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Adverbul (The Adverb) – limba engleza

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Adverbul (The Adverb) – limba engleza

Adverbul este un cuvant care ne spune ceva despre un verb, un adjectiv, sau un alt adverb. Exemplu: The birds sang sweetly in the trees. - 'sweetly' da informatii despre verbul 'sang'.




1. Tipuri de adverbe (Types of adverbs)

Adverbele descriu actiunea sau starea de fapt prin a raspunde la urmatoarele intrebari: where, when, how, how much, why (unde, cand, cum, cat, de ce).

Adverbe care spun locul (WHERE): above, across, around, back, backwards, below, down, everywhere, far, forwards, here, nowhere, out, over, sideways, somewhere, there, through, under, up, upstairs, whenever, where. Exemplu: He went up to that place. - Adverbul 'up' introduce expresia adverbiala 'up to that place'.

Adverbe care spun timpul (WHEN): again, always, before, early, eventually, forever, frequently, immediately, lately, never, now, occasionally, often, once, seldom, sometimes, soon, then, until, weekly, when, while, yet. Exemplu: He always comes to school - 'always' ne spune 'when he comes to school'.

Adverbe care spun maniera (HOW): badly, beautifully, carefully, certainly, easily, earnestly, foolishly, nicely, probably, quickly, surely, sweetly, tirelessly, well. Exemplu: Rebecca quickly lowered the jar from her shoulder and gave him water.

Adverbe care spun gradul (HOW MUCH): as, almost, altogether, chiefly, completely, enough, entirely, equally, especially, even, exceptionally, extremely, fairly, least, less, little, mildly, more, most, much, nearly, only, partly, rather, quite, scarcely, somewhat, thoroughly, too, truly, twice, unusually, very, wholly. Exemplu: John loved Mary very much. - Adverbul 'very' modifica adverbul 'much'care descrie dragostea lui John pentru Mary.

Adverbe care spun cauza (WHY): because, therefore, wherefore, why. Exemplu: Mathew loves Jessica because she is beautiful.

2. Adverbe si expresii prepozitionale

Un adverb este egal cu o expresie prepozitionala care se termina in substantive cum ar fi: degree, manner, place, time.

Adverb Prepositional phrase

Greatly to a great degree

Quickly in a quick manner

Here in this place

Now at this time

3. Functiile adverbelor (Functions of adverbs)

Unele adverbe modifica verbe – aceste adverbe ne spun cum, cand, unde, sau de cate ori are loc o actiune.

Exemple They acted wisely. – 'How'

They left yesterday. – 'When' - Adverbul da informatii despre verb.

Unele adverbe modifica adjective – aceste adverbe ne spun cat de mic, cat de mare, sau la ce grad.

Exemple That is a very expensive ring. - 'Very' sugereaza cat de mult costa acel inel.

This ring is less expensive that that one. - 'Less' sugereaza cat de putin costa acel inel.

Unele adverbe modifica alte adverbe – arata cat de mult sau cat de putin. Exemplu: The frightened dog ran away very quickly. - 'How quickly'.

Unele adverbe pun intrebari – acestea se numesc interogative si sunt: how, when, where si why. Se folosesc pentru a pune intrebari. Exemple: How are you feeling? When did you get here? Where are you going?

Unele adverbe afirma sau neaga – yes, absolutely, certainly, truly si surely sunt adverbe afirmative. Exemplu: La intrebarea 'Do you plan to go?' fiecare dintre aceste raspunsuri inseamna 'I plan to go.'

- no, not sunt adverbe negative. Aceste raspunsuri la aceeasi intrebare de mai sus inseamna 'I do not plan to go' - 'Not' este folosit ca adverb negativ inaintea unui verb.

Unele adverbe leaga propozitiile – ele se numesc adverbe 'conjunctive' : after, before, consequently, since, therefore, until, when, whenever, wherever.

