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Grammar in a nutshell - Morphology/Morfologia

I.1. Articolul (The Article) Definition, examples and tasks

I.2. Substantivul (The noun) Definition, examples and tasks

I.3. Verbul (The verb - tenses of the indicative mood) Definition, examples and tasks

I.4. Adjectivul si gradele de comparatie (The adjective and the degrees of comparison) Definition,

examples and tasks

I.5. Pronumele (The pronoun) Definition, examples and tasks

II. Negation and illocutionary acts

II.1. Illocutionary acts - definition

II.2.Sentence - definition - 1 negation example

II.3.Sentence negators: categories:

a. particle no

b. adverbs

c. pronouns

d. any

e. affixes

II.4. Degrees of negativity

a. week vs. strong negation

b. emphatic negatives

c. semantic changes

II.5. Lexical negativity

II.6. Sentence negation - syntactic function

II.7.The negation of the verb in expressing / using tenses at the indicative mood

II.8.Tests of negativity

II.9.question tags

II.10. yes/ no questions


III. English for Law

III.1. Translation exercises from English into Romanian

III.2. Translation exercises from Romanian into English

III.3. Creative writing

Recommended sites


Cursul de fata se adreseaza studentilor din anul I si al II-lea de studiu din cadrul Facultatii de

Drept. Obiectivele didactice vizeaza:

1. familiarizarea studentilor cu limba engleza daca acestia sunt la nivel de incepator, prin

explicarea cunostintelor de baza ale morfologiei, respectiv: articol, substantiv, verb, adjectiv,


2. aprofundarea notiunilor de gramatica limbii engleze, negatia in limba engleza avand aspecte

de morfologie si sintaxa

3. cunoasterea si intelegerea conceptelor fundamentale de drept civil, penal, comunitar si

international exprimate in limba engleza

4. asimilarea vocabularului de specialitate prin studiul textelor juridice din domeniile de interes

5. redactarea in limba engleza a textelor de specialitate

La incheierea cursului, studentii vor avea urmatoarele abilitati:

- vor avea capacitatea de a citi un text de specialitate si de a-l intelege

- vor putea redacta texte in limba engleza

- se vor putea exprima fluent

Teme de specialitate pentru anul I

1. The judiciary and the legislative in the UK

2. Courts in the UK

3. Criminal Law

4. Prosecutions; treatment of offenders in the UK

5. The Geneva Conventions

6. Criminal Law in the UK

7. Government employment services in the UK

8. The role of local education authorities in England and Wales

9. The European perspective on justice, freedom and security

Teme de specialitate pentru anul al II-lea

1. Criminal proceedings. Powers and mode of arrest

2. Crime in the USA. Corruption. Principles of criminal liability.

3. Warrants. Types of warrant in the UK.

4. Powers of entry, search and road checks. Identification of suspects.

5. European police cooperation

6. Offences against public justice and against person

7. Firearms, armed forces and bomb hoaxes

8. Legal aid. Procedure

9. Summoning and term. The Geneva Conventions

I. MORFOLOGIA (Morphology)

Prezentare generala

Cele doua parti constitutive ale gramaticii traditionale sunt morfologia si sintaxa. Morfologia cuprinde

regulile privitoare la forma cuvintelor si la modificarile formale ale cuvintelor studiate pe parti de vorbire;

sintaxa cuprinde regulile privitoare la imbinarea cuvintelor in propozitii si fraze.

Unitatea de analiza in gramatica traditionala este cuvantul.

Gramatica traditionala grupeaza cuvintele din punct de vedere morphologic in zece parti de vorbire:

1. articolul

2. substantivul

3. verbul

4. pronumele

5. numeralul

6. adjectivul

7. adverbul

8. prepozitia

9. conjunctia

10. interjectia

Partile de vorbire se disting dupa ceea ce exprima, numele unui obiect - (substantivul), un numar sau o

determinare numerica (numeralul), o actiune sau o stare (verbul), o caracteristica a unei actiuni, stari sau

insusjri (adverbul), exteriorizarea unui sentiment, a unei stari fizice, a unui act de vointa sau imitarea unui

sunet (interjecfia).

I.1. Articolul (The article)


Articolul este partea de vorbire care constituie un mijloc de individualizare a obiectelor si fenomenelor intr-

un context lingvistic sau situational; nu are forme flexionare, fiind neflexibil din punct de vedere

morfologic; indeplineste functia de determinant. Articolul este redat prin articolul hotarit the, articolul

nehotarit a sau an sau prin articolul zero. Aceste articole se folosesc pentru a realiza: 1) referinta unica

(unique reference) 2) referinta individuala (individual reference).

Articolul hotarat este folosit pentru a exprima referinta unica.

The earth moves round the sun. Pamintul se invirteste in jurul soarelui.

Articolul nehotarit poate fi folosit pentru introducerea in comunicare a unei notiuni care nu a fost

mentionata anterior.


A. Fill in the blanks with the, a, an or no article:

"Do you see _____ man standing near ______ door? He works as _____ assistant in ____ same shop as I

do. Well, I saw him the other day and he was driving ______ red Porsche. And do you see ______

expensive clothes he's wearing? Where does he get ____ money to pay for it all? ______ month ago he

hadn't got _____ penny. I told you about ______ burglary that we had at ________ shop, didn't I? Do you

think I should go to _____ police?

B. Fill in the gaps with a or one: last year - it was...very hot afternoon in June - I was hurrying to get home. I was

about...... hour late - well, to be precise, exactly...... hour and ten minutes: I had taken the

train that arrived at the station at 6.15. Anyway, there was..... woman standing under the trees, and

there were several children with her. I saw.... child clearly - she was ....lovely dark-haired girl

- but I only heard the others. Suddenly... strange thing happened. The girl took some stones and

leaves out of her pocket, and threw.... stone after another into the air.

C. Insert a or an if necessary:

My neighbour is...photographer; let's ask him for...advice about colour films.

We and...chips for....lunch.

That doesn't sound......very interesting lunch.

I had a very bad night. I didn't sleep ....wink.

We'd better go - if we can get at such .....hour as 2 a.m.

I.2. Substantivul (The noun)


Substantivul denumeste obiecte in sens foarte larg, adica fiinte, lucruri, fenomene (man, chair, snow, walk,

wisdom); are categoriile gramaticale de gen, numar si caz; poate indeplini in propozitie functiile de subiect,

nume predicativ, atribut, apozitie, complement, element predicativ suplimentar, sau poate fi echivalentul

unei propozitii sau fraze.

Numarul substantivelor (Number of Nouns)

Substantivele in limba engleza au categoriile gramaticale de gen, numar si caz.

