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Adjectivul (The Adjective) – limba engleza


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The Perfect Tenses
Adverbul - Felul adverbelor
Dictionar roman englez
The Subjunctive Mood
TIMPURILE MODULUI INDICATIV - Exercitii Present Tense Simple
The infinitive
Propozitia subordonata subiectiva

Adjectivul (The Adjective) – limba engleza

1. Read and translate

'Suppose you go to the market to buy some fruit. There you find a box of beautiful peaches that are just right for eating. How would you describe them? You look at their color and notice that they are yellow and pink. Then you feel one and discover it is soft to the touch. You say, 'These peaches are ripe.' You take a bite of one and you say, 'Umm! This one is one is sweet and juicy.' - Toate cuvintele subliniate sunt adjective care descriu piersicile (the peaches).

'Now let us count the peaches: one peach, two peaches, three peaches. And let us number them: first peach, second peach, third peach….' Am mai facut o lista de adjective.

Un adjectiv este un cuvant care descrie un cuvant sau un pronume. Un adjectiv (de obicei) furnizeaza informatii despre cuvantul pe care-l descrie prin a raspunde la intrebarile: 'what kind?' (ce fel de…?) 'how many?' (cate…?) 'which one?' (care?) 'how much?' (cat…?)

2. Tipuri de adjective (Types of adjectives) – Adjective descriptive si limitatoare

Adjectivele pot fi impartite in 2 mari clase: (1) Adjective descriptive si (2) Adjective limitatoare (limiting adjectives).

Un adjectiv descriptiv ne spune despre un substantiv prin a descrie cateva din calitatile ce-i apartin acestuia. Exemple: a tall tree; a red car; a long rope; a wet pavement; a round table; a little girl. Un adjectiv descriptiv descrie o persoana, loc sau lucru.

Unele adjective descriptive sunt formate din substantive comune. Exemple: a brick house; an iron skillet; a bronze statue. Abraham Lincoln lived in a log cabin. (cabana din busteni)

Unele adjective descriptive sunt formate din substantive proprii si sunt scrise c litera mare. Exemple: Greek mythology, Roman numerals; Chinese lanterns (felinare chinezesti); Spanish guitar; American dream; Japanese cars; Italian cooking; English gentleman. He wore an African headdress to the party.

In engleza, un adjectiv descriptiv apare adesea inaintea substantivului pe care il descrie. Exemple: the bright light; the gray file cabinet; my messy desk. In unele cazuri, acestea apar dupa un verb de legatura. Exemple: The sunset is gorgeous. Sugar is sweet. I feel sick. You are beautiful.

Atunci cand un adjectiv apare dupa un verb de legatura si ofera niste informatii despre subiectul propozitiei, acesta se numeste adjectiv predicativ. Exemplu: The basement was dark and dingy. (murdar, mizerabil) - 'Dark' si 'dingy' sunt adjective predicative in aceasta propozitie.   

Un adjectiv limitator ne spune ceva despre un substantiv prin a-i limita, mai degraba decat sa-i descrie, calitatile sale. Exista 3 clase majore de adjective limitatoare: articolele, numeralele si adjectivele pronominale.

2.1. Articolele

Articolele indefinite - 'a' si 'an' limiteaza un substantiv intr-un fel indefinit sau general. Articolul apare inaintea substantiv ului pe care il modifica.

'a' este folosit inaintea cuvintelor care incep cu o consoana. Exemple: a broken record; a laboratory (a

'an' este folosit inaintea cuvintelor care incep cu o vocala. Exemple: an apple; an airplane; an elevator; an ice cream cone (an

Articolul definit - 'the' arata persoana, locul sau lucrul despre care ne spune. Exemplu:The man ran through the door. Cand 'the' apare inaintea cuvintelor ce incep cu o vocala, acesta se pronunta [dii]; cand acesta apare in fata cuvintelor care incep cu o consoana, acesta se pronunta [da] d se pronunta cu limba intre dinti.

2.2. Numeralele (numerals)

Numeralele sun adjective limitatoare care exprima numarul si ordinea. * Numeralele care exprima un numar fara a face referinta la ordine se numesc cardinale. Exemple 1one, 2 two, 3, three…. * Numeralele care indica pozitia in serii numarate se numesc ordinale. Exemple: 1st – first, 2nd – second, 3rd – third….

