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VERBE MODALE - teorie si exercitii

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VERBE MODALE I

MAY si CAN

(Permisiune, probabilitate, abilitate)





May si can sunt verbe modale sau ajutatoare: ele sunt verbe defective, deoarece:

au numai 3 timpuri: indicativ prezent, indicativ trecut si conditional prezent

nu primesc s la persoana a III-a singular

nu primesc do, does, did la interogativ sau negativ

sunt urmate de infinitivul fara TO

Timpurile care lipsesc sunt inlocuite cu:

to be able to Ė (abilitatea)

to be allowed to

to be permitted to Ė (permisiunea)

to be likely to Ė (probabilitatea)

May / Might

May se folosesste la prezent. Might la conditional prezent. Ambele sunt invariabile si sunt urmate de un infinitiv fara To.

Forme contrase: maynít / mightnít

Utilizare:

May se foloseste cu referire la evenimente sau actiuni posibile sau probabile in prezent, adesea cu sens de viitor. Might poate fi folosit pentru a sublinia o foarte redusa posibilitate.

Thereís a black cloud above us. It may rain.

Alice may get angry if you tell her.

If you try hard enough, you might convince him to come.

Nota

Formele alternative sunt:

Maybe it will rain.

It is likely to rain.

pentru a cere, a oferi sau a refuza permisiunea politicos

May I open the window? Itís very hot in this office.

You may not smoke in my car.

Might indica adesea teama vorbitorului de a nu primi un raspuns negativ, sau faptul ca el cere prea mult:

Might I borrow your Rolls Royce for the weekend?

Nota

Forme alternative:

Am I allowed to open the window?

You are not permitted to smoke in my car.

cu well pentru a indica o foarte mare probabilitate

I think it may well rain today, look at those black clouds.

Put some money in the box, it might well be for a good cause.

Nota

Forme alternative:

I think it is very likely to rain today.

Nota

May / might as well are alt sens:

There is nothing interesting on TV this evening, I may / might as well have an early night.

cu o constructie perfecta pentru a face referire la o presupunere in trecut

Bill isnít in his office, he may have gone home early. (Itís possible that he went home.)

cu o constructie perfecta pentru a face referire la ceva care s-ar fi putut petrece in trecut dar nu s-a petrecut, se poate folosi numai might

You might have burnt your hand while taking that hot tray out of the oven (but you didnít).

Can / Could

Can se foloseste la prezent, adesea cu sens de viitor. Could se foloseste la trecut si conditional prezent. Ambele sunt invariabile si sunt urmate de infinitiv fara To.

Forme contrase: canít / couldnít

Utilizare:

Can se foloseste pentru a cere, a acorda sau a refuza permisiunea, similar cu may, dar mai putin formal



You can drive at seventeen in the UK.

Can I borrow your pen, please? Iíve left mine at home.

You cannot go hunting out of season.

Nota

Forme alternative:

You are permitted to drive at seventeen in UK.

You are allowed to drive at seventeen in UK.

You may drive at seventeen in UK.

Nota

La negativ, could si might au sensuri diferite.

Ken could not be building the house by himself. (Itís impossible. It is too much work.)

Ken might not be building the house by himself. (He isnít building the house himself. He probably has help.)

pentru a face referire la probabilitate, posibilitate sau imposibilitate in prezent, in trecut sau la conditional

Look, thereís plenty of snow, we can go skiing today.

Letís try his office; he could be there.

pentru a face referire la abilitate sau indemanare in prezent, in trecut sau la conditional

Can you lay bricks?

My old car cannot go over 80 km an hour.

The girl can sing but she canít dance for the life of her.

Could you drink as much?

Nota

Pentru alte timpuri se foloseste to be able to

She will be able to type 100 words a minute soon.

folositi could + infinitiv perfect pentru a va referi la o actiune care nu a avut loc

I could have driven you to the airport, but I didnít have my car.

Sau cand nu stim daca actiunea s-a petrecut sau nu

Have you seen my umbrella? Dan could have taken it; it was raining when he left.

Nota

Forme alternative:

You might have hurt your back lifting that heavy table.

You would probably have hurt your back lifting that heavy table.

Nota

May / might si can / could se repeta in intrebari disjunctive si raspunsuri scurte.

He canít go, can he?

May Sally come in? Yes, she may.