Numarul este categoria gramaticala care se recunoaste cel mai usor, datorita desinentei -s, specifica pentru

forma de plural a substantivelor. Din punct de vedere al ideii de numar, substantivele in limba engleza se

impart in numarabile (Count nouns) si nenumarabile (Mass nouns). Substantivele numarabile sunt de obicei

variabile ca forma (Variable nouns), avand atat singular cit si plural, iar cele nenumarabile sunt de regula

invariabile ca forma (Invariable nouns), avand forma numai de singular sau numai de plural.


A. Use these collective nouns to complete the sentences that follow: audience, crew, enemy, family,

gang, government, media, public, staff, team

1. Take cover. The ........ are attacking.

2. Do you think Liverpool are the best ......... in Europe?

3. Dad is out but the rest of the ............ are at home.

4. The............ has decided to increase taxes.

5. The ship sank but the ........... are safe.

6. The office is closed. The .... are on strike.

7. The house was surrounded and the ......... were arrested.

8. The ............ is much bigger than at last night's performance.

9. The railways should provide a better service for the traveling ..........

10. Some sports stars are very badly treated by the newspapers and other ........

B.Write the plural of the following nouns:

1. address 4. witch 7. face 10. man

2. reply 5. box 8. tomato 11.child

3. toy 6. fish 9. deer 12. tooth

I.3. Verbul (The verb)

Definitie. Verbul este partea de vorbire care exprima actiuni, procese sau stari; are categorii gramaticale de

persoana si numar comune cu alte parti de vorbire si categoriile specifice de timp, mod, aspect si diateza;

indeplineste functia sintactica de predicat.

I..3.1. Categoriile gramaticale ale verbului

In limba engleza, verbul are forme gramaticale determinate de categoriile specifice de timp, aspect, diateza

si mod si de categoriile nespecifice de persoana si numar. In functie de prezenta sau absenta categoriilor de

timp persoana si numar, formele verbale in limba engleza se impart in forme personale si nepersonale.

Formele personale ale verbului (Finite Forms of the Verb) sunt modurile indicativ si subjonctiv. La aceste

forme, verbul este marcat pentru a exprima categoriile de timp, mod, diateza, aspect, persoana si numar, iar

din punct de vedere sintactic, ele pot forma singure predicatul si se acorda in numar si persoana cu


Formele nepersonale ale verbului (Non-Finite Forms of the Verb) sunt infinitivul, Gerund-ul (Gerunziul),

participiul prezent si participiul trecut. Aceste forme nu au categoriile de timp, persoana si numar si nu pot

forma singure predicatul propozitiei.

I. 3.2. Timpul (Tense)

Categoria gramaticala a timpului (Tense), categorie specifica verbelor, se refera la ordinea evenimentelor in

timp, asa cum este perceputa aceasta de vorbitor in momentul vorbirii.

Momentul in care are loc actul de vorbire este momentul prezent (now). Fata de acest moment, care

constituie axa de referinta a prezentului, unele evenimente sunt:


anterioare, cand ele au loc inainte de momentul vorbirii (evenimentele sunt amintite de vorbitor):

Present Perfect;


posterioare f ata de momentul vorbirii (evenimentele fiind anticipate de vorbitor, deoarece vor

avea loc intr-un moment posterior momentului vorbirii Future;


simultane cu momentul vorbirii (avand loc in acelasi timp) Present.

Considerand momentul vorbirii punctul prezent, vorbitorul isi poate aminti un eveniment care a avut loc la

un moment anterior momentului vorbirii (then). In raport cu acest moment amintit then, care se refera la

trecut, alte evenimente pot fi:




anterioare momentului trecut then: Past Perfect;

simultane cu then: Past Tense;

posterioare: Future in the Past.

De asemenea, in momentul vorbirii (now), vorbitorul poate anticipa anumite evenimente (posterioare

momentului vorbirii). In raport cu un anume eveniment posterior momentului prezent (axa de referinta a

viitorului). Alte evenimente pot fi:




anterioare: Future Perfect;

simultane: Future;

posterioare: engleza nu are marca formala pentru aceste evenimente.

In analiza timpului trebuie astfel luate in consideratie urmatoarele elemente:




momentul vorbirii

momentul actiunii;

axa sau momentul de referinta.

In f unctie de cele trei elemente - momentul vorbirii, momentul actiunii si momentul de referinta - limba

engleza cunoaste urrnatorul sistem de timpuri:




pe axa prezentului: Present, Present Perfect, Future;

pe axa trecutului: Past Tense, Past Perfect, Future in the Past;

pe axa viitorului: Future, Future Perfect

I.3.2.1. Timpul prezent simplu (Present Tense Simple)

Definitie. Prezentul simplu desemneaza un eveniment (o actiune sau stare) care se intampla simultan cu

momentul vorbirii (prezentul instantaneu) sau care include momentul vorbirii (prezentul generic si


Forma. Din punct de vedere al formei, prezentul simplu este identic cu infinitivul, la toate persoanele

singular si plural, cu exceptia persoanei a III-a singular, care adauga -(e).s: Ex: I learn/ You learn/ He, She

learns/ We learn/ You learn/ They learn


A. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate form of the verb in brackets at the present simple tense:

He (live)... in Belgravia in London's West End. He's very rich, and he (own)..... the company

Office Blocks International. Every morning the young Lord (have)..... breakfast in bed and

(read)... the newspapers. He (get)..... up at ten o'clock and usually (go)... for a walk in

Hyde Park. He (have).... lunch at his club. He sometimes (meet)... the directors of OBI, and they

(talk).... about the company's plans. In the afternoon, Lord Stonebury and his friends (play).. golf.

Then they (have).... a few drinks. Or sometimes, he and his girl friend (go)...for a drive in his

sports car. After dinner Lord Stonebury (go).... to a night club or a casino with one of his friends. They

(get)..... home at about two o'clock.

B. Find and correct the verbs in the present tense that are mistaken in the text below:

Dear John,

Thank you for your very interesting letter. I am very pleased to be your pen friend. Are you really have a

swimming pool in the garden? It sound wonderful. As you know from my advertisement, I have 17 years

old and came from Cartagena in Chile. I've got two sisters and they is both older than me. My father own a

small factory paper but my mother don't work. We living in a house outside the city. I enjoying playing

football and I am like science-fiction films.

I. Look at this learner's text. Match the teacher's ticks and corrections 1-10 to rules a) - f) below

C. Put the verbs into brackets into simple present or present continuous tense:

1. What Tom (think)..... of the Budget?

2. He (think)..... it most unfair.

I (agree)....... with him.

3. How much... this one (cost)....?

It (cost)..... forty pence.

4. Look at that crowd. I (wonder)...... what they (wait)..... for.

5. This story is about a boy who (make).. friends with a snake which he (find).....

in the garden. Then he (go).... away but he (not forget)... the snake and some

years later he (return)... and (look)..... for it.

6. He (find).... the snake who (recognize)..... its old friend and (coil)....

round him affectionately. But, unfortunately, the snake is by now a full-grown boa-

constrictor and its embrace (kill).... the poor boy.

