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ARTICOLELE A/AN SI THE

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TERMENI importanti pentru acest document

ARTICOLELE A/AN SI THE

A. Forma – in engleza articolele au doua forme: nehotarat A sau AN si hotarat THE. Articolele sunt invariabile si nu au gen.




  1. A se foloseste in fata cuvinteleor cu sunet consonantic, chiar daca prima litera e o vocala. AN se foloseste in fata cuvintelor care incep cu vocalasau h mut. Ambele se pot folosi numai cu substantive numarabile (countable) la singular:

a dog a computer

a woman a university (sunet consonantic)

a house an hour (h mut)

a building a European (sunet consonantic)

an orange an actor

an idea an organization

  1. THE se foloseste in fata oricarui substantiv numarabil (countable) sau nenumarabil (uncountable), atat la singular cat si la plural:

the dog  the dogs

the computer  the computers

the atmosphere the universities

the house the oil

the eggs the information

B. Utilizare – A sau AN.

  1. inaintea unui substantiv pentru a ne referi la ceva sau cineva pentru prima data:

I’ve received a postcard from a friend of mine in the US.

After months of searching, my brother found a job.

The Jacksons live in a bungalow.

  1. pentru a exprima ce este ceva sau cineva, inclusiv slujbe sau profesii:

My neighbour is a sociologist and his wife is an architect.

Jenny doesn’t eat meat; she’s a vegetarian.

There is a man at the door who says he is a detective.

That was a kind thing to say.

  1. dupa verbul be sau alte verbele copulative, cand dupa ele urmeaza locutiuni prepozitionale sau propozitii relative care ofera mai multa informatie despre cineva sau ceva:

I read an interesting article about pollution in yesterday’s paper.

Jack’s son is a talented artist.

He studied law at University and became a judge.

I bought a painting that reminded me of my childhood home.

John Smith wrote an interesting article on Education in the ‘Times’ yesterday.

  1. cu unele expresii numerice insemnand “unu” sau cu expresii ale pretului, vitezei, raportului si cantitatii:

A hundred guests were invited.

Petrol costs £ 1.50 a litre in England.

He’s crazy driving at 190 kilometres an hour.

You must take this medicine four times a day if you want to get better.

There was a great deal of noise coming from the house next door.

  1. cu substantive numarabile la singular pentru a da definitii, a face afirmatii generale, exclamatii sau cand ne exprimam dorinte:

A thesaurus is a dictionary of synonyms.

A house built of stone is stronger than a house built of wood.

An apple a day keeps the doctor away. (proverb)

Wow! What a pretty girl walked by just now.

I’d like a nice cool glass of beer.

C. Utilizare – THE.

  1. inaintea unui substantiv singular numarabil sau nenumarabil sau a unui substantiv plural numarabil pentru a face o noua referire la ceva ce  a fost deja sau la care s-a facut deja aluzie:

He wanted to go to the bank to change some money, but all the banks were on strike.

Dave had a nasty accident when he was young. You can still see the scar.

Do you remember the fun we had when we were at school together?

  1. pentru a face referire la cineva sau ceva anume:

The American economy is suffering at the moment.

The people I work with are very friendly.

I don’t like the president of that company.

  1. in fata unui substantiv reprezentand o anume persoana sau un lucru sau un grup de persoane sau lucruri:

I don’t feel well. Can you call the doctor? (= medicul personal)

The kids aren’t at home. (= proprii tai copii)

Can you pass me the butter, please? (= untul de pe aceasta masa)

Shall I drive the car? (= aceasta masina)

Maria Callas sang so beautifully that the audience threw flowers onto the stage. (= publicul care o urmarea a aruncat flori pe scena pe care canta ea)

  1. cu referire la ceva unic in mod absolut:

The sun rises in the East and sets in the West.

The weather at the North Pole is very cold.

The President of the United States visited the Pope last May.

  1. in fata adjectivelor pentru a face referire la un anumit grup sau clasa de oameni. In acest caz NU este nevoie de substantiv:

Only the strong survive. (= oamenii puternici in general)

The question of the unemployed came up again.

Robin Hood stole from the rich and gave to the poor.

  1. in fata unui substantiv la singular pentru a se referi la un anume grup de oameni, animale sau obiecte:

The Indian elephant is smaller than the African elephant.

The dolphin is said to be a very intelligent animal.

Henry Ford invented the automobile.

The customer is always right.