O propozitie (clause) este un grup de cuvinte care contine un subiect si un predicat. O propozitie independenta este o simpla propozitie care 'se comporta' ca o afirmatie. Exemplu: I saw you in the park. O propozitie dependenta este propozitia ce depinde de alta pentru a-si completa intelesul. Exemplu: When you were playing. (Desi are un subiect – 'you'si un predicat –'were', intelesul ei nu este complet pana ce nu este legata de propozitia independenta.) - I saw you in the park when you were playing.

4. Formarea adverbelor

In engleza, de obicei un adverb este format prin adaugarea lui 'ly' la sfarsitul unui adjectiv. Exemple: bad –badly; beautiful – beautifully; careful – carefully; quick – quickly; daca un adjectiv se termina in 'y', acesta se transforma in 'i' inainte de adaugarea lui 'ly'. Exemple: hearty – heartily; merry – merrily; ready – readily.

Totusi, terminatia 'ly' nu este un semn sigur al unui adverb. Unele adverbe nu se termina in 'ly': above, again, almost, much, because, etc. In mod general vorbind, cand un cuvant se termina in 'ly', acesta este probabil un adverb.

Test 'Adverb 1'

Scrie tipul adverbului scris ingrosat din propozitiile de mai jos (where, when, how, how much, why).

_____________ 1. He went there to see his father.

_____________ 2. She took the baby carefully.

_____________ 3. John loved Mary much.

_____________ 4. They know her because they saw her.

He always goes to school.

Scrie in spatiile libere adverbele care modifica adjectivele din propozitiile de mai jos.



_____________ 1. She was extremely old when she died.

_____________ 2. Mary's coat was unusually beautifully.

_____________ 3. They saw a very strong man coming to them.

_____________ 4. The teacher became very angry with her students.

Those people were probably happy.

Scrie in spatiile libere de mai jos adverbele care modifica alte adverbe.

_____________ 1. They missed her very much.

_____________ 2. James woke up exceptionally early.

_____________ 3. The miners were forced to work too hard.

_____________ 4. Some students complain quite often.

Others get up usually early to learn.

Scrie in spatiile libere de mai jos adverbele 'interogative' folosite in propozitiile urmatoare.

_____________ 1. Where have you been last Monday?

_____________ 2. Why did you come late?

_____________ 3. When were you supposed to come?

_____________ 4. How are you doing today?

We don't know why John hasn't come.

Comparatii cu adverbele (Making comparisons with adverbs)

Unele adverbe sunt folosite sa compare 2 sau mai multe actiuni. Ca si adjectivele, adverbele au 3 grade de comparatie: pozitiv (forma de baza), comparativ, si superlativ.

Forma pozitiva este folosita pentru a face o afirmatie despre un verb fara a compara actiunea cu o alta actiune. Forma comparativa este folosita sa compare 2 actiuni, iar cea superlativa pentru a compara mai mult de doua actiuni.

Exemple: The giant slowly walked toward the boy (positive). The giant walked more slowly than the boy did (comparative). Of all the soldiers, the giant walked most slowly (superlative).

Unele adverbe iau terminatia 'er' cand acestea sunt folosite sa compare 2 actiuni. Exemplu: Mary runs faster than Jane. Totusi, majoritatea adverbelor 'devin' comparative prin adaugarea lui 'more' sau 'less' inaintea formei pozitive. Exemple: Mary finished the race more quickly than Jane. Jane ran the race more slowly than Mary.

Unele adverbe iau terminatia 'est' cand acestea sunt folosite sa compare mai mult de 2 actiuni. Exemplu: Of all the members of the track team, Mary runs fastest. Totusi, majoritatea adverbelor 'devin' superlative prin adaugarea lui 'most' sau 'least' inaintea formei de baza. Exemple: Of all the members of the track team, Mary runs most swiftly. (Dintre toti membrii echipei de 'alergari de pista', Mary alearga cel mai prompt / repede.)