The snake (feel)..... sorry about this?

I (not know).... The story (end)....... there.

7. How (end).... a letter that (begin)....., "Dear Sir?"

I always (put)....., "Yours truly", but Tom (prefer)..... "Yours


D. Look at this learner's text. Match the teacher's ticks and corrections 1-10 to rules a) - f) below

My name is Kim and I'm Korean. My family is living in lives..b)

an apartment near the centre of Seoul, and they all 1........

1 love the city except me. They 2 are thinking that 2 think...

cities are exciting, but 3 I'm not agreeing with them; I 3 don't agree

4 am preferring quieter towns or villages. Anyway, 4 prefer.....

just this month I 5 work for a small travel agency; I 5 'm working..

6 want to go traveling in Europe next month but 7 I'm 6 ......

needing to earn some money first. 8 I'm thinking of doing 7 need....

a course when I come back from Europe - my English 8.......

9 gets better so maybe I can study abroad next time. 9 is getting...

That's very expensive, of course. Perhaps that 10 is 10 depends..

depending on how much I can earn - and my parents!


a) use the present continuous to talk about changing situations

b) use the present simple to talk about a permanent situation

c) use the present simple with a "thought" or "feeling" verb

d) use the present simple with verbs describing what things are, what they are like and what they


e) use the present continuous for a temporary situation

use the present continuous for a temporary thought

f) use the present continuous for a temporary thought

I.3.2.2. Timpul trecut simplu (Past Tense Simple)

Definitie. Past Tense, aspectul simplu, desemneaza un eveniment definit care a avut loc pe axa trecutului

(evenimentul este amintit in momentul prezent). Past Tense simplu este folosit pentru a exprima o actiune

savarsita si incheiata intr-un moment trecut:

Forma. Marca timpului Past Tense simplu este, la verbele regulate, -ed.

We listened to the concert last night. Am ascultat concertul aseara.

In cazul verbelor neregulate este folosita forma a II-a. I wrote the letter to Mary. Am scris scrisoarea


Verbe neregulate

Infinitiv Past Tense

be was/were

beat beat







a fi

a bate


become became

begin began

blow blew

break broke

breed bred






a deveni

a incepe

a suf!a, a bate

a (se) sparge

a creste, a educa








a construi









dra w











fly .





























bo Ugh I
























a cumpara

a prinde

a alege

a veni

a costa

a taia

a trata, a se

ocupa de

a face

a trage, a desena

a visa

a bea

a mina, a sofa

a locui

a manca

a cadea

a hrani

a (se) sirati

a (se) lupta

a gasi

a zbura

a interzice

a uita

a ierta

a ingheta

R. dreamed - in spe-

cial in engleza ameri-

drunken - adj.

R. dwelled (rar)

in engleza americana

engl. britanica,: ate

(et); engl.

americana: ate (eit)





























a primi, a obtine engl. americana:

get, got, gotten

a da

a merge

a creste

a avea

a auzi

a (se) ascunde Partioipiul trecut si

hid (rar)

a lovi

a |ine































a lovi, a rani, a


a |ine, a pastra

a ti, a cunoasjte

a pune, a aseza

a conduce

a invata

, a pleca, a lasa

a da cu


a lasa, a permite

a aprinde

R. learned -


americana; adj.:

a learned [k:nid] man

R. lighted
















a zacea, a se afla R. lie, lied = a min|i

a pierde

a face

a insemna

a (se) intilni



mown, mowed a cosi




















a plati

a punt

a citi

a suna

a fugi

a spune

pers. Ill singular says























a vedea

a vinde

a. trimite

a arata

a include

a einta

a sedea

Uneori ortografiat

shew, shewed,

















s melt






a dormi

a mirosi

a vorbi

a grabi, a


a ortografia

a cheltui; a


a (se) intinde

R. smelled -

engleza americana

i R.: speeded

R. spelled - engleza


























a fura, a se furisa

a lipi

a inota

a lua

a invafa (pe

altui), a preda

a spune, a


a (se) gindi

a arunca


understandd understood understood

a intelege

















a purta

a plinge

a uda

a cistiga

a scrie

si R. wetted

A. Fill in each gap with a verb from the box in the past tense simple. (The text below describes an

unsuccessful driving test.)

be feel move pay push say run say stop try

On my first test, I 1..... out of petrol. Shortly after the restart from the emergency stop, the car

2..... again, although I 3.... five times to restart.

"No", I 4...... to the examiner. "It won't start." The examiner 5...... into the driving seat,

and I 6....... the car to the nearest service station, where I 7...... for the petrol. "This is

not your fault and will not affect whether you pass the test", he 8......., but I 9.......

terrified and 10..... not surprised to fail for lack of observation.

B. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense:

1. Ann sees Paul putting on his coat and says: Where you (go ) , Paul?

2. I (go ) to buy some cigarettes. You (want) an evening paper?

3. Mary ( see ) Peter standing at the bus stop.

4. What bus you (wait ) for?

5. I usually (go ) to work by car, don't you?

6. Yes, but the car (belong ) to my mother and she sometimes (want ) it.

7. She ( use ) it today to take Tom to the dentist.

C. Put the verbs in brackets into the simple past or past continuous:

I ( walk ) along the Piccadily when I (realize ) that a man with a ginger beard,

whom I had seen three times already that afternoon, ( follow ) me.

To make quite sure, I (walk ) on quickly, (turn ) right, then left and (stop ) suddenly at a

shop window.

In a few minutes the man with the beard (appear ) and (stop ) at another shop window.

I.3.2.3. Viitorul simplu (Shall/Will Future)

Definitie. Viitorul simplu desemneaza un eveniment posterior fata de momentul vorbirii. Viitorul simplu

este un viitor pur, indicand doar ca actiunea are loc 'intr-un moment viitor, mai apropiat sau adeseori mai

indepartat de momentul vorbirii.

Forma. In structura viitorului simplu intra verbul auxiliar shall la persoana I singular si plural, will la

persoana a II-a si a Ill-a singular si plural si infinitivul scurt al verbului de conjugat:

I shall go to the seaside tomorrow./ Vom merge la mare maine.


Decide if the underlined verbs in the sentences below refer to present time (p) or future time (f):

1. I'm spending a few weeks with an uncle in the States this summer. _f_

2. I can't find Barbara. Maybe she's meeting the others for lunch. ___

3. When you see her, could you tell her to give me a call? ___

4. The show starts at 8.30 every day except Monday. ___

5. I hope everyone's ready. We leave first thing in the morning. ___

I.4. ADJECTIVUL (The Adjective)

Definitie. Adjectivul este partea de vorbire care exprima o calitate a unui obiect (an interesting lecture, an

old man); are categoria gramaticala a comparatiei: He is taller than his brother.; indeplineste functiile

sintactice de atribut, apozitie, nume predicativ, element predicativ suplimentar.