Cardinale Scrierea lor Ordinale Scrierea lor

1 One – unu 1st First – primul(a)

2 Two – doi 2nd Second – al 2 lea

3 Three 3rd Third

4 Four 4th Fourth

5 Five 5th Fifth

6 Six 6th Sixth

7 Seven 7th Seventh

8 Eight 8th Eighth

9 Nine 9th Ninth

10 Ten 10th Tenth

11 Eleven 11th Eleventh

12 Twelve 12th Twelfth

13 Thirteen 13th Thirteenth

14 Fourteen 14th Fourteenth

20 Twenty 20th Twentieth

21 Twenty-one 21st Twenty-first

22 Twenty-two 22nd Twenty-second

30 Thirty 30th Thirtieth

40 Forty 40th Fortieth

100 One hundred 100th One hundredth

1,000 One thousand 1,000th One thousandth

10,000 Ten thousand 10,000th Ten thousandth

1,000,000 One million 1,000,000th One millionth

Fractiile se pronunta astfel: numitorul ca un numeral cardinal, iar subnumitorul ca un numeral ordinal. Exemple: 1/3 = one-third; 1/4 = one-forth.

O cratima(hyphen) – exista intre cele 2 numere ale fractiei sau intre cele 2 parti ale numarului mai mic de 100. Exemple: thirty-three.

2. Adjectivele pronominale (pronominal adjectives)

Adjectivul pronominal este un pronume ca functioneaza ca un adjectiv.

Pronumele demonstrative (this, that, these, those, which, what) stau singure. Exemplu: What is that? Atunci cand sunt folosite inaintea substantivelor acestea devin adjective demonstrative - acestea ne indica lucrurile 'singure', si indica distanta lor de la vorbitor. Exemplu: Jerry brought these things to Marga.

La fel este si cu pronumele interogative (what, which, whose) Exemplu: Which do you prefer? - inaintea substantivelor devin adjective. Exemplu: Which color do you prefer?

La fel este si cu pronumele indefinite (all, another, any, both, each, either, few, many, most, neither, several, some). Exemplu: Many went to war, but few returned. - inaintea substantivelor devin adjective. Exemplu: Many people like victory, but few men fight for it.

Pronumele posesive (my, our, your, his, her, its, their) sunt folosite inaintea substantivelor si sunt numite uneori adjective posesive. Exemplu: I will make your name famous.

Test 'Adjective 1'

Gaseste adjectivele descriptive din urmatoarele propozitii.

______________ 1. John was a good man.

______________ 2. He had big trees near his house.

His son inherited a great fortune.

______________ 4. A dead lion appeared to him.

______________ 5. That way was a right way.

Gaseste adjectivele predicative din propozitiile de mai jos.

______________ 1. While he was asleep, a terrible rain came.

______________ 2. After the sun went down, it was very dark.

My agreement with John was important.

Raspunde la urmatoarele intrebari.

Care este 'articolul definit'? ______________

2. Care 'articol indefinit' este folosit la cuvintele care incep cu o consoana? ______________

Dar pentru cele ce incep cu o vocala? ______________

Incercuieste raspunsul corect.

Numeralele 'one', 'two' sunt: a) cardinale, sau b) ordinale.

Numeralele 'first', 'third' sunt: a) cardinale, sau b) ordinale.

In engleza fractia 1 se pronunta astfel:

a) 1 ca un numeral cardinal si 4 ca unul ordinal; sau

b) 1 ca un numeral ordinal si 4 ca unul cardinal.

Gaseste adjectivele pronominale sin urmatoarele propozitii.

On that day, I called Joseph. ______________

All people on earth need hope. _____________

I forgot your name, sir. _______________

Comparatii cu adjective (Making comparisons with adjectives)

(1) Think about someone you know – a special friend, an enemy, or a member of your family. Compare yourself with him or her. Compare your looks, your height (inaltime), your weight (greutate), your age, your intelligence, your personalities, your actions, anything.

Pentru a face comparatii, vei avea nevoie de adjective care se termina in 'er' Exemple: taller (mai inalt), shorter (mai scurt), heavier (mai greu), thinner (mai subtire), younger (mai tanar), older, smarter, slower.

De asemenea, va trebui sa folosesti cuvintele 'more' si 'less' pentru a face comparatia. Exemple: more handsome (mult mai aratos), less beautiful (mai putin frumos), more likeable (mult mai agreabil), less interesting (mai putin interesant), more intelligent, less sensitive, more energetic. I am two years older than she is. She is more intelligent than I am.   

Now think about a group of people – your family at home, your class at school, or your office staff. How would you compare them in looks, height, age, intelligence, personality, and character?

Pentru a compara mai mult de 2 persoane va trebui sa folosesti adjective terminate in 'est.' Exemple: tallest, shortest, heaviest, thinnest, youngest, oldest, smartest.

De asemenea, va trebui sa folosesti cuvintele 'most' (cel mai >) si 'least' (cel mai <). Exemple: most beautiful (cel / cea mai frumos / frumoasa), least handsome (cel mai putin aratos), most likeable, least interesting, most intelligent, least sensitive, most creative, most creative, most honest, least energetic. He is the tallest member of the family. She is the most creative artist on our staff.

