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GRAMATICA LIMBII ENGLEZE

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DOCUMENTE SIMILARE

Trimite pe Messenger
Articolul - engleza
Timpuri verbale in engleza
CONVERSIUNEA [SCHIMBAREA VALORII GRAMATICALE]
ADVERBUL
Future Tenses
THE NUMERAL
VERBE COMPLEXE
NUMERALUL (THE NUMERAL) - CARDINAL NUMERAL
PLEONASMUL
ADVERBUL IN ENGLEZA

GRAMATICA LIMBII ENGLEZE

SUBSTANTIVELE

PLURALUL SUBSTANTIVELOR

Majoritatea substantivelor formeza pluralul adaugand -s sau -es.




Singular

Plural

dog (caine)

dogs (caini)

book (carte)

books (carti)

rose (trandafir)

roses (trandafiri)

box (cutie)

boxes (cutii)

Substantivele care se termina in -y precedate de o consoana formeaza pluralul in -ies.

Singular

Plural

a cry (un strigat)

cries (strigate)

a fly (o musca)

flies (muste)

a nappy (un scutec)

nappies (scutece)

a poppy (un mac)

poppies (maci)

a city (un oras)

cities (orase)

a lady (o doamna)

ladies (doamne)

a baby (un copil)

babies (copii)

Unele substantive au forme neregulate de plural. Mai jos sunt mentionate cele mai des intalnite substantive cu forma neregulata de plural.

Exemple de plural neregulat:

Singular

Plural

woman (femeie)

women (femei)

man (barbat)

men (barbati)

child (copil)

children (copii)

tooth (dinte)

teeth (dinti)

foot (picior)

feet (picioare)

person (persoana)

people (oameni)

leaf (frunza)

leaves (frunze)

half (jumatate)

halves (jumatati)

knife (cutit)

knives (cutite)

wife (sotie)

wives (sotii)

life (viata)

lives (vieti)

loaf (franzela)

loaves (franzele)

potato (cartof)

potatoes (cartofi)

cactus (cactus)

cacti (cactusi)

focus (focar)

foci (focare)

fungus (ciuperca)

fungi (ciuperci)

nucleus (nucleu)

nuclei (nuclee)

syllabus (programa)

syllabi/syllabuses (programe)

analysis (analiza)

analyses (analize)

diagnosis (diagnostic)

diagnoses (diagnostice)

oasis (oaza)

oases (oaze)

thesis (teza)

theses (teze)

crisis (criza)

crises (crize)

phenomenon (fenomen)

phenomena (fenomene)

criterion (criteriu)

criteria (criterii)

datum (data)

data (date)

Unele substantive au aceeasi forma si la singular si la plural.

Exemple:

Singular

Plural

sheep (oaie)

sheep (oi)

fish (peste)

fish (pesti)

species (specie)

species (specii)

aircraft (avion)

aircraft (avioane)

Unele substantive au forma de plural insa fac acordul cu verbul la singular.

Exemple:

News stire/stiri) The news is on at 6.30 p.m. (Stirile se difuzeaza la 6.30 pm).
athletics (atletism) Athletics is good for young people. (Atletismul este bun pentru tineri).
linguistics (lingvistica Linguistics
is the study of language. (Lingvistica reprezinta studierea limbii).
darts (jocul darts) Darts is a popular game in England. (Darts este un joc popular in Anglia.)

billiards (billiard) Billiards is played all over the world. (Biliardul se joaca in toata lumea).

Unele substantive au forma de plural si fac acordul cu verbul la plural.

Exemple:

Trousers (pantaloni) My trousers are too tight. (Pantalonii mei sunt prea stramti).
jeans (ginsi) Her jeans are black. (Ginsii ei sunt negri).
glasses (ochelari) Those glasses are his. (Acesti ochelari sunt ai lui.)

Alte exemple includ:

Savings (economii), thanks (multumiri), steps (trepte), stairs (scari), customs (obiceiuri) , congratulations (felicitari), tropics (tropice), wages (salarii) , spectacles (ochelari), outskirts (suburbii), goods (bunuri), wits (intelepciune)

TIMPURI

PREZENTUL SIMPLU (PRESENT SIMPLE)

PREZENTUL SIMPLU, A TREIA PERSOANa SINGULAR

Nota:

he, she, it: la persoana a treia singular verbul se termina intodeauna in –s:
he wants (el vrea), she needs (ea are nevoie), he gives (el d
a), she thinks (ea gandeste).

