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POLICIES AGAINST IMMIGRANTS IN WESTERN EUROPE AND U.S.A.

political

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POLICIES AGAINST IMMIGRANTS IN WESTERN EUROPE AND U.S.A.



Abstract: This study presents an analyse of the policies against immigrants in Europe and U.S.A. For the Europe the policies presented are examples from the most developed countries, such as: Great Britan, Germany or Italy.  Migration Policies concern the evaluation, control and regulate flow of immigrants, as well as those emigrants. These policies launched at the level of states has become imperative at a time when the volume of immigrants time been reached the top, and the effects phenomenon have become visible disturbing or dysfunctional

Key words: migration, Europe, policy, rule, control measures

In the last decade of the twentieth century, it was produced a amplification of the international mobility departures from the countries of origin and the successive entries in country of destination, the social consequences, economic and cultural of these countries, generated by Romania and immigration, the character legally or illegally immigration and the trends of the development of this, imposed an obligation to control the migration phenomenon by the States concerned by this subject.

As such, member of the companies subject to the consistent pressure have been forced to take legislative measures to limit of net effects created by foreign nationals entry, and also to maximize the positive effects, taking the birth, special policies in the field migration, supported by appropriate institutional support. Migration Policies concern the evaluation, control and regulate flow of immigrants, as well as those emigrants. These policies launched at the level of states has become imperative at a time when the volume of immigrants time been reached the top, and the effects phenomenon have become visible disturbing or dysfunctional. The statistical estimates, the year 1990 are registered in the world on approximately 130 million immigrants (legal and illegal) international and refugees.

In the face of such a situation the state intervention is became not only desirable but mandatory, in particular in the case the emigration for work, because he had to offer a protection and support its citizens abroad. Equally important was the state intervention in countries which have been confronted with multiple problems arising from waves of immigrants foreigners. Some studies devoted analysis migration signals that actions of control of the state are limited in the departures from their own territories and more developed for the entries, considering that according to the size and their frequency must establish the standards or the restrictions necessary to monitor the fluxes of immigrants.

If we accept the space for the exercise of the authority is a fundamental element for actions of the state, then very probably any state will try to control at least exits and entries in space. Similarly, will try to regulate/supervise parking nationals of other states (citizens) on its own territory. It is clear that the monitoring measures to stay are much more difficult to bring into force (and the discovered irregularities) and those linked to the entry. Therefore, the emphasis is, in most cases, the control entry into the area for the exercise of authority. On the other hand, any exit from the space of the state assumed inevitably entry into the area another state. Therefore, any member would very likely to be a number of citizens who are outside their own borders, which is bound to offer them protection rights under offered citizenship. Walking further, any citizen can leave, into another state, remains for a period in state or outside and can come back [1].

The prevailing interest to adopt such state special policies for immigrants derives from the fact that they once entrants in the territory of countries, have to solve a series of vital needs, such as: obtaining a dwelling, commitment to a job and income acquisition of safe to live, the integration of work and the AP in local and social community.

These individual needs can make some immigrants to commit various crimes (theft, prostitution, for S2. a.), darkness, in this way, the sources of social disorder and from, however, state intervention to prevent and combat effects of the phenomenon of immigration.

A State may decide measures to control emigration or immigration depending on the importance they attach phenomenon at the moment, and to assess the effects on which he may have on their own companies in the short term, medium and long term. The rules adopted by a State for foreign control of movement and related institutions concern:

1) Entrances and exits citizens of the national space exercising authority;

2) Remaining citizens that their national territory,

 3) Situation of its own citizens dependent on other state2 territory[2].

Work foreigners constitute a priority objective for the policies of control of the state: 'ways through which it is aimed at two forms: Control input and control after insertion on own market. From here derives a series of specific rules aimed at the exclusively situation foreigners who work or who want to work in the territory of stat[3].

We mention that migration for employment is a type of private foreign migration and trainer those foreigners admitted to the state of the country to work in certain fields, reward for a period equal to the duration of employment contract set. The duration of stay is determined, but may become the unlimited changes produced the report by Foreign persons status, which may acquire, meanwhile, the state citizenship whose territory work.