Adjectivele monosilabice formeaza comparativul si superlativul in mod sintetic. Ele primesc -(e)r la

comparativ si the -(e)st la superlativ:

small -smaller -the smallest

short - shorter - the shortest

Adjectivele formate din d o u a sau mai multe silabe formeaza comparativul si superlativul analitic cu

ajutorul lui more si the most:

careful - more careful - the most careful

difficult - more difficult - the most difficult


A. Write the comparative and superlative for the following adjectives:

1. thin -

2. beautiful -

3. nice -

4. good -

5. bad -

B. Fill in the blanks with you, your, they or them

"_____ 've put the price of stamps up again."

"Oh, ______ haven't, have ______? ________ seem to do it more and more often. ______ can buy more

than a few stamps at a time, or else ________ have to buy extra 1p stamps to add to all 7 letters."

"I know. And it's got so expensive! Nowadays_____ think twice before _______ write a letter. Of course

___'ve got special rates for businesses - it's only ordinary people that pay the extra."

"I know. It makes ______ wonder why we keep electing ______."

C. Fill in the blanks with like or as :

1. He died ....he lived, fighting.

2. It's mended, can see.

3. In Paris, Rome, traffic is heavy.

4. His eyes are .... knives.

5. My brother isn't at all... me.

6. She left... she came, silently.

7. You're shy, .. me.

8. Your smile is..... your sister's.

9. ... I said, you're too late.

D. Choose between all and everything:

a. I hurry to laugh at .. for fear of having to cry.

b. I can resist .... except temptation.

c. You can only have power over people so long as you don't take... away from


d. They say .... in the world is good for something.

i. Life is like nothing, because it is......

E. Insert a, an, the, my, his, her, our, your, their:

1. He took off ........ coat and set to work.

2. Why are you standing with ........hand in ........pockets?

3. At most meeting people vote by raising.........right hands.

4. He tore ........trousers getting over a barbed wire fence.

5. She pulled.........sleeve to attract his attention.

6. He stroked .........chin thoughtfully.

7. If you are too hot why don't you take off.........coat?

8. He pointed to a woman in..........her green dress.

9. You'll strain .......eyes if you read in .........bad light.

10. Leave......coats in .....cloakroom; don't bring them

F.Insert a, an, the, or my, his, her, our, their if necessary.

1. At most meetings ... people vote by raising... right hands.

2. There was a shot and a policeman came out with... blood running down .. face.

3. We shook ... hands with .. host.

4. You'll strain .. eyes if you read in ... bad light.

5. He is .. throughly selfish man; he wouldn't lift.. finger to help anyone.

6. He was ...very tall man with ... dark hair and... small beard, but I couldn't see ...

eyes because he was wearing ... dark glasses.

7. He stroked..chin thoughtfully.

8. He pointed to a woman in ... green dress.

9. He has .. horrible job; I wouldn't like to be in ... shoes.

10. Brother and sister were quite unlike each other. He had .. fair hair; .. hair was dark

and straight.

11. I saw him raise.. right hand and take ... oath.

12. I have .. headache.

G.Insert the necessary capital letters in the following passage:

professor arnold smith, who has spent a lifetime studying prehistoric remains, claims that the bones he

unearthed in the californian desert area last may are those of a man-like creature existing millions of

years ago, probably at a time when the pacific ocean covered much more of the surface of this part of

the american continent . professor smith is to give a talk on the subject on bbc television on Monday,

4th april, in the series "where did we come from?" this is to be followed by a discussion with members

of the lost atlantic society whose president, colonel arthur stone, contends that california is in fact a

part of the legendary city, the remainder of which lies hidden under the sea.


1. Illocutionary acts - definition

2. Sentence - definition - 1 negation examples

3. Sentence negators: categories:

f. particle no

g. adverbs

h. pronouns

i. any

j. affixes

4. Degrees of negativity

d. week vs. strong negation

e. emphatic negatives

f. semantic changes

5. Lexical negativity

6. Sentence negation - syntactic functions

7. The negation of the verb in expressing / using tenses at the indicative mood

8. Tests of negativity

a. question tags

b. yes/ no questions

9. Tasks

Illocutionary acts - definition

The English language is used for specific communication purposes, in various registers, such as: the

English used for business, finance, journalism, advertising, psychology, sociology, etc.

Definition: The illocutionary or communicative acts are those represented by the process of making

statements, asking questions, giving directives with the aim of getting the hearer to carry out some

action, making an offer or promise, thanking or expressing an exclamation.

Ex: I saw Susan in London last year.

1. Sentence

Definition: The basic unit for the expression of interpersonal and experiential meanings is the

independent clause, equivalent for the traditional "simple sentence". It is also connected with the idea

of predication.

Ex: Your English seems to be very good.

Sentence negation is given by the use of negators such as the particle "no/not", negative adverbs or


Ex: The readers did not believe that the story was true.

The readers never believed that the story was true.

The readers hardly believed that the story was true.

None of the readers believed that the story was true.

Few of the readers believed that the story was true.

Inherent negation with stylistic function:

Ex: The readers were unable to believe that the story was true.

The readers were too smart to believe that the story was true.

The readers did not believe that the story was true.

Forms of negative sentences:

A. Declarative negative: I won't buy any cakes.

B. Interrogative negative: Won't you buy some cakes?

C. Imperative negative : Don't buy any cakes!

2. Sentence negation - syntactic functions

Subject: Nothing is ever expected of him.

No one saw him.

Object: We saw no one.

We heard nothing.

I lend my car to no one.

Adverbial: We drove to nowhere.

3. Sentence negators. Categories

Forming negative statements - when you want to say that something is not true, is not happening or is

not the case, you normally use a negative statement

a. Negative adverb - not

ex: Not many people were present at the wedding.

Not anyone who writes poems is a poet.

Not a single man was killed.

"All that glitters is not gold."

"All men are not born to reign."

"Reason is given to all men but all men do not know how to use it."

b. Negative Adverb/ indefinite place adverb (nowhere)

Ex: There's almost nowhere left to go.

I never knew what she meant. (never + verb = emphatic use)

c. General determiner - NO - which is used in front of singular and plural noun groups to

state that something does not exist.

Ex: There was no money for an operation.

We had no union.

He has no ambition.

I could see no tracks.

d. Negative Pronouns (none)/ Indefinite pronouns (no one, nothing, nobody)

ex: I waited for comments but none came.

None of as a quantifier

None of the townspeople had ever seen such weather.

None of this has happened without our consent.

Nobody in her house knows any English. Nobody knew the truth.

There's nothing I can do. Nothing happened.

e. Any; anybody anywhere, anyhow

Ex: He didn't say anything.

No one said anything.

He didn't want to go anywhere.

