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ADVERB

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TEST LIMBA ENGLEZA - Multiple Choice
ADJECTIVUL - Adjective posesive, interogative
TYPES OF COMPOSITION
ADVERB
THE ADJECTIVE

TERMENI importanti pentru acest document

ADVERB

The adverb is that part of speech that characterizes a verb, an adjective or another adverb:




We play volleyball this afternoon. (verb)

Mary痴 marks are highly satisfactory. (adj)

They speak English very well. (adv)

An adverb may determine:

a noun or a pronoun:

Only Peter can tell you the truth. (noun)

Practically everyone knew that story (indefinite pronoun)

a Participle or Gerund

Mary told them the story in well chosen words.

an Infinitive

She wanted to begin immediately

a sentence or a part of sentence

Perhaps I will be the winner

The adverbs may be classified taking into account their form or meaning. Analyzing their forms, the adverbs may be:

simple adverbs: late, now, fast, well, far

derived adverbs formed of stem and affixes: along, asleep, between,

compound adverbs formed of two or more parts: always, yesterday, sometimes,

adverbial locutions are groups of words that get the value of adverbs:

after all, at first, at large, for long,

Taking into account the meaning, the adverbs may be grouped into:

adverbs of time: daily, yesterday, a month ago, first, never

adverbs of place: here, there, behind, nowhere

adverbs of manner: badly, easily, fast,

adverbs of cause: hence, for that reason, so that, that is why

Adverb formation

The derived adverbs are formed of different parts of speech such as:

nouns: daily, bodily, away, across

pronouns: here, there, hence, behind

adjectives: aloud, below, behind, mostly

numerals: once, twice, firstly,

participle: brokenly, supposedly, admittedly

There are adverbs that are formed by adding an affix to the stem. The most frequently used suffix is 僕y and it forms adverbs of mood and time: daily, weekly, yearly but there are situations when the 僕y words are not adverbs; they are adjectives namely those which have a noun as stem: a daily newspaper, monthly accounts, a lonely road

Orthography rules

The 僕y suffix is added to the words without modifying their form. BUT the following aspects are to be taken into account:

adjectives ended in keep it before the suffix: complete- completely; pure-purely

adjectives ended in preceded by a vowel, double the , the former being the final form of the adjective and the latter belong to the suffix:

equal- equally; general-generally

adjectives ended in 僕e preceded by a consonant lose this ending before the 僕y suffix: probable-probably; simple-simply but when the vowel is before it, no modification appears: pale-palely; sole-solely

adjectives ended in 勃e   lose the final vowel before the 僕y suffix: dull-dully; full-fully

-y is changed into 吠e no matter which is the sound preceding the 僕y suffix: due-duly; true-trully

adjectives ended in double lose one before the suffix dull-dully; full-fully

-y is changed into no matter which is the sound preceding the 僕y suffix:

day-daily; gay-gaily

adjectives ended in 僕y cannot form adverbs by adding another suffix of the same structure because of the phonic reasons and they get another word: in a friendly way; at a timely moment

Adverbs may be built by adding suffixes and prefixes to the stem:

a) suffixes:

-long

-ward

-way

-wise

-s

sidelong

forwards



sideward

lengthwise

needs

headlong

outwards

straightway

likewise

nowadays

b) prefixes:

-a

be-

to-

again

before

today

aflame

beyond

together

The compound adverbs may be formed of different parts of speech and the following combinations are to be taken into account:

adjective + noun: meantime, next door, midway

adverb + noun: outside, oftentimes

preposition + noun: indeed, perhaps, beforehand

adjective + adverb: everywhere; somewhere

adverb  + adverb: hereabouts; throughout

adverb + preposition: hereby, therefrom

preposition + adverb: within

adverb + preposition + adverb: heretofore

There are some special groups of adverbs; some of them have the same form as the adjectives and nouns:

Adjectives Adverbs

an early train He arrives home early.

a fast train They walk fast.

a long nose  They stay long.

Some adjectives have two adverbial forms; one is identical with the adjective, the other one is formed of an adjective by adding the 僕y suffix:

Adjective Adverb

hard hard; hardly

last last; lastly

late late; lately

The simple form is used when the concrete meaning is meant, in compound words and in the comparative and superlative degree structures; the ly form is used when the abstract meaning is meant.

To sit close to the door. (very near to the door)

Close my skirt but closer my skin.

When there are no differences of meaning between these forms, the 僕y adverbs are generally used: deeply interested; newly married; dearly beloved.

There are some adverbs whose meanings are so different that the two words are completely different; the 僕y forms are used with a figurative meaning and are not so close to the corresponding adjectives:

He always plays fair.(corect)

He treated Mary fairly.(echitabil)

His work is fairly good. (destul de)

The following 僕y adverbs have different meanings from the ones that have not this suffix: directly (imediat); lately (recent); fairly (destul de). The compound words use the simple adverb form: a quick growing plant; new laid eggs; a clear ringing voice.

For a fluent speaking, the simple forms are used though their positive degree forms are ended in 僕y:

You run quicker than I.

We walk quickest from our house to school.

Exercises

I. Answer the questions using a modal adverb:

Ex. a)'Mary is a conscientious worker.' > 'I agree. She works (very) conscientiously'

b)'Your son has such good marks!' 僚 'I know. He's doing very well in school.'

1. Michelle is such a slow typist! It takes her forever to type a page.

2. I think this is a good strategy. It has worked in the past.

3. Ann is such a wonderful dancer! You should go and see her in her latest show. 
4. Mary is a hard worker. She's a perfectionist, really.

5. I appreciate your quick response to my query. , 6. The new director seems to be a responsible person. I like him.

7. I'm afraid to get into the car with my boss. He's an incredibly bad driver!

8. Jeff is a fast runner. I can never keep up with him.

9. Cynthia is an intelligent manager. She's a problem solver.
10. This particular anchor man is a fluent English speaker. He often interviews English speakers on TV.

II. Insert an adjective or an adverb:

1. Over 100 million Americans ride bicycles at least (occasional).

2. Many (different) kinds of bicycles allow people of all ages to enjoy this
sport.

3. Tricycles allow (small) children to get around.

4. (Large) tricycles, built like bicycles, enable (elderly) people to ride (safe).

5. As a sport, biking is an (enjoyable) form of exercise. 

6. (Technological) modern bicycles help riders move (fast) and (easy).

7. (Touring) bikes can travel (long) distances over (uneven) roads. 

8. Motorcycles are (essential) motorized bicycles. 

9. Policemen, too, like motorcycles because they can maneuver them (quick) and (easy).

10. A motorcycle is a (complete) different vehicle from a car, so motorcyュclists have to pass a (driving) test in order to obtain a (special) motorュ cycle license.

11. In the event of an accident, (light) vehicles can be very (dangerous).

12. In the rain they don't brake very (good) and (general) are not (visible) to other drivers. That's why bicyclists and motorcyclists have to drive (careュful) at all times.



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