Immigration has become a pressing issue in particular for developed countries of Western societies developed Europe-With distinction in France, Germany and Italy, and the overseas for U. S. A. and Canada. He knows that U. S. A. is by tradition and composition groups national, a country of immigrants and have managed to elaborate a flexible politics in this domain, founded on a pragmatic legislation.

At present has occurred in the world, a new area threatened by what was called 'bomb with immigrants' and is that represented by the countries in Persian Gulf. Here are working around 17 million workers immigrants in their most years, which constitutes 'un danger more grave than the  nuclear bomb', as appreciate labour minister of Bahrain (Majid- al-Alani), at the beginning of 2008.

It has launched a virulent attack against Arab businessmen (as 'greedy') and the Gulf countries workers from Gulf (after which he said that are 'lazy'), considered responsible for the foreigners workers. In fact, in October 2007, he proposed an Arab Member States of the Council of cooperation from Persian Gulf (Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, RSF and United Arab Emirates) to limit the duration of stay of foreigners on their territory in six years.

The position Western face of immigration is different phenomenon, the report of historic era. Thus, we found that:

- until the 1990' 90, Member capitalist advanced position was, the rule, permissive, and even encouraging for immigrants coming;



 - after 1990 appeared political attitudes and different official, be they opposed chaotic immigration (requiring a selective acceptance of immigrants, according to the economy needs Interior), or were entirely against immigration, either partner for acceptance without any legislative barriers.

Their policy after the second world war, Western states of the companies capitalist advanced have promoted constantly certain universal values, such as peace, democracy, human rights and freedom, including the right to freedom of movement.

Consequently, the Western world (European and American), who had entered the era  of the Cold War with Member States of communist bloc worldwide, posted an attitude indulgent towards immigrants, accountable politically by cultivating values referred, ideologically by supporting virtues of the company capitalist, and the need of employment.

Thus, we can explain why political refugees from communist countries have always been supported in Western societies. The opening of national coming immigrants gates lasted, but, until the 1990' 90, after which he recorded and hostile attitudes or opposing, coming from political forces and some publications with nationalist character.

Examining the historical phenomenon of immigration has offered some authors’ possibility had noticed that: 'till the 1960' 70, European countries have generally been favourable immigration and, in many cases, such as Germany and Switzerland, they have to remedy inadequate employment. in 1965, United States have abolished quotas of Romanian dating from 1990' 20, set for her to stop the Europeans and were drastically revised laws, making valid extraordinary growth of immigrants during the 70s and 80s.

However, to end early' 80 the rates of high unemployment, the number of immigrants and character their victory « non-European 'have produced changes very stringent in attitudes and policy Europeans. A few years later, similar concerns have led to a change in comparable member unite[4].

At the end decade of 9-century of the XXth century, about 50 million people he had left the country of origin (emigrants) and were searching for other countries, where to establish (immigrants), is only temporary (to work and to return home) or forever.

'In 1990, a number estimated at 20 million emigrants who are in the first generation is found in the United States, 15.5 million in Europe and 8 million in Australia and Canada. The proportion immigrants in the total population reached 7% or 8% of the big European countries.

The United States, immigrants constitute 8.7%of the total population in 1994, twice more than in 1970, and formed 25% of the population sun and 16 percent of the New York City. Nearly 8.3 million people were entering the United States in the 1960 80 and 4, 5 million in the first four years of 9th decade[5].

The alarming proliferation of high by immigrants in Western societies sensitised to public institutions and non-governmental, means of communication for the mass-who presented a series of domestic citizens social aspects harmful and degrading caused by foreigners. It was enough to need some assistance stringent from state, in order to calm fears population and to assess the situation flow of immigrants in the long term.

Western citizens concern and fears are founded on the real facts: immigrants agreeing any job and salary level ANY (endangering, as such, their jobs well paid for domestic), shared cultural values and other religious, made the phenomenon of crime and constitute the vast number, a public issue and a difficulty in addition to the authorities to ensure individual security and social order.

At all this adds that immigrants came to their great part of Asian countries (while being so, other carriers civilization, faith-Muslim-and ways of life), power known for their high rate-able to change the ethnic composition of a company. In other words, non-wave immigrants Europeans was potentially able to exceed that of immigrants on our continent or of other western companies.