Nota

To be able to exprima abilitatea. Este o alternativa formala pentru can / could in prezent, in trecut sau la conditional. Pentru toate celelalte timpuri putem folosi numai to be able to.

Exercitii:

Traduceti in limba engleza urmatoarele propozitii

1. Aceasta este o masa veche, pe care n-o poate ridica nimeni. 2. Nu stia sa inoate, asa ca atunci cand s-a scufundat vasul, s-a inecat. 3. Nu ai dreptul sa inaintezi, acest teren e proprietate privata. 4. Nu ai dreptul sa vinzi ce nu-ti apartine. 5. Nu se poate sa te fi hotarat sa-i refuzi orice ajutor tocmai cand are mai mare nevoie de el. 6. Idila lui cu ea nu poate sa fi durat mai mult de o luna. 7. E cu putinta sa se joace cand i-am spus sa-si faca mai intai temele? 8. Ai sa-i poti face pe plac, stiind ca e asa de sensibil? 9. Niciodata n-am fost in stare sa tin minte propozitii intregi. 10. Savantul a spus ca stie de mult sa numere. 11. Zise ca-mi poate da sifon daca mi-e sete. 12. Speram sa pot merge pe jos pana la gara, dar m-am oprit la o statie de autobuz. 13. L-ai putea astepta in birou daca ai vrea. 14. Ar fi putut sa se aseze pe un scaun gol, dar a preferat sa stea in picioare. 15. Puteai sa te uiti pe gaura cheii, daca erai asa de curios.

1. Pot sa te ajut cu ceva? 2. Imi permiti sa te ajut? 3. Poate ca se plimba prin gradina, habar n-am unde e. 4. Poate ca spune adevarul, mai bine ai asculta ce are de spus. 5. Poate ca-mi voi fi terminat lucrarea pana vii tu sa ma ajuti. 6. Poate ca batrana sufla greu dupa ce a urcat scarile acelea, fiindca liftul era defect. 7. Poate ca voi fi ajuns la gara pana va pleca trenul. 8. M-am gandit ca s-ar putea sa ploua, asa ca mi-am luat umbrela. 9. I-am spus ca n-are nimeni voie sa intre-n camera mea cand dorm. 10. S-ar putea sa tuseasca daca a racit. 11. La-i putea ajuta sa-si duca geanta, daca-l vezi gafaind. 12. Puteai sa-i imprumuti niste bani, daca stiai ca are greutati.

Cheia exercitiilor:

1. This is an old table which no one can lift. 2. He could not swim, so when the ship sank he drowned. 3. You canít proceed, this land is private property. 4. You canít sell what does not belong to you. 5. You canít have resolved to deny him all help when he most needs it. 6. His romance with her canít have lasted more than a month. 7. Can he be playing when I told him to do his homework first? 8. Will you be able to please him, knowing he is so sensitive? 9. I have never been able to remember long sentences. 10. The scholar said he had been able to count for a very long time. 11. He said he could give me soda if I was thirsty. 12. I hoped I could walk to the station but I stopped at a bus stop. 13. You could wait for him in the study if you would. 14. He could have taken a vacant seat, but he preferred standing. 15. You could have peeped through the keyhole if you were so curious.

1.Can I help you? 2. May I help you? 3. She may be walking in the garden, I have no idea where she is. 4. She may be telling the truth, you had better listen to what she has to say. 5. I may have finished my paper by the time you come to help me. 6. The old lady may have been breathing hard after she had climed all those stairs, because the elevator was out of order. 7. I may reached the station before the train leaves. 8. I thought it might rain, so I have taken my umbrella. 9. I told him no one might enter my room when I was asleep. 10. He might cough if he has caught cold. 11. You might help him carry his bag if you see him gasping for breath. 12. You might have lent him some money if you knew he was in need.

I.          VERBELE MODALE II



MUST, NEED, HAVE TO, SHOULD, OUGHT TO

(Obligatie si necesitate)

Must, need, should si ought to sunt verbe modale; ele sunt defective, avand:

timpuri lipsa

persoana a III-a singular fara s

interogativul si negativul prezentului fara do sau does

sunt urmate de infinitiv fara To

Nota

Toate timpurile care lipsesc sunt inlocuite cu verbe normale:

To have to sau to need to

Nota

To have to exprima atat obligatia cat si necesitatea la timpurile la care el reprezinta singura posibilitate (infinitiv, trecut simplu, perfect prezent, viitor, forma in Ėing etc.).