  1. inaintea unor substantive proprii pentru a denumi zone geografice, nume de mari si rauri, lanturi muntoase, grupuri de insule, nume la plural de tari si deserturi:

the Middle East, the North of England, the Ivory Coast

the Atlantic, the Mediterranean Sea, the English Channel, the River Thames, the Straits of Gibraltar

the Himalayas, the Alps, the Carpathians

the Hawaiian Islands, the Falklands

the United States of America, the Netherlands, the Philippines

the Arizona Desert, the Mojave Desert

NOTA: THE nu se foloseste cu nume de munti izolati.

Ben Nevis is the highest mountain in Scotland.

THE nu se foloseste cu nume de lacuri.

Lake Superior, Lake Victoria, Lake Ontario

  1. in fata numelor de instrumente muzicale:

Rachmaninov began to play the piano when he was only 4 years old.

The guitar has always been my favourite instrument.

  1. in fata unor adjective – nationalitati cu referire la oameni dintr-o anumita tara. Aici se foloseste un verb la plural:

The Swiss have decided not to join the EU.

The Spanish are doing very well in this year’s Olympics.

NOTA: In anumite cazuri, se pot folosi numai substantive la plural.

The Germans were upset about losing the WW II.

The Americans hosted the 1994 World Football Championship.

  1. inaintea adjectivelor superlative si a numeralelor ordinale:

Neil Armstrong was the first man to walk on the moon.

Laura is the most beautiful in my class.

That is the silliest thing I have ever heard.

NOTA: Uneori numeralele ordinale pot fi folosite fara THE atunci cand se face referire la ordinea in care se petrec evenimentele.

Brendan came first and Colin second at 100 meters.

We went to Manhattan first, then on to Brooklyn.

D. Utilizare – NU se foloseste articolul.

  1. in fata substantivelor nenumarabile sau numarabile la plural cand se face o afirmatie generala (adesea precedate de determinanti ca: some, any, a piece of, a lot of etc.):

Water quenches thirst on a hot day.

Pollution in big cities is very worrying.

Dogs make good companions.

There is some luggage to be taken upstairs.

Is there any bread in the kitchen?

  1. in fata substativelor abstracte cand sunt folosite in mod generic: beauty, happiness, fear, hope, knowledge, intelligence etc.; cu exceptia cazurilor cand sunt folosite cu sens mai bine specificat:

Knowledge comes to us through our senses. DAR: She got the job because she has a knowledge of English.

Beauty is in the eye of the beholder. DAR: What a beauty!

  1. in fata substantivelor proprii, nume de persoane si numele unei companii, cu exceptia situatiilor cand se vorbeste de familie ca un tot:

He works for Microsoft.



Helen and George Parker are coming to dinner tonight. DAR: The Parkers are coming to dinner tonight.

  1. pentru a vorbi despre sporturi, in fata numelor de echipe etc:

He loves football and supports Manchester Utd.

  1. inaintea meselor zilei:

Where did you have breakfast / lunch / dinner?

  1. inaintea cuvintelor home, church, university, prison, hospital, market etc. atunci cand ele reprezinta o institutie sau o idee generala. THE se foloseste totusi atunci cand se face o referire speciala la locul respectiv:

Al Capone was arrested and put in prison for tax evasion. (ne referim nu la o anumita inchisoare, ci la institutie)

His mother went to the prison once a week to visit him. (aici ne referim la acea inchisoare unde se afla Al Capone)

My mother goes to church every Sunday. (biserica in sensul de institutie, serviciu religios)

She sometimes goes to the church near the Royal Palace. (acea biserica anume).

Our University is 150 years old. (institutia universitatii)

Emma and Ben often go to the university to talk to their professor. (la o universitate anume, in cladirea ei)

EXERCITII

Completati cu a sau an spatiile libere ale acestei expuneri, daca este necesar.

Tomorrow Brian and Joyce are leaving for (1) England by (2) plane. They are spending (3) fortnight traveling around Wales. They have decided not to cover more than 50 miles (4) day or else they will be too tired to enjoy the holiday. Brian is doing most of the driving and Joyce will look out for (5) suitable hotel each night. It has to be (6) cheap hotel. They can’t afford (7) expensive one. Brian wants to take (8) fishing rods with him, he is (9) keen fisherman. Last year they traveled around Scotland and he went fishing 3 hours (10) day but didn’t even catch (11) sardine. It was (12) boring holiday for Joyce, although it proved to be quite (13) expensive one, too.

2. Inlocuiti cuvintele cu litere aldine cu a, an sau the plus unul dintre substantivele din lista de mai jos.

article sky piano alarm-clock dentist

diamond-ring policeman waiter criminal hotel

  1. He served us lunch.
  1. I read something in a magazine.
  1. Someone stopped me while I was driving my car down the street.
  1. I look at it through my telescope.
  1. I bought one for my fiancιe.
  1. She went to see one about her teeth.
  1. He was put in jail for life.
  1. It went off at 7 o’clock in the morning.
  1. Diane played it beautifully.
  1. We stayed in one on our holidays.