For example, 'in Germany, foreign residents Turks were in the number of month 1990, the largest contingents coming in below, in Yugoslavia, Italy and Greece. In Italy, the main sources of Romanian were Morocco, the United States (perhaps Americans of Italian origin that were returning home), Tunisia and the Philippines. On the mid' 90 S, about 4 million Muslims lived in France and more than 13 million in all Western Europe.

In the 1960' 50, two-thirds of Immigrants who are in the United States came from Europe and Canada; in the 1960' 80, almost 35 percent of more great number of immigrants came from Asia, 45 percent of Latin America and at least 15 percent in Europe and Canada, natural growth of population is low in the United States and zero in Europe[6].

Therefore, the Muslim immigrants to reproduce through free up (their religion prohibiting voluntary breaks task), they become responsible for the increase in western population and the next decades changing its structure.

Westerners fear or they face the foreigners derives from the perception that their presence on a threat to their style and life as an impediment to the report with social and economical operation its own system of protection and property.

It seems that the anxiety Westerners as regards their identity is national caused mainly by associating with that image of the Muslim terrorist, because of frequent attacks in the world, the origin which have been extremist organisations and Islamist forces.

At the early' 90-noticed Samuel T. Huntington in his book, civilizations clash and restoring World Order 'two-thirds of Immigrants who were in Europe were Muslims, and European concern about immigration is a concern before all the Muslim immigration. The challenge is demographic-immigrants are the origin of 10 percent of up to Western Europe, Arabs, 50% in Bruxelles – and cultural

Muslim communities, either in Germany Turkish either Algerian in France, have not been integrated into their crops or host shows few signs of becoming otherwise, to europenilor7 concern[7].”

Some sociological research, carried out in some western companies, highlights the fact that people hostility towards foreigners is selective, depending on behaviour and their integration in social life, according to the countries of origin, religion and culture. For instance, a Polish citizen or a black came from Africa does not cause a Western feelings of fear or contempt, for the first is that Europe and Catholic, while the African, although belongs another breed, it s not received with hostility.

The hostility is directed against Muslims in general. The French have accepted Africans who speak perfect French in their Parliament, but not bearing Muslim girls accept squares in schools. In 1990, 76% of French public opinion argues that are too many Arabs in France, 46% that are too many blacks, 40% that are too many years and 24% that are too many Jews.




In 1994, 47% of German said that would have preferred to have their neighbourhood Arab, 39% they wanted Poles, 36%-Turks and 22%-Jews. In Western Europe, anti Semitism directed against Arabs has replaced the large-scale anti Semitism directed against Jews”[8].

The existence of opposition public face of immigration in some companies in Western Europe and not foreigners who have been guilty of committing acts criminal serious has caused anger by groups of citizens in developed countries, which have come forward including about violence against certain immigrants or camps.

Some political parties of right, nationalist have exploited in their programmes theme hostility towards immigrants, particularly during election campaigns. The European parties opposed vehemently entry citizens Muslims in their own countries, invoking the main reasons for discontent economic of the population (especially the one who was affected by unemployment) and character alleged pathological of influences Islamist (considerate to be generators acts extremist, violent and religious extremism, fanatisme)

The protests, calls ethnic and nationalist speeches or religious, accusations against some state institutions have become means of communication to the public of their political objectives.

General political climate in the Western countries of Europe, dominated the values of democracy, they heard the voices of some top officials of state and political leaders, who, although they were recognized in particular for their role in public life balanced, they decided in favour feeling against immigrations. So, for instance, the former French President Jacques Chirac told in 1990 that «immigration must be a halted '; interior minister argued in 1993 for a «immigration zero»;

Francois Mitterrand, Edith Cresson, Valery Giscard d'Estaing and other important politicians were enjoying positions against immigration. Immigration constituted a major issue in parliamentary elections in 1993 and has contributed in appearance to the victory parties communist. During the first years of more of 9-century, the policy by the French Government has been changed to make it more difficult acquiring Citizenship by children immigrants and immigration families foreigners, to prevent the aliens to demand asylum and Algerians to obtain visas and came in France. The illegal immigrants have been deported”.[9]

The attitude against the French authorities against immigrants in general, was due in large part, their tendency to increase the flow of foreign nationals coming from countries Maghreb (Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia), who had the skills training and, therefore, could not be absorbed by the labour market in France. In addition, the company French and the main institutions of state had the levers needed for the takeover and integrating socio-economic of huge contingents of immigrants.