Jane wasn't so pleased to listen the lecture anyhow.

f. Affixes - prefixes: A, Anti, Counter, De, Dis, Ex, Il, Ir, Im, In, Mal, Mis, Non, Un

A prefix such as un-, dis- can be added to the beginning of some words to give them the

opposite meaning

Ex: Jane was unhappy. She unpacked.

The footpath was invisible.

There's enormous inefficiency in the system.

He has reached an illogical conclusion.

I disliked change of any kind.

He gave a look of disapproval.

It was a peaceful, non-violent protest.

The match was a non- event.

They were completely helpless.

Many of them were speechless.

Broad negatives - adverbs: barely, scarcely, rarely, and seldom

If they are put in initial position in the sentence this process triggers subject - predicate inversion - in

formal or literary English

Ex: I could scarcely believe my eyes. Scarcely could I believe my eyes.

Examiners were seldom unkind.

The new pressure group is barely six months old.

The office was hardly ever empty.

The lagoons are rarely deep.

The results were scarcely encouraging.

4. Degrees of negativity

a. week vs. strong negation

ex: I didn't miss anyone.

I missed no one.

b. emphatic negatives that triggers syntactic change subject - predicate/ auxiliary verb

ex: Never (before) have I met anyone so strange.

I haven't ever met anyone so strange.

5. Lexical negativity

The process of negation is given by the use of one category of negators (particle "no/not" attached to

the auxiliary verb or the use of a negative adverb or pronoun):


John isn't too smart, in fact anybody in their family is so.

I don't know what has become of her, I haven't seen her in years.

Help me, please! I can't budge this rock.

They say that this doctor has never studied anything anywhere.

Nobody told us anything to any of us.

I'm sure that Mark didn't lift a finger to call me.

I didn't sleep a wink last night.

I didn't touch a drop ever since I have this ulcer.

The negation of the verb in expressing / using tenses at the indicative mood

Negatives of tenses

For the simple present tense negative we use does not + infinitive for the third person and do not +

infinitive for the other persons.

Both are usually contracted in speech: he doesn't work; you don't work

The simple past tense makes its negative with did not (didn't) + infinitive: he/ we/ / they didn't work

All other tenses are formed with auxiliaries, and the negative is formed by putting not after the auxiliaries.

Contractions are usual in speech:


I haven't seen him.

It won't be easy.

I shan't be here tomorrow.

He won't drink wine.

They hadn't applied for visas.

The present continuous tense and the perfect tenses can be contracted in two ways:


He is not coming./ He isn't coming. / He's not coming.

I have not seen it./ I haven't seen it. / I've not seen it.

The future tense is normally contracted to won't but I'll is also possible.


He'll not see you tomorrow./ He won't see you tomorrow.

In English a negative sentence can have only one negative expression in it. So, never, no, none, nobody, no

one, nothing, hardly, hardly ever etc. are used with an affirmative verb.


He ate nothing. He didn't eat anything.

He never complains. He doesn't ever complain.

We have seen no one. We haven't seen anyone.

They hardly spoke at all. They hardly ever spoke. They didn't speak much.

Double negation - Unlike some languages, standard national forms of English (British, American,

Canadian, Australian) do not favour multiple negation that is a succession of nuclear negative items in one

clause, although this is a feature of some dialects of English. Instead, the first negative item is followed

throughout the rest of the clause by non-assertive forms (any-)

Ex: not many Spaniards have any knowledge of bull-fighting.

Most Spaniards have some knowledge of bull- fighting.

Neighbours should not be uncooperative.

Neighbours should be cooperative.

Tests of negativity

In question tags - these are short addition to sentences asking for agreement or confirmation

A. After negative statement we use the ordinary interrogative

Ex: You didn't see him, did you?

Ann can't swim, can she?

Peter doesn't smoke, does he?

Bill didn't want to go, did he?

James wasn't driving the car, was he?

There wasn't enough time, was there?

Ann hasn't got colour TV, has she?

B. After affirmative statements we use the negative interrogative

Ex: Peter helped you, didn't he?

"You are going to do this, aren't you?" "Yes."

"David's is quite a nice school, isn't it?" "Yes, it is."

Mary was there, was she?

Note that statements containing words such as: neither, nor, none, no one, nobody, nothing,

scarcely, barely, hardly, seldom are treated like negative statements and followed by an

ordinary interrogative tag

Ex: None of your friends liked the film, did they?

Nothing was said, was it?

Peter hardly ever goes to parties, does he?

When the subject of the sentence is no one, nobody, anyone, anybody, none, neither we use the pronoun

THEY as the subject of the tag

Ex: I don't suppose anyone will volunteer, will they?

None of the bottles are broken, are they?

Neither of them complained, did they?

INTONATION: When question tags are used, the speaker doesn't normally need information but merely

expects agreement. These tags are therefore normally said with a falling intonation, as in statements.

Sometimes, however, the speaker does want information. He is not quite sure that the statement is true, and

wants to be reassured. In this case, the question tag is said with a rising intonation and the important word

in the first sentence is stressed, normally with a rise of pitch.

yes/ no questions

A. Questions requiring the answer yes or no In these questions the auxiliary comes first

Ex: Do you smoke? Yes, I do./ No, I don't.

The answer without the auxiliary is less polite

Do you understand my question?

Didn't you meet George in France?

Am I wrong?

Hasn't she got a car?

Agreements and disagreements with remarks

Ex: Tom drinks too much. Yes, he does.

Disagreements with negative remarks

Ex: I'm not getting fatter. Yes, you are.

Agreements with negative remarks

Ex: It wouldn't take long. No, it wouldn't.

Disagreements with affirmative remarks

Ex: We have plenty of time. No, we haven't.