La formele negative si interogative se foloseste DOES (a treia persoana a auxiliarului “DO”) + infinitivul verbului.
He wants. Does he want? He does not want.(El dore
ste …; Doreste el..? El nu doreste…).

La verbele care se termina in -y : la persoana a treia -y se transforma in -ies:
fly flies (a zbura, zboara), cry cries (a pl
ange, plange)
Exceptie
: daca avem o vocala inaintea lui -y:
play plays (a (se) juca; (se) joac
a , pray prays (a (se) ruga; (se) roaga

Se adauga -es la verbele care se termina in:-ss, -x, -sh, -ch:
he passes, she catches, he fixes, it pushes
(el depa
seste, ea prinde, el repara, el/ea impinge)

Exemple:

1. Persoana a treia singular cu s sau -es

a. He goes to school every morning. (El merge la scoal
a in fiecare zi.)
b. She understands English. (El
intelege limba engleza.)
c. It mixes the sand and the water. (El/ea amestec
a nisipul cu apa.)
d. He tries very hard. (El se straduie
ste din greu.)
e. She enjoys playing the piano. (Ei ii place s
a cante la pian.)

2. Prezentul simpul, forma

Exemplu: to think - a gandi, prezent simplu

Afirmativ

Interogativ

Negativ

I think (eu gandesc)

Do I think ? (Gandesc?)

I do not think. (Nu gandesc)

You think (tu gandesti)

Do you think? (Gandesti?)

You don't think. (Nu gandesti)



he, she, it thinks (el/ea gandeste)

Does he, she, it think? (Gandeste?)

He, she, it doesn't think. (Nu gandeste)

we think (noi gandim)

Do we think? (Gandim?)

We don't think. (Nu gandim)

you think (voi ganditi)

Do you think? (Ganditi?)

You don't think. (Nu ganditi)

TIMPURILE

PREZENTUL CONTINUU – PRESENT CONTINUOUS

1. PreZENTUL CONTINUU, FORMa

Prezentul continuu al oricarui verb este compus din doua parti – timpul prezent al verbului to be – a fi + participiu prezent al verbului principal.

(Forma participiului prezent este: baza+ing, ex.. talking, playing, moving, smiling)

Afirmativ

Subiect

+ to be

+ baza+ing

she

is

talking

Negativ

Subiect

+ to be + not

+ baza+ing

she

is not (isn't)

talking

Interogativ

to be

+ subiect

+ baza+ing

is

she

talking?

Exemplu: to go (a merge), la prezentul continuu

Afirmativ

Negativ

Interogative

I am going (eu merg)

I am not going (eu nu merg)

Am I going? (Eu merg?)

You are going (tu mergi)

You aren't going. (tu nu mergi)

Are you going? (Tu mergi?)

He, she, it is going (el/ea merge)

He, she, it isn't going (el/ea nu merge)

Is he, she, it going? (El/ea merge?)

We are going (noi mergem)

We aren't going (noi nu mergem)

Are we going? (Noi mergem?)

You are going (voi mergeti)

You aren't going (voi nu mergeti)

Are you going? (Voi mergeti?)

They are going (ei merg)

They aren't going (ei nu merg)

Are they going? (Ei merg?)

Nota: la negativ observati forma negativa de contractare: I'm not going, you're not going, he's not going etc.

2. Prezentul continuu, functie

Asa cum se intampla cu toate timpurile in limba engleza, atitudinea vorbitorului este la fel de importanta precum timpul actiunii sau evenimentului. Atunci cand se foloseste prezentul continuu este vorba de o actiune neterminata sau incompleta.

TIMPURILE

PREZENTUL PERFECT – PRESENT PERFECT

1. PreZENTUL PERFECT – FORMa

Prezentul perfect al oricarui verb este format din doua elemente: forma corespunzatoare a verbului auxiliar to have – a avea (la timpul prezent), plus participiul trecut (past participle) al verbului principal. Participiul trecut al unui verb regulat este alcatuit din baza+ed, de ex. played (jucat), arrived (ajuns), looked (privit). Pentru verbele neregulate, observati Tabelul de verbe neregulate din sectiunea numita “Verbe”.