APLICATII

ENDANGERED SPECIES

Habitat destruction

Our planet is continually changing, causing habitats to be altered and modified. But when these changes occur too fast, species do not have time to adapt. Rapid habitat loss is the primary cause of species endangerment.

Human activity is the main drive behind rapid habitat loss. A few negative results of human activity on the habitat:

  • the loss of microbes in soils that formerly supported tropical forests;
  • the extinction of various types of fish and marine life in polluted waters;
  • Greenhouse gases that have accelerated global warming.

Introduction of exotic species

Native species are those plants and animals that have a particular area as their natural habitat. They are well adapted to their local environment and live in a close relationship with the other native elements.

Exotic species, however, are intruders. They disrupt the delicate native balance and produce an unwanted ecological disaster. The worst situation is the one where introduced exotic species prey on the native ones, with massive loss of native species all over the world.

Overexploitation

Overexploitation means being used at an unsustainable rate. Species become severely endangered or even extinct due to excessive hunting.

For instance, unrestricted whaling during the 20th century brought many species of whales to extremely low population sizes. After an international ban on whaling, some whale species, such as the grey whale, have made remarkable comebacks, while others remain threatened or endangered.

Nowadays, animals still suffer from overexploitation. In Asia, for example, rhino horns and tiger bones are in high demand for traditional medicine. As a result, these animals are endangered by poaching. 

Disease

If a native species does not have a particular disease in its natural habitat, it does not develop natural genetic protection against it. When the disease is introduced through new species, it has a dramatic toll. For example, rabies is presently destroying carnivore populations in East Africa.

Pollution

Pollution negatively affects the quality of air and water, and animals cannot defend themselves against it. Many of them die slow painful deaths due to polluted water sources. Plants also wither and die due to chemicals in the ground and in water.

IUCN Red List

Planet Earth has already lost many species of plants and animals. Nowadays, humans do most of the damage. In the last 500 years, over 800 species have become extinct because of human intervention and/or activity.

IUCN has compiled a list of threatened species of animals and plants. It is called the Red List and it records 41,415 species that are under threat today. Out of them, 16,306 are endangered species threatened with extinction.

2. Fill in the gaps in the sentences below using the words in italics.

habitat ecosystems deforestation man

plants environment conservation animal

1. Humans depend on ……………………. for oxygen, water and food.

2. The state of the …………………………. lies in a delicate balance.

3. …………………..… loss is one of the main causes that endanger species.

4. 16,306 …………..…… species are threatened with extinction.

5. Unregulated logging and cattle grazing leads to massive ……………………………

6. ………………… are the main source of food for our planet.

7. As ……………..…. is the main source of aggression on the ecosystem, it is our responsibility to make it right.

8. ……………….……. is the key to preserving the habitat through responsible global policies.

Flagship species: the TIGER. How much do you know about tigers? Take this test to find out.

1. What percent of their historic range do tigers occupy today?

a. 17% b. 10% c. 7% d. 25%

2. Tiger are very social animals:

a. True b. False

3. Tigers live on which continent?

a. Asia b. Europe c. Africa d. Australia

4. A tiger’s favorite meal consists of:

a. small animals, like rabbits and mice b. hoofed animals, like wild deer or wild

pigs  c. birds

5. Tiger bone is used in traditional Chinese medicine.

a. True b. False

6. What is the estimated population of tigers remaining in the wild?

a. 2,000 to 4,400 b. 11,200 to 13,500 c. 1,320 to 3,330 d. 5,000 to 7,000

7. The tiger population is thought to have fallen by about ______ since the turn of the 20th century.

a. 95% b. 50% c. 25% d. 35%

4. Follow the clues for Across and Down to fill in the crossword.

Across

4. At risk of becoming extinct.

6. A species likely to become endangered if no action is taken

9. Short for 'biological diversity'.

10. A meat eater.

Down

1. Efforts to protect our planet and its fauna and flora.

2. Animals, plants or micro-organisms that are similar and are able to reproduce.

3. A species that is sensitive to human activity.

5. Natural home of a plant or animal.

7. When this happens, a species is gone forever

8. Wild animals or plants.

Did you know?

  • Humpback whales create the loudest sound of any living creature.
  • A dog’s sense of smell is 1,000 times stronger than humans.
  • Mosquitoes are attracted most to the color blue.
  • Giraffes have no vocal cords.
  • A snail can sleep for 3 years.
  • Of all known forms of animal life ever to inhabit the Earth, only about 10% still exist today.


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