Indicative Mood / Tense


Simple/ Affirmative

Simple/ Negative


Continuous/ Affirmative

Continuous/ Negative


He works

He does not work


He is working

He is not working





Perfect/ Affirmative

Perfect/ Negative


Perfect continuous/ Affirmative

Perfect continuous/ Negative

Simple / Affirmative

Simple/ Negative


Continuous / Affirmative

Continuous/ Negative


Perfect / Affirmative

Perfect/ Negative


Continuous / Affirmative

Continuous/ Negative

Simple / Affirmative

Simple/ Negative


Continuous / Affirmative

Continuous/ Negative


Perfect / Affirmative

Perfect/ Negative


Perfect continuous / Affirmative

Perfect continuous / Negative


He has worked

He has not worked


He has been working

He has not been working

He worked

He did not work


He was working

He was not working


He had worked

He had not worked


He had been working

He had not been working

He will work

He will not work


He will be working

He will not be working


He will have worked

He will not have worked


He will have been working

He will not have been working


Indicative Mood / Tense Aspect

Simple/ Affirmative

Simple/ Negative


Continuous/ Affirmative

Continuous/ Negative


He works

He does not work / He doesn't



He is working / He's working

He is not working / He's not

working / He isn't working



Perfect/ Affirmative

Perfect/ Negative


Perfect continuous/ Affirmative

Perfect continuous/ Negative


He has worked / He's worked

He has not worked / He hasn't

worked / He's not worked


He has been working/ He's been


He has not been working/ He

hasn't been working/ He's not

been working




Simple/ Affirmative

Simple/ Negative


Continuous/ Affirmative

Continuous/ Negative


Perfect/ Affirmative

Perfect/ Negative


Continuous/ Affirmative

Continuous/ Negative

Simple/ Affirmative

Simple/ Negative

Continuous/ Affirmative

Continuous/ Negative


Perfect/ Affirmative

Perfect/ Negative


Perfect continuous/ Affirmative

Perfect continuous/ Negative

He worked

He did not work / He didn't work


He was working

He was not working / He wasn't



He had worked

He had not worked / He hadn't



He had been working

He had not been working / He

hadn't been working

He will work / He'll work

He will not work / He won't work

He will be working/ He'll be


He will not be working / He

won't be working / He'll not be



He will have worked / He'll have


He will not have worked / He

won't have worked / He'll not

have worked


He will have been working /

He'll have been working

He will not have been working /

He won't have been working /

He'll not have been working

Note: In speech, auxiliaries are normally contracted in affirmative and negative.

's may mean is or has: he's going = he is going ; he's gone = he has gone

'd may mean had or would : he'd paid = he had paid ; he'd like to come = he would like to come

Auxiliaries are normally unstressed. The stress falls on the main verb.


Explain the type of negation in each of the sentences in italics:

"Don't you know the actual name of the firm or association that employed her?"

"No, I don't, I'm afraid."

"Did she ever mention relatives?"

"No. I gather she was a widow and had lost her husband many years ago. A bit of an invalid he'd been, but

she never talked much about him."

"Didn't she mention where she came from - what part of the country? "

"I don't think she was a Londoner. Came from somewhere up north, I should say."

"Didn't you feel there was anything - well, mysterious about her?"

Lejeune felt a doubt as he spoke. If she was a suggestible woman - but Mrs. Coppins did not take

advantage of the opportunity offered to her.

"Well, I can really say that I did. Certainly not from anything she ever said. The only thing that perhaps

might have me wonder was her suitcase. Good quality it was, but not new."

Adapted from Agatha Christie, The Pale Horse


actual (adj.) = real, existing in fact: at the time being

to mention (v.) = to notice briefly, to remark, to name

to gather (v.) = to learn (know) by inference, to collect, to assemble

widow (n.) = a woman who has lost her husband and has not married again

a bit (n.) = a bite, a small piece

suggestible (adj.) = capable of being influenced by suggestion

to take advantage (v.) = to have a profit

suitcase (n.)= an easily portable oblong traveling - bag for carrying suits or clothes


Turn the following sentences from the affirmative to negative by using for each situation three types of

negation: the particle no/not; a negative adverb; a negative pronoun:

1. The readers believed that the story was true.

2. They had applied for visas.

3. You saw him.

4. Mary was here.

5. You know the name of the firm.

6. She mentioned the address.

7. I can really say that.

8. He mentioned something about his relatives.

9. I think she was a Londoner.

10. They knew all about him.


Turn the following sentences from the affirmative to negative by using for each situation three types of

negation: the particle no/not; a negative adverb; a negative pronoun, if the case:

1. I have seen something like that before.

2. You would better tell me the truth.

3. The barrister was the best in town.

4. There are limits in everything.

5. Everything that glitters is gold.

6. See you soon!

7. Mother told me that she was at home.

8. You should learn all the chapter.

9. The students were nice.

10. John has been lately in that pub.



7. The right to a domestic remedy for the violation of human rights is widely recognized in international

human rights law. A brief look at the wording of this guarantee in universal and regional instruments of

human rights protection will allow for some comparative remarks concerning Article 13 of the European

Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (ECHR). The latter Article provides:

Everyone whose rights and freedoms as set forth in this Convention are violated shall have an

effective remedy before a national authority notwithstanding that the violation has been committed by

persons acting in an official capacity.

8. The origins of the right to an effective remedy can be found in Article 8 of the Universal Declaration on

Human Rights of 1948, which stipulates:

Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by the competent national tribunals for acts

violating the fundamental rights granted him by the constitution or by law.

Although not legally binding, the Universal Declaration has had an enormous impact on all human rights

instruments adopted after 1948. The ECHR refers to the Declaration explicitly in its Preamble.

(Council of Europe, The Memorandum on the Implementation of the Right to an Effective

Remedy, October, 2003)

2. "All criminal trials are held in open court. Because the criminal law presumes the innocence of the

accused until he has been proved guilty beyond reasonable doubt, every possible step is taken to deny to the

prosecution any advantage over the defence. No accused person has to answer the questions of the police

before trial; if he does make a statement, this cannot be used in evidence at his trial unless he has been

cautioned in the proper terms, and he is not compelled to give evidence or to submit to cross-examination

in court."

(from Criminal Law Update, by Solicitor Anthony Edward, in the Gazette 90/3, 20 Jan 1993)

3. The Union's Local Solicitor was instructed on a member's behalf in connection with an assault

committed upon him by three youths. The youths alleged that the member had punished one of their

friends. In consequence of the assault, he received severe bruising to his side and hip and right temporal

region, his eye and right jaw, and was unable to resume his professional duties for a week. A Summons for

assault was served and duly issued upon those responsible. At the hearing, the defendants appeared in

person and elected to be dealt with summarily, each pleading "not guilty". After retirement, the Justices

found each defendant "guilty" and imposed fines of 58 pounds plus costs.

4. In 1864 governments were invited to send representatives to a diplomatic conference. As a result 12

European nations signed a treaty stating that in future wars they would care for all sick and wounded

military personnel, regardless of nationality. They would also recognise the neutrality of medical personnel,

hospitals and ambulances identified by the emblem of a red cross on a white background.

The treaty was called the Geneva Convention. This Convention was concerned only with soldiers

wounded on the battlefield. Over the years, however, it has been expanded to cover everyone caught up in

conflicts but not actually taking an active part in the fighting.

5. The main pattern of local government organization in Britain (outside the Greater London area) is a

division of the country into a number of local authority areas, as follows: administrative counties

(subdivided into county districts) and county boroughs in England and Wales and Northern Ireland; and

counties, large and small burghs and districts in Scotland. Greater London, a unique administration area, is

subdivided into 32 London Boroughs and the City. Each of these areas has its own elected council (local

authority) which runs many of the public services, including the major services of local health and welfare,

education, child care, town and country planning, fire fighting, the provision and upkeep of certain roads,

traffic management, and a share in the administration of the police, as well as services concerning local

order, amenity, and public health. In carrying out their duties, local authorities must act in accordance with,

and within the limits of, powers conferred on them by Parliament; they are also subject to a certain amount

of supervision by the central Government. Nevertheless they remain independent bodies and discharge their

responsibilities in their own right.