Afirmativ

Subiect

to have

participiu trecut

She

has

visited

Negativ

Subiect

to have + not

participiu trecut

She

hasn't

visited

interogativ

to have

subiect

participiu trecut

Has

she

visited..?

Interogativ negativ

to have + not

subiect

participiu trecut

Hasn't

she

visited?

Exemplu: to walk (a merge), prezent perfect

Afirmativ

Negativ

Interogativ

I have walked (eu am mers)

I haven't walked (eu nu am mers)

Have I walked? (Eu am mers?)

You have walked (tu ai mers)

You haven't walked (tu nu ai mers)

Have you walked? (Tu ai mers?)

He, she, it has walked (el/ea a mers)

He, she, it hasn't walked (el/ea nu a mers)

Has he,she,it walked? (El/ea a mers?)

We have walked (noi am mers)

We haven't walked (noi nu am mers)

Have we walked? (Noi am mers?)

You have walked (voi ati mers)

You haven't walked (voi nu ati mers)

Have you walked? (Voi ati mers?)

They have walked (ei au mers)



They haven't walked (ei nu au mers)

Have they walked? (Ei au mers?)

2. PREZENTUL PERFECT, FUNCtIE

Prezentul perfect se foloseste pentru a sublinia legatura dintre prezent si trecut. Timpul actiunii este inainte de momentul vorbirii insa nu este specificat, si de cele mai multe ori ne intereseaza mai mult rezultatul decat actiunea in sine.

TIMPURILE

TRECUTUL SIMPLU (SIMPLE PAST)

ATENTIE! Trecutul simplu din engleza poate arata ca un timp asemanator din limba dvs., insa sensul este diferit.

1. TRECUTUL SIMPLU, FORMa

Verbe regulate: baza+ed
e.g. walked, showed, watched, played, smiled, stopped

Trecutul simplu, be, have, do (a fi, a avea, a face):

SubIECT

Verb

Be

Have

Do

I

was

had

did

You

were

had

did

He, she, it

was

had

did

We

were

had

did

You

were

had

did

They

were

had

did

Afirmativ

a. I was in Japan last year. (Anul trecut am fost in Japonia).
b. She had a headache yesterday. (Ea a avut o durere de cap ieri).
c. We did our homework last night. (Aseara noi ne-am facut tema).

Negativ SI INTEROGATIV

Nota: Verbul “do” cu sensul sau uzual de “a face”, la trecutul simplu formele negativa si interogativa foloseste tot auxiliarul “do”, de ex. We didn't do our homework last night. (Noi nu ne-am facut tema aseara). Cat despre forma negativa a verbului “have” la trecutul simplu, ea se formeaza de obicei cu ajutorul auxiliarului “do”, insa uneori se adauga doar not sau forma contractata “n’t”. Forma interogativa a lui “have” la trecutul simplu se formeaza in mod normal cu ajutorul auxiliarului “do”.

They weren't in Rio last summer. (Ei nu au fost la Rio vara trecuta.)

We hadn't any money. (Noi nu am avut nici un ban.)

We didn't have time to visit the Eiffel Tower. (Nu am avut timp sa vizitam Turnul Eiffel).

We didn't do our exercises this morning. (Noi nu ne-am facut exercitiile in aceasta dimineata.)

Were they in Iceland last January? (Ei au fost in Islanda in ianuarie?)

Did you have a bicycle when you were a boy? (Ai avut bicicleta cand ai fost mic?)

Did you do much climbing in Switzerland? (Ai mers mult pe munti in Elvetia?)

TRECUTUL SIMPLU, VERBE REGULATE

Afirmativ

Subiect

verb + ed

I

washed

Negativ

Subject

did not

forma de infinitiv fara to

They

didn't

visit

Interogativ

Did

subiect

forma de infinitiv fara to

Did

she

arrive?

Interogativ negativ

Did not

subiect

forma de infinitiv fara to

Didn't

you

like..?

