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ORDINAL NUMBERS
The ordinal numbers indicate the order of objects, persons have in a row. It is formed by means of the suffix –th placed after the cardinal:
the first; the second; the third
have special roots, while the other ones use the existing cardinal numbers:
the fourth; the fifth; the sixth;
the seventh; the eighth; the ninth;
the tenth; the eleventh; the twelfth
If the tens are to be used, modifications of spelling appear, y is changed into ie because of the consonant preceding it:
the twentieth; the thirtieth
When the numeral is composite, the –th suffix is added only to the last element of the group:
the twenty first; the thirty fourth;
the fifty ninth
Showing the proportion in which a quantity increases, one may use the so called multiplicative numerals formed of cardinal numbers and the word fold:
double, three fold; four fold;.
If one wants to know how many times an action is performed, frequentative numerals are to be used:
once; twice; three times; four times
The numerals function as attributes, so they are placed in front of the nouns they determine:
ten students; four cars; five toys
There are situations when the numerals are placed after the nouns they determine:
room 200; chapter 5;
Besides this function, the numerals may be:
subjects of sentences:
The five told me the story.
predicative
They were ten in the group.
objects
You can’t forget the first of October.
adverbial modifier
They came by twos at the party
When reading the dates, one may choose between the following variants:
the 10^{th} of August 1978; 10 August 1978;
August 10, 1978; August 10^{th} , 1978
Ordinal numbers are used for reading the days and cardinal ones for years. American English places the months first and then the days:
August, 10 th 1990
Modern writing uses cardinal numerals both for days and months, though the reading of the days is done as if they were ordinal numerals.
Numerals may appear in patterns such as:
last but not least( Rom.penultimul)
to be dressed up to the nines
(Rom. a fi imbracat la patru ace)
the seventh heaven( Rom. al saptelea cer)
teen agers (Rom. adolescenti)
Exercises:
Read the numbers:
Read the telephone numbers:
Do the sums:
100:2= 105x 3= 3,963:3= 288= 15x6=
78423= 20x10= 9x7= 570+24= 3x13= 570:2=
Read the money:
&2; $45; EU 25; Roni 3297; & 7.40; 10 p; $56.80;
Change the numerals according to the example:
ex. chapter 1 – the first chapter
chapter 3; lesson 10; part 2; page 321; lesson 23; page 40; lesson 25; chapter 34; room 23; level 45; room 1012

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