Dar la prezent, formele alternative nu sunt intotdeauna inlocuibile reciproc. O forma poate exprima obligatia, iar cealalta necesitatea.

John must not shout. (= John are obligatia de a nu striga.)

John doesnít have to shout. (= Nu e necesar ca John sa strige.)

To need to exprima intotdeauna necesitatea.

Harry didnít need to go on a diet. (= Nu era necesar ca Harry sa tina regim.)

Must / Have to / Need to

Must este invariabil pentru toate persoanele, in timp ce have to si need to urmeaza regulile verbelor normale.

Forme contrase: mustnít

Utilizare:

Have to se foloseste intotdeauna pentru a face referire la obligatie sau necesitate la prezent afirmativ si interogativ, adesea cu sens de viitor. Must se refera la obligatie.

I must phone my husband before he leaves the office.

The builders have to finish the work before winter sets in.

Nota

Must se foloseste de obicei cand obligatia vine din partea vorbitorului care-si exprima propriile sentimente.

Have to se foloseste cand obligatia vine din partea unei a treia persoane.

You must tidy up your room before you go out. (= Iti ordon)

You have to drive on the left in Great Britain. (= Asa spune legea)

La forma negativa must si have to au sensuri complet diferite:

Must not inseamna ca esti obligat sa nu faci ceva.

Donít have to sau havenít got to inseamna ca nu este necesar:

You mustnít exceed the speed limit on the motorway. (= Esti obligat de lege.)

You havenít got to go to that meeting if you are too busy. (= Nu e necesar sa te duci.)

Nota

In general have to si have got to se folosesc la fel numai la prezent.

Have got to este considerat mai formal.

Have to se foloseste pentru actiuni repetate, de obicei intarit cu un adverb de frecventa.

Chris has to visit her ill mother every day.

Chirs has got to do some shopping for her ill mother today.

Have to poate fi folosit la toate celelalte timpuri.

I have never had to work so much before.

The police would have had to open fire if the criminals hadnít surrendered.

Nota

Deductia negativa se poate exprima cu canít sau canít have:

Itís only eleven oíclock, Tim canít be hungry!

The Smiths are in China. They canít have sent that post-card from Peru.

Must se foloseste pentru deductii pozitive in prezent.

Must + constructie perfecta se refera la deductii pozitive in trecut.

The baby is crying. She must be hungry.

There was no reply; he must have been working in the garden.



Utilizare: Need este considerat atat verb propriu-zis cat si auxiliar.

Need to, ca verb propriu-zis, urmeaza formele verbelor regulate normale si este folosit pentru a se face referire la necesitate.

You will need flour and water to make bread.

I donít need to see the doctor. I feel fine.

Nota

Have to exprima necesitatea, poate fi folosit si la negativ si interogativ.

We didnít have to book the restaurant. There was plenty of room.

Do we have to rush?

Need ca auxiliar este un verb modal si are aceeasi forma pentru toate persoanele. Poate fi folosit numai la prezent (adesea cu sens de viitor) mai ales in constructii negative sau interogative.

Constructie negativa: Need not este similar cu donít have to. Ambele exprima absenta unei obligatii sau necesitati.

We need not rush. Thereís plenty of time.

Constructie interogativa:

Need we rush? Thereís plenty of time.

Need not + infinitiv perfect se refera la o actiune trecuta care s-a petrecut fara a fi fost necesara.

You neednít have told her about the accident. She will only worry.

Nota

Need not + infinitiv perfect difera de did not need to.

Jack need not have gone to the dentist. (= Jack s-a dus, dar nu era necesar.)

Jack did not need to go to the dentist. (= Nu era necesar ca Jack sa se duca, dar nu stim daca s-a dus sau nu.)

Ought to / Should

Ought to si Should au sens identic si pot fi folosite la fel. Ele sunt invariabile pentu toate persoanele si pot fi urmate de infinitiv fara To.

Forme contrase: oughtnít / shouldnít

Utilizare:

Cu referire la o obligatie sau indatorire.

I ought to mow the lawn this weekend; itís overgrown.

Little girls shouldnít tell lies.

Poate urma si forma in Ėing.

Tim oughtnít to be watching TV. He ought to be doing his homework.

We should be standing in that queue, not this one.

Pentru a cere si a da sfaturi.