6. On the basis of the foregoing detailed examination of the merits of the case, the Court finds that Iran,

by committing successive and continuing breaches of the obligations laid upon it by the Vienna

Conventions of 1961 and 1963 on Diplomatic and Consular Relations, the Treaty of Amity, Economic

Relations, and Consular Rights of 1955, and the applicable rules of general international law, has incurred

responsibility towards the United States. As to the consequences of this finding, it clearly entails an

obligation on the part of the Iranian State to make reparation for the injury thereby caused to the United

States. Since however Iran's breaches of its obligations are still continuing, the form and amount of such

reparation cannot be determined at the present date.

7. At the same time the Court finds itself obliged to stress the cumulative effect of Iran's breaches of its

obligations when taken together. A marked escalation of these breaches can be seen to have occurred in the

transition from the failure on the part of the Iranian authorities to oppose the armed attack by the militants

on 4 November 1979 and their seizure of the Embassy premises and staff, to the almost immediate

endorsement by those authorities of the situation thus created, and then to their maintaining deliberately for

many months the occupation of the Embassy and detention of its staff by a group of armed militants acting

on behalf of the State for the purpose of forcing the United States to bow certain demands.

8. Tim Weekes finds specialist child care solicitors alarmed by recent proposals to reform the

representation of children: The mood among solicitors specialising in children law is grim. Their day-to-

day work involves the most vulnerable and powerless members of society, often children who are at risk of

abuse or violence in the home. They offer a vital conduit for children's views about the actions of parents,

social workers, local authorities and others. Yet despite the importance of their work, they see signs that the

government is preparing to remove children's rights to representation by solicitors.

9. Every accused person has the right to employ a legal adviser to conduct his defence; if he cannot afford

to pay, he may be granted legal aid at public expense. If he is charged with murder, and has insufficient

means, he must be granted legal aid.

10. The emergence of the idea of nationhood, in the current sense of the term, is intrinsically linked to the

important ideological revolution that began during the 18th century and transferred legitimate sovereignty to

the people. A nation differs radically from a population group defined by its subjection to a common

sovereign. The nation pre-exists and survives its monarch, even if, depending on the vicissitudes of history,

it may be oppressed or divided.

11. The Geneva Conventions are long and complicated, but they are essentially a series of 'do's' and 'don'ts'

to apply during conflict to protect vulnerable and defenceless individuals. Their underlying principles can

be simply stated.

The human dignity of all individuals must be respected at all times. Everything possible must be done,

without any kind of discrimination, to reduce the suffering of people who have been put out of action by

sickness, wounds or captivity whether or not they have taken direct part in the conflict.

The First Protocol extends the Conventions, taking into consideration modern means of warfare and

transport and aiming to give further protection to civilians. The Second Protocol provides a code of

minimum protection for the combatants and the civilian population during civil wars

12. One of the most common Immigration Act offences is knowingly entering the UK in breach of a

deportation order or without leave of an immigration officer - commonly known as illegal entry. An

example of someone who will be treated as an illegal entrant is if he or she obtained an entry clearance visa

as a student but on arrival had no intention of studying, never enrolled at college and started working

instead. Clearly that person deceived the entry clearance officer or Immigration Officer as to his or her real

intentions on coming to the UK and hence entered the country illegally. Other less common offences such

as failing to comply with a restriction imposed on entry, e.g. residence at a particular address or

employment in a specified job are not often prosecuted.

13. A member took a party of 29 children and staff to stay for two weeks at a School Holiday camp in

Scotland. When the party arrived in Scotland, the beds and bedding were in bad condition; one of the

chalets was leaking and the windows in another were open - resulting in the beds nearest the window being

damp. In view of the poor conditions, the member obtained accommodation elsewhere for the rest of the

holiday. Subsequently he applied for legal assistance in order to obtain compensation for the expense


The Solicitor of the Union took the matter with the travel agency concerned on behalf of the member. An

offer of 100 pounds was made by them and this was accepted in settlement.

14. One of the basic features of customs law is the imposition of import duty as a form of indirect taxation.

There is also provision in the EC (European Community) customs code for the collection of export duty,

but in practice these are rarely applied. Advanced economies perceive a charge on exports as a disincentive,

which puts a brake on home industries. However, they have featured in the form of agricultural levies and

other export charges applied under the common agricultural policy of the EC. Duties which are legally

owed to a national customs authority give rise to a customs debt. In all cases within member states these are

based on the customs tariff of the EC. In the UK this takes the form of the integrated tariff of the UK

known shortly as "the tariff".

15. The first Geneva Convention ('for the Amelioration of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces and

Field') and the second Geneva Convention ('for the Amelioration of the Condition of Wounded, Sick and

Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea') are similar, covering land and sea respectively. They

embody the main idea which led to the founding of the Red Cross: if a member of the armed forces is

wounded or sick, and therefore in no condition to take an active part in the hostilities, he is no longer part

of the fighting force and becomes a vulnerable person in need of protection and care.

The main points of these two Conventions are: The sick, wounded and shipwrecked must be cared for

adequately. Belligerents must treat members of the enemy force who are wounded, sick or shipwrecked as

carefully they would their own. All efforts should be made to collect the dead quickly; to confirm death by

medical examination; to identify bodies and protect them from robbery. Medical equipment must not be

intentionally destroyed and medical establishments and vehicles must not be attacked, damaged or

prevented from operating even if, for the moment, they do not contain patients.


1. Infractiunile mai putin grave sunt pedepsite cu amenda.

2. Cele mai grave infractiuni sunt pedepsite cu inchisoarea.

3. Helen are doi frati ; fratele mai mare este student la Facultatea de Drept.

4. Judecatorul a cerut martorilor relatii suplimentare.

5. Dintre cei doi martori la accident, primul (the former) era un copil iar al doilea era un

tanar de 25 de ani.

6. Camera Lorzilor este formata din nobili cu rang de pair ereditar.

7. Presedintele Camerei Comunelor - the Speaker- este propus de Guvern dupa consultari

cu Opozitia.

8. Tribunalele sunt in general constituite din doi sau sapte magistrati neangajati.

9. Dupa ce o persoana a fost arestata este acuzata si apoi adusa in fata instantei.

10. Cele mai grave infractiuni sunt pedepsite cu inchisoarea.

11. La intrarea in Marea Britanie, ofiterul de imigrari recomanda sa nu se depaseasca

perioada admisa de sedere in tara.

12. Nu trebuie subestimata depozitia unui martor in anchetarea cazului.

13. Este firesc ca legile sa se schimbe pentru a fi in concordanta cu schimbarile sociale si

economice care au loc in viata societatii.

