'small'), then use these words instead. As mentioned in earlier chapters, students most often learn receptive identification tasks before they learn expressive labelling tasks. However, keep in mind that the student you work with may more easily learn to expressively label size than receptively identify size. Nonetheless, as a general guideline, make an effort to teach the receptive task first.

Begin teaching expressive labelling of size using 3-D objects identical in all respects except size. If the student previously mastered receptive sizes, introduce objects mastered from that component into this component of the program. For example, teach the student to label the size of the baby tennis shoe and adult tennis shoe she was previously taught to receptively identify.

The expressive component of the Size Program is most easily taught when you and the student sit across from each other at the table. This format allows you to present two objects on the table simultaneously. We rec­ommend starting with the instruction 'Big or little?' be­cause this SD contains some prompt properties. Later this instruction may gradually be switched to 'What size?' once the student masters the response to the original in­struction. In illustrating the following steps, let Rl con­sist of the student's stating, 'Big,' and R2 consist of the student's stating, 'Little.'

► Step 1

Place on the table a pair of objects identical in all properties except size. Position these objects approximately 6 inches apart and present SD1, which consists of your saying, 'Big or little?' while simultaneously pointing to or lifting and replacing the big object. Prompt the correct re­sponse by stating, 'Big,' and reinforce the stu­dent for imitating the verbalization. Gradually fade the prompt over subsequent trials. Con­tinue with mass trials until the student meets the criterion of 5 out of 5 or 9 out of 10 un­prompted correct responses.

Step 2

Place the same pair of big and little but other­wise identical objects approximately 6 inches apart on the table. Present SD2, which consists of the teacher saying, 'Big or little?' while si­multaneously pointing to or lifting the little ob­ject. Immediately prompt the correct response by stating, 'Little.' Reinforce the correct re­sponse and fade the prompt. Mass trial SD2 and set mastery at the same criterion used in Step 1.

Step 3

Intermix SD1 and SD2 according to the dis­crimination and random rotation paradigms, set­ting mastery at 9 out of 10 or 19 out of 20 un­prompted correct responses. Once the student masters the discrimination between SD1 and SD2, generalize this task across teachers and en­vironments to help solidify the discrimination.

Generalizing Expressive Labelling of Size

After the student masters labelling the objects of one pair of 3-D objects as big and little, introduce additional sets of 3-D objects following Steps 1 through 3 outlined in the preceding section. Teach one pair of objects at a time until the student successfully labels novel (i.e., untaught) objects as big and little the first time they are presented. It may be helpful to first teach approximately five pairs of objects following Steps 1 through 3 and then probe a new pair of objects. If the student successfully labels the size of the novel objects, generalize this skill across other new ob­jects, teachers, and environments. If the student does not successfully label the size of the objects in a new pair, con­tinue to directly teach other pairs of objects identical in all aspects except size, probing new pairs of objects period­ically to test for generalization. Once the student general­izes to several novel pairs of identical objects, gradually in­troduce objects with less obvious size differences. Finally, reverse the SDs for taught objects. In other words, present an object the student learned to label 'little' in a context in which the object is now big, and vice versa. Use stimuli such as stacking cups or stacking dolls for this purpose.

When the student masters expressive labelling of 3-D objects identical in all aspects except size, introduce non-identical 3-D objects. Begin this phase by presenting ob­jects that are similar but not identical. For example, introduce a small saucer made of china versus a large paper plate. Gradually introduce increasingly dissimilar objects until the student can label the size of such objects as a big toy car versus a little cookie. Set the criterion for mastery of generalization to novel non-identical 3-D objects at 9 out of 10 or 19 out of 20 unprompted correct responses.

Once the concept of size when presented in 3-D form is mastered, introduce objects in 2-D form. It may be help­ful to first introduce flashcards depicting objects identical in all aspects except size. If necessary, follow the previous Steps 1 through 3 to teach this skill. Set the criterion for mastery at the successful labelling of several novel 2-D stimuli that differ only in size. Then introduce non-identical 2-D depictions of objects and, finally, pictures in books. When the student generalizes the concept of size to untaught pictures, gradually shift the instruction from 'Big or little?' to the question 'What size?' by adding on the latter to the former first as a whisper. Gradually in­crease the volume of the new question over trials while proportionally decreasing the volume of the original ques­tion until only the new question remains as the SD.

Areas of Difficulty

Some students become confused when they hear the words 'big' and 'little' in the same SD. The typical re­sponse for students who demonstrate this difficulty is 'Big-little.' Several teaching techniques may help solve this problem. First, try using the receptive task as a prompt for the expressive task by placing the big and lit­tle objects on the table and presenting an instruction that contains properties of the target response (e.g., 'Touch big'). Immediately after the student responds correctly, point to the correct object and ask, 'What size?'

Another helpful prompt is reversing the order of the instruction to 'Little or big?' when asking for the big ob­ject since the last word ('big') is likely to be the one that the student will repeat or remember because of its recency. If the student continues to have difficulty with the expres­sive component of the Size Program, the following alter­native SD may be introduced in place of 'Big or little?': Place two different objects on the table and, depending on the target, present the instruction 'What's big?' or 'What's little?' The student's response should be naming the object with the target property. If this strategy works for the student, prompt the student by introducing 'What's big?' as SD1 and 'What's little?' as SD2. Follow the standard procedures for discrimination learning.



loading...






Politica de confidentialitate

DISTRIBUIE DOCUMENTUL

Comentarii


Vizualizari: 924
Importanta: rank

Comenteaza documentul:

Te rugam sa te autentifici sau sa iti faci cont pentru a putea comenta

Creaza cont nou

Termeni si conditii de utilizare | Contact
© SCRIGROUP 2020 . All rights reserved

Distribuie URL

Adauga cod HTML in site