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ADVERBUL in limba Engleza

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ADVERBUL

Determina un verb in sensul lui concret, de baza




Determina un adjectiv

Ex: He runs quickly because he is extremely quick.

In general adverbul este terminat in “ly”, dar nu tot ce are “ly” este adverb.

De regula se formeaza din adjectiv + “ly”.

Modificari ortografice:

daca adjectivul se termina in “e”, acesta se pastreaza “ely”

Ex: nice – nicely

Exceptii:

due – duly (datorat)

true – truly

whole – wholly

daca adjectivul se termina in “le”, se transforma “e” in “y”/ “ly”

Ex: capable – capably

daca adjectivul se termina in “ll”, se adauga doar “lly”

Ex: full – fully

daca adjectivul se termina in “ic”, se adauga “ally”

Ex: automatic – automatically

daca adjectivul se termina in “y”, indiferent daca este precedat de vocala sau de consoana,

se transforma in “i” si se adauga “ily”

Ex: pretty – prettily

gay – gaily

Exceptii:

shy – shyly

wry – wryly

coy – coyly (sfios)

adjectivul “good” face adverbul “well”

ca sa verific L-urile unui adverb, il desfac in adjectiv + ly

Ex: usually = usual + ly

bitterly = bitter + ly

awfully = awful + ly

Adverbe care au 2 forme cu acelasi inteles (oricare din ele este corect)

bright = brightly

sound = soundly

fair = fairly

tight = tightly (sunt echivalente)

dear = dearly

dead = deadly

cheap = cheaply

Ex: The sun shines bright / brightly.

forma in “ly” se va prefera totusi cand adverbul determina un adjectiv

Ex: He is deadly tired. (si nu “he is dead tired”).

Adverbul cheap se va folosi in loc de cheaply doar pentru a caracteriza activitati comerciale (to buy, to sell, to get)

Ex: She bought it cheap.

dar

We traveled cheaply.

Adverbe cu 2 forme cu 2 intelesuri diferite

clean = complet

cleanly = intr-o maniera curata

clear = exact

clearly = intr-o maniera clara

close = apropiat

closely = indeaproape

deep = adanc

deeply = profund

direct = direct

directly = imediat

due = spre (la busola) Ex: They went due South.

duly = punctual

easy = usor Ex: Take it easy!

easily = intr-o maniera lejera

free = gratis

freely = pe sleau, deschis

full = complet

fully = pe scara larga, intr-o maniera extinsa

hard = greu

hardly = de-abia, cu greu, aproape deloc

high = sus

highly = foarte

just = tocmai

justly = asa cum se cuvine

late = tarziu

lately = in ultima vreme

large = extins

largely = pe scara larga

most = majoritatea

mostly = cu precadere

near = langa

nearly = aproape ca

pretty = foarte

prettily = intr-o maniera draguta

right = exact

rightly = cu precizie, clar

sharp = fix

sharply = intr-o maniera taioasa

short = brusc

shortly = imediat

Adverbe si adjective cu aceeasi forma si inteles

fast

far

early

alike

alone

past

solo

straight

next

little

outside

daca adjectivul se termina in “ly”, el devine adverb prin contructia

in a + adj + manner

Ex: He is a friendly person.

adj

He speaks to me in a friendly way / manner.

adv

coward = las (substantiv)

cowardly = las (adjectiv)

in a cowardly manner = cu lasitate (adverb)

Gradele de comparatie

Se construiesc astfel:

daca adjectivul si adverbul au aceeasi forma, se comporta ca un adjectiv scurt (gradele se fac cu “er” si “est”)

Ex: I run fast / not so fast as / as fast as / faster than / the fastest of all / very fast



daca adverbul se obtine din adjectiv + ly, face gradele de comparatie ca un adjectiv lung    (cu “more” si “the most”)

Ex: He runs quickly / less quickly than / as quickly as / more quickly than / the most quickly of all / very quickly

Comparatia regulata

well – better – the best

badly – worse – the worst

much – more – the most

far – farther – the farthest

– further – the furthest

near – nearer – the next

little – less – the least

late – later – the last

Adverbe de timp

ago – se foloseste cand raportarea se face fata de un moment prezent

Ex: I saw her one hour ago.

daca raportarea se face fata de un moment trecut, in loc de ago se pune before

Ex: I told her that I had met her one hour before.

for – arata durata unei actiuni fara a prezenta momentul de inceput si sfarsit al actiunii. Este specific prezentului perfect simplu si continuu si trecutului perfect continuu.

Ex: I haven’t met her for two years.

se poate intalni si cu timpul trecut

Ex: I was a student for two years (I’m no longer a student).

pentru perioade lungi de timp (for ages, for centuries)

! nu se pune “for” dupa verbele:

to last

to take

to wait

to spend

to stay

Ex: I’ve been waiting ten minutes, (si nu I’ve been waiting for ten minutes).

It lasts five seconds, (si nu it lasts for five seconds).

since – arata inceputul perioadei fara a preciza durata si momentul final. Este specific prezentului perfect simplu si continuu si trecutului continuu.

Ex: I haven’t met her since Monday.

Locutiuni adverbiale

subst + after + subst

day after day

year after year

month after month

during – urmat intotdeauna de substantiv. A nu se confunda cu while (in timp ce), care presupune actiuni paralele.

During poate fi inlocuit cu “in” daca se refera la perioade de timp

Ex: during my life = in my life

from … to – poate fi inlocuit cu till, dar niciodata cu until, pentru ca until nu presupune cunoasterea momentului de sfarsit al actiunii

Ex: I work until I die. (nu stiu cand)

I get up at 8 o’clock and work till 10 o’clock.

until nu poate fi cuprins in expresia from … to in loc de “to”

Adverbul de mod

fairly – foarte, dar nu extraordinar

Ex: Your story is fairly interesting.

Fairly se cupleaza intotdeauna cu adjectivul la gradul pozitiv.

quite – este mai puternic decat fairly. Se foloseste cand vreau sa fac o apreciere favorabila.

Ex: This car is quite cheap.

cand se refera la adjective sau adverbe care nu au grade de comparatie, “quite” capata sensul de absolut, complet, de-a dreptul.

Ex: Your dress is quite unique.

rather – se foloseste cand am de facut o apreciere nefavorabila si sensul este = foarte, neasteptat de. Se foloseste numai cu caracteristici negative.

Ex: This car is rather expensive.

Poate fi precedat si urmat de articolul “a”

Ex: This is a rather difficult exercise.

This is rather a difficult exercise.

pretty – foarte (familiar, intre prieteni)

Ex: I’m pretty tired.

very – Este cel mai cunoscut si se cupleaza cu orice (pozitiv, comparativ sau superlativ)

Ex: I do my very best.

He is very much faster than I am.

much / a lot = se cupleaza cu comparativul

Ex: He is much faster than I am.

by far = se cupleaza cu superlativul

Ex: He is by far the fastest of all.

too – se cupleaza cu pozitivul

Ex: He is too fast.

enough – se cupleaza cu pozitivul, dar se aseaza dupa el

Ex: He is fast enough for a champion.

so – se cupleaza - cu much, many, little, few + substantiv

- cu adjectiv / adverb la pozitiv

Ex: It is so difficult.

I have so many friends / so much money.

There is so little time left.

such – urmat de - substantiv numarabil la sg precedat de “a”

- de constructia    adjectiv + substantiv la pl

Ex: He is such a man.

They are such interesting persons.






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