4. Gradele de comparatie (Degrees of comparison)

Adjectivele sunt clasificate in 3 grade de comparatie: pozitiv, comparativ si superlativ.

Gradul pozitiv – ne spune ca o calitate exista intr-o persoana, loc sau lucru. Nu are loc nici o comparatie.

Aceasta este forma de baza a unui adjectiv. Exemplu: John was old when his father died.

Gradul comparativ – compara 2 persoane, locuri sau lucruri s ne spune care are un grad de calitate mai mare sau mai mic fata de celalalt.

Acesta se formeaza prin: a) adaugarea lui 'er' la sfarsitul formei pozitive a unui adjectiv, sau b) prin folosirea cuvintelor 'more' sau 'less' la inceputul formei pozitive. Exemplu: John's father was older than his mother.

Gradul superlativ – compara 3 sau mai multe persoane, locuri sau lucruri si ne spune care are cel mai mare grad de calitate.

Acesta se formeaza prin: a) adaugarea lui 'est' la sfarsitul formei pozitive a adjectivului, sau b) prin folosirea cuvintelor 'most' sau 'least' inaintea formei pozitive. Exemplu: Jerry, John's grand father, was the oldest man in their family when John was the youngest boy.

Pozitiv Comparativ Superlativ

Big Bigger Biggest

Small Smaller Smallest

Dangerous More dangerous Most dangerous

Expensive Less expensive Least expensive

Fast Faster Fastest

Formele de comparatie neregulate (Irregular comparative forms) – old English forms

Bad Worse Worst

Far (distance) Farther Farthest

Far (extreme) Further Furthest

Good Better Best

Little Less Least

Many More Most

Unele adjective nu pot fi comparate: a) articolele – 'a', 'an' si 'the'; b) numeralele nu se pot compara; c) adjectivele care denota o calitate absoluta nu se pot compara. Exemple: complete, correct, empty, favorite, final, full, perfect, round, square, straight, supreme. Este incorect sa spui ca un cerc este mai rotund decat altul; mai degraba un cerc este mult mai aproape rotund decat altul ('more nearly round'). d) adjectivele care se refera la locuri sau lucruri de neschimbat nu pot fi comparate. Exemple: A brass door knob (un maner de usa de alama), silk stockings (panzeturi de matase), silver spoon, a Spanish guitar. Do not say, 'This is the most Spanish guitar I have ever played.'

Reguli de scriere (Spelling rules)

Cand adjectivele trec de la un grad de comparatie la altul, exista o schimbare in litere. Confuziile pot fi eliminate prin amintirea urmatoarelor reguli:

Cand un adjectiv uni-silabic are forma Consoana – Vocala – Consoana (CVC) ultima consoana se dubleaza inainte de adaugarea lui 'er' sau 'est'. Exemple: big – bigger – biggest; fat – fatter – fattest; sad – sadder – saddest.

Cand un adjectiv uni-silabic se termina intr-un 'e' tacut, acesta dispare inainte de adaugarea lui 'er' sau 'est'. Exemple: fine – finer – finest; tame – tamer – tamest (bland).

Cand un adjectiv e terminat in Consoana si Y (Cy), 'y' se schimba in 'i' inainte de adaugarea lui 'er' sau 'est'. Exemple: dry – drier – driest; heavy – heavier – heaviest; pretty – prettier – prettiest; silly – sillier – silliest.

4. Cand adjectivele au mai mult decat o silaba, gradele comparativ sau superlativ se formeaza de obicei prin adaugarea prefixelor 'more' , 'less', 'most', sau 'least' la forma lor de baza. Exemple: beautiful – more beautiful – most beautiful; careful – less careful – least careful; daring – more daring – most daring; loving – more loving – most loving; valuable – less valuable – least valuable.

Test 'Adjective 2'

Gaseste adjectivele la gradul pozitiv de comparatie din urmatoarele propozitii.

She was an old woman when Terry died. ______________

We have a beautiful garden. ______________

The sky has a very big view. ______________

Careful parents know how to teach parents. ______________

Pune adjectivul din paranteza la gradul de comparatie potrivit.

Mary has a (big) ___________________boy and a (tall) ___________________ girl.

John is (intelligent) ___________________ than Tom.

He won the (great) ___________________ prize of all.

When I look to the sky, my (little) ___________________ finger is like a point on a paper.

You have to go a (far) ___________________ distance to reach the bridge.

Scrie formele de comparatie ale adjectivelor de mai jos.

Positive Comparative Superlative

1. Big ______________ ______________

2. ______________ ______________ Angriest

Tame ______________ ______________

4. Beautiful ______________ ______________

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