Exemplu: to walk (a merge), trecut simplu

Afirmativ

Negativ

Interogativ

I walked (eu am mers)

I didn't walk (eu nu am mers)

Did I walk? (Eu am mers?)

You walked (tu ai mers)

You didn't walk (tu nu ai mers)

Did you walk? (Tu ai mers?)

He,she,it walked (el/ea a mers)

He didn't walk (el nu a mers)

Did he walk? (El a mers?)

We walked (noi am mers)

We didn't walk (nu nu am mers)

Did we walk? (Noi am mers?)

You walked (voi ati mers)

You didn't walk (voi nu ati mers)

Did you walk? (Voi ati mers?)

They walked (ei au mers)

They didn't walk (ei nu au mers)

Did they walk? (Ei au mers?)

Nota: Pentru formele negativa si interogativa a tuturor verbelor la trecutul simplu se foloseste intotdeauna auxiliarul “did”.

Exemplu: Trecut simplu, verbe neregulate:

to go (a merge)
a. He went to a club last night. (El a mers intr-un club aseara).
b. Did he go to the cinema last night? (El a fost la cinema aseara?)
c. He didn't go to bed early last night. (El nu a mers la culcare devreme aseara).

to give (a da) d. We gave her a doll for her birthday. (I-am dat o papusa de ziua ei.)
e. They didn't give John their new address. (Ei nu i-au dat lui John noua lor adresa.)
f. Did Barry give you my passport? (Ti-a dat Barry pasaportul meu?)

to come (a veni) g. My parents came to visit me last July. (Parintii mei au venit sa ma viziteze in iulie.)
h. We didn't come because it was raining. (Nu am venit deoarece ploua.)
i. Did he come to your party last week? (El a venit la petrecerea ta saptamana trecuta?)

2. trecutul simplu, functie

Trecutul simplu se foloseste pentru a descrie o actiune terminata inainte de momentul vorbirii. Durata actiunii nu este importanta. Timpul cand s-a petrecut actiunea poate fi trecutul apropiat sau trecutul indepartat.

John Cabot sailed to America in 1498. (John Cabot a navigat in America in 1498).

My father died last year. (Tatal meu a murit anul trecut.)

He lived in Fiji in 1976. (El a locuit in Fiji in 1976).

We crossed the Channel yesterday. (Am traversat canalul ieri).

Se foloseste intotdeauna trecutul simplu atunci cand specificati cand a avut loc un eveniment, astfel trecutul simplu este asociat cu anumite expresii de timp.

TIMPURILE

VIITORUL SIMPLU - SIMPLE FUTURE

Viitorul simplu, forma

Viitorul simplu este alcatuit din doua parti: will / shall + forma de infinitiv a verbului fara “to”

Subiect



will

infinitiv fara to

He

will

leave (El va pleca)

Afirmativ

I

will

go (eu voi merge)

I

shall

go (eu voi merge)

Negativ

They

will not

see (ei nu vor vedea)

They

won't

see (ei nu vor vedea)

Interogativ

Will

she

ask? (ea va intreba?)

Interogativ negativ

Won't

she

take? (ea nu va lua..?)

forme contractate

I will I'll

We will we'll

You will you'll

You will you'll

He,she, will he'll, she'll

They will they'll

NOTA: Forma 'it will' nu se scurteaza in mod normal.

Exemplu: to see (a vedea), viitor simplu

Afirmative

Negativ

Interogativ

I'll see (eu voi vedea)

I won't see/ (eu nu voi vedea)

Will I see?/ (Eu voi vedea?)

*I will/shall see (eu voi vedea)

I shan't see (eu nu voi vedea)

Shall I see? (Eu voi vedea?)

You'll see (tu vei vedea)

You won't see (tu nu vei vedea)

Will you see? (Tu vei vedea?)

He, she, it will see (el/ea va vedea)

He won't see (el nu va vedea)

Will she see? (Ea va vedea?)

We'll see (noi vom vedea)

We won't see/ (noi nu vom vedea)

Will we see?/ (Noi vom vedea?)

*We will/shall see

We shan't see (noi nu vom vedea)

Shall we see? (Noi vom vedea?)

You will see (voi veti vedea)

You won't see (voi nu veti vedea)

Will you see? (Voi veti vedea?)