The inability of authorities to settle problems foreigners (primarily those related to the workplace and the mansion), it was found later, when the uprising and large-scale acts of violence in the immigrants in Paris, most young people, caused huge material damage in the state public and private, throwing tough test for government intervention forces relative social resettlement.

In this context, remember that the rebellion began in Paris on the day of 27 October 2005, after killing by police, the two teenagers were Muslims, accused of acts of vandalism. Solidarity community of citizens Islamists in the neighbourhoods ghetto (cites), where the population is formed, in large part, of immigrants coming from countries Meghreb (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia), has been extraordinarily violent and supported, went to and during the month of November 2005.

Balance registered as a result of street confrontations between forces of Muslim insurgents and revealed that they were 9,193 cars set, 2,921 persons investigated and 56 policemen injured. Material damage was estimated at 55 million euros. A year later, violence has been started anew, but has not been for the duration and intensity of the above.

Some opposition official and political circles face immigration prevailed and in other Western companies, such as Germany, England, Italy, Austria, etc. 'in Germany, Chancellor Helmut Kohl and other political leaders have expressed, in addition, concerns about immigration and most important measure of the government for this purpose has been amend Article 16 of the Constitution German what guarantee asylum «for those persecuted on political grounds» and reducing benefits to the asylum requests.

A systematic policy of controlling foreigners and the filtration entry them prevailed and in Great Britain. In 1980, the 'a reduced drastically the number immigrants, at almost 50,000 per year, and, therefore, the issue has encountered opposition emotions and less intense than on the continent. However, between 1992 and 1994, Great Britain has reduced the number of asylum seekers, whom they are allowed to remain in over 20,000, less than 10,000.

Because the restrictions of movement of persons have been dismantled in the European Union, British concerns have been in great measure concentrates on non-European immigration dangers on the continent. at mid-years' 90, in general, all European countries were moved inexorably towards reducing the minimum, if not the total elimination of forced, from non-European' sources.”[10]

Italian society, who once faced with a massive departure of its citizens, particularly in the US, has become, subsequently, he and other European countries developed, a country facing flows of immigrants arriving from all corners of geographical world. In 1989, for example, were about 500,000 foreign citizens with residence permit in the territory Italy, and, in 2003, their number already exceeded 1.5 million people, most coming from Europe (43 percent), then in Africa (27 percent) and Asia (19%). At the 1st of January 2007, the official statistics mentioned 2.938.922 resident foreigners in Italy, which is increasing the number of the immigrant population from 1989 to 2007.

Bibliography:

1.      Toanchina, Camelia

-

La migration internationale et les politiques sociales, L’édition  Lumen, Iasi, 2006

2.      Sandu, Dumitru

-

La migration circulatoire comme strategie de vie, dans la revue Sociologie roumaine, serie nouvelle,nombre.2/2000



3.      Sandu, Dumitru

-

La migration transnationale des roumaines sur la perspective d’une recensementde la communauté , dans la revue la   Sociologie roumaine, serie nouvelle, nombre.3-4/2000

4.      Sandu, Dumitru (coord.)

-

L’habitation permanente à l’étranger. La migration économique des roumaines, La Fondation pour une Société Ouverte , Bucuresti, 2006

5.      Serban, Monica;

6.      Stoica, Melinda

-

Politiques et institutions en migrtion internationale: la migration  pour  travaille de Roumanie: 1990-2006, La Fondation pour une société ouverte, Bucuresti, 2007



[1] Monica Serban, Melinda Stoica, Politici si institutii in migratia internationala: migratia pentru munca din Romania. 1990-2006, Fundatia pentru o Societate Deschisa, Februarie 2007, Bucuresti, p. 5-6

[2] Ibdem, p. 6

[3] Idem

[4] Samuel P. Huntington, op.cit., p. 291

[5] Ibidem, p. 292

[6] Idem

[7] Ibidem, p. 293

[8] Ibidem, p. 293-294

[9] Ibidem, p. 295

[10] Ibidem, p. 296








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