Do you think I should have my hair cut short?

Mike ought to see a doctor if it hurts so much.

Cu referire la ceea ce considera ca este corect sau incorect din punct de vedere moral.

We should all help the poor.

People oughtnít to treat animals badly. They belong here, too.

Cu referire la o intamplare probabila.

Iíll prepare dinner tonight. I should be home quite early.

I told him several times, so he ought to remember.

Cu o constructie perfecta pentru a face referire la ceva ce urma sa se petreaca in trecut, dar nu s-a petrecut. Sau cu referire la ceva ce a constituit o greseala.

The plane should have arrived at seven oíclock, but it was delayed because of fog.

Michael Jackson ought to have started his tour last night, but he was taken ill.

Exercitii:

1. A replicat ca trebuie sa aiba grija de silueta ei. 2. Nu stiam ca trebuie sa platesc amenda daca-mi parchez masina aici. 3. Nu se poate sa nu stai la masa! 4. Neaparat sa-mi arati rochia ta cea noua! 5. E precis la birou, completand formulare, cum face zilnic. 6. Nu-l vad pe aici, trebuie ca joaca baschet pe undeva. 7. Nu e acasa, precis colinda strazile si targuieste cu harnicie. 8. Se vede ca cicatricea a fost o rana grava mai de mult. 9. Se vede ca studia la biblioteca atunci cand il cautai. 10. Copiii nu trebuie sa vorbeasca cu primarul cand e ocupat. 11. A trebuit sa ascult de doua ore vorbele lui suparatoare, dar n-am de gand sa mai tolerez acest lucru. 12. Functionarul declara ca a trebuit sa vorbeasca cu nevasta lui despre schimbarea slujbei, fiindca intarziase de prea multe ori. 13. E nevoie sa vina azi la biblioteca, ori poate astepta pana maine? 14. Nu era nevoie sa vina asa de curand, puteam astepta. 15. Nu era nevoie sa cumpere ea palaria, avea el de gand sa i-o cumpere.

1. Lectorul medita unde sa-si tina urmatoarea prelegere. 2. Pianistului i-ar fi placut sa i se spuna ce sa cante. 3. Cantareata de opera nu stia a cui oferta s-o accepte. 4. Fotograful vru sa stie daca sa faca una sau doua fotografii. 5. De ce l-ai ajuta, daca nu te roaga? 6. Daca s-ar intampla sa se intalneasca intr-o cafenea, i-ar vedea toti impreuna si oamenii ar incepe sa barfeasca. 7. Ar trebui sa ii spun ca era exact ce merita. 8. Ar fi trebuit sa se logodeasca de mult, dar parintii ei s-au opus casatoriei. 9. Ar fi trebuit sa-i marturisesti in cele din urma ca i-ai furat ceasul, fiindca nu vroiai sa plece atat de iute. 10. Studentii ar fi trebuit sa asculte expunerea aseara.

Cheia exercitiilor:

1. She retorted she must take care of her figure. 2. I did not know I must pay a fine if I parked my car her. 3. But you must stay for dinner! 4. You must show me your new dress! 5. He must be at his office, fiiling in forms, as he does daily. 6. I do not see him around, he must be playing basketball somewhere. 7. He is not at home, he must be roaming the streets and shopping with industry. 8. That scar must have been a bad injury a while ago. 9. He must have been studying at the library when you were looking for him. 10. Children must not talk to the mayor when he is busy. 11. I have had to listen to his offensive words for two hours, but I am not going to put up with it any longer. 12. The officer stated that he had had to talk to his wife about changing his job because he had been late too many times. 13. Need he come to the library today or can he wait untill tomorrow? 14. They neednít have come so soon, I could have wited. 15. She neednít have bought that hat, he was going to buy it for her.

1. The lecturer meditated where he should deliver his next lecture. 2. The pianist would have liked to be told what he should play. 3. The opera singer did not know whose offer she should accept. 4. The cameraman wanted to know if he should take one or two photographs. 5. Why should you assist him if he does not ask you? 6. If they should meet in a cafť, everyone would see them together and people would start gossiping. 7. I ought to tell him it was exactly what he deserved. 8. They ought to have been engaged long ago, but her parents objected to their marriage. 9. You ought to have confessed to him eventually that you had stollen his watch because you did not want him to leave so soon. 10. The students ought to have been listening to the exposition last night.







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