They'll see (ei vor vedea)

They won't see (ei nu vor vedea)

Will they see? (Ei vor vedea?)

*NOTA: shall este usor demodat dar se poate folosi in loc de will cu persoanele I / we.

ARTICOLUL HOTARAT

THE

In limba engleza articolele sunt invariabile, ceea ce inseamna ca ele nu se schimba in functie de genul sau numarul substantivului la care se refera, de ex.: the boy (baiatul), the woman (femeia), the children (copiii).

ARTICOLUL NEHOTARAT

A / AN

Folositi 'a' cu substantive care incep cu o consoana (litere care nu sunt vocale),
'an'
cu substantive care incep cu vocala (a,e,i,o,u)

Exemple:

A boy (un baiat)
An apple(un mar)
A car (o masina)
An orange (o portocala)
A house (o casa)
An opera (o opera)

NOTA:
Se foloseste an inainte de h mut (care nu se aude la pronuntie) - an hour (o ora), an honour (o onoare).
Se foloseste a inainte de u si eu cand acestea se aud ca 'you': a european (un european), a university (o universitate), a unit (o unitate).

TIPURI DE ADVERBE

ADVERBE INTEROGATIVE

Acestea sunt:

why, where, how, when (de ce, unde, cum, cand)

Aceste adverbe se folosesc de obicei la inceputul unei intrebari.

Exemple:

Why are you so late? (De ce ai intarziat atat de mult?)

Where is my passport? (Unde este pasaportul meu?)

How are you? (Ce faci?)

How much is that coat? (Cat costa acel palton?)

When does the train arrive? (Cand soseste trenul?)

Observati ca how se poate folosi cu patru sensuri diferite:

1. sensul in ce mod/cum?':
How did you make this sauce? (Cum ai facut acest sos?)
How do you start the car? (Cum pornesti masina?)

2. cu adjective (cat de):
How tall are you? (Cat de inalt esti?)
How old is your house? (Cat de veche este casa ta?)

3. cu much si many (cat, cati/cate):
How much are these tomatoes? ( Cat sunt rosiile?)
How many people are coming to the party? (Cate persoane vin la petrecere?)

4. cu alte adverbe:
How quickly can you read this? (Cat de repede poti sa citesti asta?)
How often do you go to London? (Cat de des mergi la Londra?)

PRONUMELE PERSONALE

PRONUMELE PERSONALE

Subiect

Indirect (Dativ/Acuzativ)

 Reflexiv (de intarire)

I (eu)

Me (mie, pe mine)

Myself (eu insumi/insami)

You (tu)

You (tie, pe tine)

Yourself (tu insuti/insati)

He (el)

Him (lui, pe el)

Himself (el insusi)

She (ea)

Her (ei, pe ea)

Herself (ea insasi)

It (el/ea –obiect,lucru)

It (ei/lui, pe el/pe ea)

Itself (el insusi/ ea insasi)

We (noi)

Us (noua, pe noi)

Ourselves (noi insine/ insene)

You (voi)

You (voua, pe voi)

Yourselves (voi insiva/inseva)

They (ei)

Them (lor, pe ei)

Themselves (ei insesi/ ele insele)

Posesivele

adjective

 pronume

My (al meu, a mea, ai mei, ale mele)

Mine (al meu, a mea, ai mei, ale mele)

Your (al tau, a ta, ai tai, ale tale)

Yours (al tau, a ta, ai tai, ale tale)

His (al lui/sau, a lui/sa, ai lui/sai, ale lui/sale)

His (al lui/sau, a lui/sa, ai lui/sai, ale lui/sale)

Her (al ei/sau, a ei/sa, ai ei/sai, ale ei/sale)

Hers (al ei/sau, a ei/sa, ai ei/sai, ale ei/sale)

Its (al lui/ei/sau, a lui/ei/sa, ai lui/ei/sai, ale lui/ei/sale)

Our (al nostru, a noastra, ai nostri, ale noastre)

Ours (al nostru, a noastra, ai nostri, ale noastre)

Your (al vostru, a voastra, ai vostri, ale voastre)

Yours (al vostru, a voastra, ai vostri, ale voastre)

Their (al lor, a lor, ai lor, ale lor)

Theirs (al lor, a lor, ai lor, ale lor)



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