Exemple de adverbe care iau 'er' si 'est' ca terminatie:

Pozitiv Comparativ Superlativ

Early Earlier Earliest

Hard Harder Hardest

Fast Faster Fastest

Long Longer Longest

Soon Sooner Soonest

Unele adverbe au forme neregulate de comparatie. Iata cateva exemple:

Badly Worse Worst

Far Farther(distance) Farthest

Far Further(progress) Furthest

Late Later Latest or last

Little Less Least

Much More Most

Well Better Best

Adverbele si adjectivele

Unele cuvinte functioneaza ori ca adjective ori ca adverbe

Adjective Adverb

The early bird Come early

A hard shell Push hard

A long rope We can't stay long



Give me your earliest appointment. She came earliest.

De reamintit

Adjectivele dau informatii despre substantive si pronume. Exemple: He saw a bright light. Adjectivul scris ingrosat modifica substantivul 'light'. He became blind. Adjectivul scris ingrosat modifica pronumele 'he'.

Adverbele dau informatii despre verbe, adjective si alte adverbe. Exemple: The light shined brightly. Adverbul scris ingrosat spune despre verbul 'shined'. It was an extremely bright (adjective) light. He walked around quite hopelessly (adverb).

Greseli comune ce trebuiesc evitate (Common mistakes to avoid)

Fii atent cum folosesti cuvintele 'good' ,'well', 'bad'si 'badly'.

(a) GOOD este un adjectiv – trebuie folosit intotdeauna ca un adjectiv. Exemplu: His eyes were not good (adjective). E incorect sa spui: He could not see good (adverb).

(b)    WELL este un adjectiv sau un adverb.

Cand este folosit ca adjectiv, acesta inseamna 'good health' (sanatos) – I am not feeling well

Cand este folosit ca adverb, acesta indica cum este facut ceva. – She is doing well in school. Este incorect sa spui: She is doing good (adjective!) in school.

(c) BAD este un adjectiv. – 'Bad' inseamna 'not good' (rau) si uneori sugereaza un grad inalt. – He said bad things about the boy. He made some bad mistakes. Este incorect sa spui: I feel bad. I feel badly. - 'Feel' este un verb de legatura si 'bad' este adjectivul care-l modifica pe 'I'.

(d)    BADLY este un adverb. – Ca adverb, acesta sugereaza faptul ca un lucru este facut intr-un mod slab. – I play the guitar badly. 'Badly' modifica verbul 'play'.

Evita folosirea dublei negatii. Exemple de adverbe de negatie: never, not, nobody, none, no one, nothing, nowhere si scarcely. Nu folosi 2 cuvinte negative in aceeasi propozitie. Este incorect sa spui: Time doesn't wait for nobody. Corect este: Time doesn't wait for anybody. Sau, Time waits for nobody.

Test 'Adverb 2'

Scrie in stanga forma gradului de comparatie corecta a adverbului din paranteza. (Foloseste 'er', 'est', 'more' sau 'most'.)

_____________ 1. Doug runs (fast) than Harold.

_____________ 2. Harold starts cars (quickly) than Doug.

_____________ 3. Of all our computer salesmen, Tom works (hard).

_____________ 4. He fought (courageously) than John.

Of all the soldiers, he fought (courageously).

Scrie in spatiile libere de mai jos daca cuvintele ingrosate sunt adjective sau adverbe.

_____________ 1. She rose early in the morning.

_____________ 2. Life in Egypt was hard for them.

_____________ 3. Life teaches us some hard and painful lessons.

_____________ 4. He worked for Jerry longer than expected.

Corecteaza greseala scrisa ingrosat din fiecare propozitie prin a scrie in spatiul liber adverbul sau adjectivul corect.

_____________ 1. He hunted good.

_____________ 2. Mary could not see good.

_____________ 3. He felt badly about his mistakes.

_____________ 4. Is your father doing good?

He wanted bad to be right with her.

Scrie adverbele ce trebuiesc folosite in negatiile urmatoare.

_____________ 1. She could not have no children.

_____________ 2. People didn't have nothing to eat.

_____________ 3. You must not cheat no one.

_____________ 4. Outside the city no food grew nowhere.



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