14. Daca inculpatul nu isi va putea permite sa plateasca un avocat, atunci i se va acorda

asistenta juridica.

15. Este imperativ ca martorul sa se prezinte in fata instantei.

16. Este important ca tarile asociate sa adopte legislatia Uniunii Europene.

17. In toate investigatiile, politia trebuie sa pastreze toate materialele care intra in posesia sa.

18. Este recomandabil ca avocatul sa stabileasca o relatie profesionala cu clientul sau.

19. Principalele functii ale Parlamentului sunt dezbaterea si votarea legislatiei precum si

examinarea actiunilor Guvernului.

20. Majoritatea proiecelor de legi din Parlament sunt masuri care privesc viata publica.

21. In inchisorile pentru infractorii tineri sunt organizate cursuri de reeducare.

22. In cazul in care este arestat, suspectul are dreptul de a consulta un avocat si sa instiinteze

o persoana in legatura cu detentia sa.

23. Suspectul poate iesi din tara, fara a fi audiat de o instanta penala.

24. Un exemplu de infractiune care poate fi judecata in doua moduri este furtul, depinzand de

gravitatea modului in care acesta a fost comis.

25. In general, infractiunile care sunt judecate pe baza unei proceduri sumare sunt pedepsite

cu amenda.

26. Un infractor poate fi pus in anumite conditii in libertate supravegheata.

27. Romania este stat national, suveran si independent, unitar si indivizibil. Forma de

guvernamant a statului roman este republica. Statul se organizeaza potrivit principiului

separatiei si echilibrului puterilor - legislative, executive si judecatoreasca - in cadrul

democratiei constitutionale. Suveranitatea nationala apartine poporului roman, care o

exercita prin organele sale reprezentative. Teritoriul Romaniei este inalienabil. Romania

este patria comuna si indivizibila a tuturor cetatenilor sai, fara deosebire de rasa, de

nationalitate, de origine etnica, de limba, de religie, de gen, de opinie, de apartenenta

politica, de avere sau de origine sociala.


trial; to employ; offence; prosecution; solicitor; to convict; probation; bill; debate; law; judge; magistrate;

Crown; Wales; acquis communautaire ; applicant ; to implement ; the route to accession ; domestic policy;

vocational training; employment; to enforce legislation; to undermine; share; assembly; with regard to;

outcome; currently; concern; welfare; to focus; the right to representation by a solicitor; guardian ad litem;

legal issues; to miss the point; to ascertain the interests of children; abolish; binding precedent; burglary;

code; conspiracy; counsel; defence; domestic; EC; enforce; judicial; ministry; procedure; probation; State

sovereignty; will; writ; to debate; to enforce a law; formally; chairman; assize; cases of first instance;

accession; accomplice; accountancy in bankruptcy; acquis communautaire; Act of Parliament; to debate, to

enforce a law, formally, chairman, to come into operation; assize, deter, probation, youth, placed on

probation, to pass a sentence, to pass a suspended sentence; cases of first instance; domestic proceedings;

offence; trial; bail; beyond doubt; solicitor; sentence; interest

Exercise: Write three or four sentences to say how you feel now. Use some of the following words: cold;

hot; well; sleepy; thirsty; warm; hungry; ill; wide awake.


1. What does the British Parliament consist of?

2. What does the Sovereign formally do?

3. Who forms the Government?

4. What are the main courts of civil jurisdiction in England and Wales?

5. What does Criminal Law presume?

6. What right has any accused person?

7. What is the European Commission's task?

8. What is the European Council's duty?

9. What is controlling state aids important for?

10. How could you define the local self-government in European terms?

11. How independent are the local authorities?

12. Answer the following questions regarding the protection of Human Rights according to the

principles and regulations given by the Council of Europe:

- What is the European Convention of Human Rights' control mechanism?

- If the state's domestic law does not provide a total remedy for the consequences of a

violation, what is the Court's decision?

- Does the Court operate separately from the judicial systems of the States Parties to the


- Did the UK outlaw the corporal punishments in school as a result of a judgment under the

European Convention on Human Rights?

- Give five examples of the rights guaranteed by the European Social Charter.

- Which is the mechanism set up for the European Convention for the Prevention of


- What does the Framework Convention for the National Minorities specifically guarantee?

Which are the conditions for them?

- How is the equality between women and men seen by the Council of Europe?

III.5. Explain the following terms and then make sentences with them: "civic nation"; State territory;

national minority;" Para - State" Venice Commission; home - state; nation-state; confederation; national

identity; ethnic minority; sovereignty; kin-minority; "ethnic nation"; national frontier/ border;

federalization; nationality; OSCE; linguistic minority

N.B. The answers should be given being based on the chapter "National Minorities' Protection in the

Contemporary European State"


1. A bookshop always updated with excellent materials to improve your level of English, no matter you are

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5. You want to know more about tests of English as a foreign language

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7. You are looking for details regarding the European Union and its institutions


Jeremy Walenn, English for Law in Higher Education Studies, Garnet Publishing Ltd., UK, 2009

Simona Oprescu, Limba engleza pentru studentii facultatilor de drept si

pentru juristi, ed. Oscar Print, 2000

Revista Romana de Drept International, ed. ADIRI, 2003

Nicoleta Molnar Oprea, Marinela Mateescu, Curs de limba engleza pentru

studentii facultatilor cu profil juridic, ed. All, 2000

*** Oxford Guide to British and American Culture, Oxford University Press, 2000

David McDowall, Britain in Close-up, An in-Depth Study of Contemporary Britain, Pearson Education

Limited, 1999

J. Thomson, A. V. Martinet, A Practical English Grammar, Oxford University Press, Great Britain,


J. Thomson, A. V. Martinet, A Practical English Grammar, Exercises 1, Oxford University Press,

Great Britain, 2001

J. Thomson, A. V. Martinet, A Practical English Grammar, Exercises 2, Oxford University Press,

Great Britain, 2001

* * * English Grammar, Collins Cobuild, London, 1990

Mark Nettle, Diana Hopkins, Developing Grammar in Context, Cambridge University Press, UK, 2003

Robert O'Neill, Success at First Certificate, Oxford University Press, Great Britain , 1990

Cory, Hugh, 2000, Advanced Writing, Oxford University Press,

Dooley, Jenny& Evans, Virginia, 1999, Grammarway, vol.4, Express Publishing,

Vince, Michael, 1995, Advanced Language Practice, Heinemann Elt..

* * Cambridge Proficiency, Cambridge University Press, Great Britain, 1996

* * Cambridge, Phrasal Verbs, Cambridge University Press, Great Britain, 2000

* * Cambridge, Idioms, Cambridge University Press, Great Britain, 2000

Lidia Vianu, English with a Key, Teora, Bucuresti, 1999

Georgiana Galateanu, Ecaterina Comisel, Gramatica limbii engleze, Omegapress, Bucuresti, 2000

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