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PRONUMELE: Pronumele posesive - Pronume interogative

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INFINITIVUL

PRONUMELE

Pronumele inlocuiesc substantive. Cele sase tipuri de adjective (calitativ, posesiv, interogativ, cantitativ, demonstrativ, distributiv) prezentate in Lectia 9 au forme pronominale. Ele urmeaza in general reguli identice. Exista de asemenea si pronume personale si reflexive.




A. Adjective calificative + one / ones

  1. inlocuieste un substantiv care a fost mentionat mai devreme (adica are functie de pronume):

I won’t lend you my new pen. You can borrow my old one.

Tony missed his train. He caught the next one instead.

  1. superlativele si culorile pot fi folosite singure:

Sandra is the best (dancer).

Don’t wear your blue shoes. The black (ones) look better.

That painting is the most valuable (one) in the museum.

B. Pronumele posesive – forma: (sg) mine, your, his / hers; (pl) ours, yours, theirs. Utilizare – pronumele posesive inlocuiesc adjectivele posesive. Substantivul care lipseste a fost mentionat mai inainte.

This is my book. This book is mine.

We’re using his car, not her car. We’re using his, not hers.

NOTA: Of yours inseamna one of your + substantiv.

of mine inseamna one of my + substantiv etc.

John is a friend of ours. = John is one of our friends.

C. Pronume interogative – forma: who, whom, whose, what, which. Utilizare:

Persoane

Lucruri

subiect

who

what

which

which

complement

whom, who

what

which

which

posesiv

whose

NOTA: Pronumele interogative sunt invariabile. Ele au o singura forma.

Who is that girl?

Who are those men?

In engleza formala whom este folosit ca si complement obiect direct. Engleza vorbita il foloseste pe who.

Whom did you see? (formal)

Who did you see? (informal)

D. Pronume cantitative – forma: much, many, little, few, some, any, none. Utilizare:

  1. many si few inlocuiesc substantive numarabile; much si little inlocuiesc substantive nenumarabile:

Many are called but few are chosen. (proverb)

He didn’t spend much (money). In fact he spent very little.

  1. none se foloseste in propozitii afirmative pentru a exprima negatia:

If all friends were like Harry, I’d rather have none.

Sam hates carrying suitcases. He travels with none.

ATENTIE! Some, any, no se combina cu -one, -body, -thing formand cuvintele compuse: someone, somebody, something, anyone, anybody, anything, no one, nobody, nothing. Aceste pronume urmeaza aceleasi reguli.

Does anyone want to accompany me?

They saw something strange that night.

Nothing happened.

E. Pronumele demonstrative – forma: this, that, these si those. Utilizare:

  1. pronumele demonstrative se acorda in numar cu substantivul pe care il inlocuiesc:

This (umbrella) is mine. That is his.

These (umbrellas) are mine. Those are his.

  1. this, these se refera la obiecte din preajma vorbitorului. That, those se refera la obiecte aflate mai departe de vorbitor:

This (one) is here, that (one) is there.

F. Pronumele distributive – forma: each, all, everyone / everybody, everything, both, either, neither. Utilizare:

  1. each inseamna “considerati individual” si urmeaza un verb la singular; all inseamna “considerati impreuna” si urmeaza un verb la plural:

Each chose the colour he preferred.

All are welcome.

  1. each, all, both si either / neither pot fi urmate de OF + substantiv / pronume:

Each of the boys / us felt ashamed.

All of the students / you are invited to the club.

Both of his grandparents / them are still living.

Either of you / Neither of the men can go.

G. Pronume personale – forma:

subiect

complement

I

me

you

you

he

him



she

her

it

it

we

us

you

you

they

them

Utilizare:

  1. toate verbele limbii engleze (cu exceptia imperativelor) TREBUIE sa aiba subiect pronominal:

They dislike inefficiency.

DAR: Come here!

  1. complementele pronominale (directe sau indirecte) urmeaza o prepozitie sau verbul:

I spoke to her yesterday.

We saw them on the beach.

He gave her an engagement ring.

  1. you and one sunt folosite impersonal cu sensul de everyone, no one sau anyone. One are un aspect formal. You este mai frecvent in engleza vorbita:

You / one should respect the basic liberties of others. (= Everyone should respect the basic liberties of others.)

You / one cannot enter that lab. (= No one can enter that lab.)

  1. they este folosit impersonal cu sensul de “lumea spune”, “se zice”:

They say he’s dishonest. (= People say he’s dishonest.)

  1. it + be se foloseste:
    • pentru lucruri sau fiinte cu genul necunoscut:

Where’s my book? It is on the shelf.

Look at that bird! It’s making a nest.

cu un substantiv / complement pronominal pentru a se referi la persoane:

Who’s at the door? It’s Olivia.

Who was singing? Was it him? No, it was me.

in expresii despre vreme, temperatura, timp, date, distante:

It’s cold outside.

What time is it? It’s nine o’clock.

It’s the 4th of July.

How far is it to Chicago? It’s ten miles.

H. Pronume reflexive – forma:

singular

plural

myself

ourselves

yourself

yourselves

himself

themselves

herself

itself

Utilizare:

  1. cu verbe reflexive. Cele mai frecvente verbe reflexive sunt: to enjoy oneself, to amuse oneself, to help oneself, to hurt oneself, to trouble oneself, to cut oneself, to wash oneself etc.

The little boy hurt himself during the game.

Please help yourself to the buffet!

NOTA: Multe verbe care sunt in mod normal reflexive in alte limbi NU sunt reflexive in engleza. Astfel de verbe sunt: to wash, to dress, to comb, to shave, to meet etc.

Sue and Brian met last year.

He washed his hands.

  1. cu functie de complemente prepozitionale:

She looked at herself in the mirror.

Why are you so angry with yourself?

  1. pentru intarire:

The president himself attended the summit.

Annie herself made the decision.

NOTA: By + pronume reflexiv inseamna “de unul singur”. Un pronume reflexiv folosit cu un verb nereflexiv inseamna “fara ajutorul nimanui”.

I live by myself. = I live alone.

I fixed it myself. = I fixed it without any help.

EXERCITII

1. Alegeti raspunsul corect:

  1. They / them helped we / us cut the grass.
  2. I / me saw you / your waiting for the bus this morning.
  3. It / he is the first day of summer.
  4. She / her decided to go with they / them.
  5. Why are you / he interested in she / her?
  6. We / us spoke to he / him yesterday.

2. Alegeti un cuvant compus din lista de mai jos si completati spatiile; unele cuvinte pot fi folosite de mai multe ori.

somebody someone something

anybody anyone anything

nobody no one nothing

  1. I’m thirsty! Is there ………………… to drink?
  2. The boss has ………………… important to tell you. You must call him right away.
  3. The doctor says there is ………………… wrong with Tom. He’s perfectly healthy.
  4. The door bell is ringing. There’s ………………… at the door.
  5. ………………… exciting ever happens to me!
  6. Old Mrs. Hewlis is very lonely. ………………… ever visits her.
  7. Didn’t ………………… write to thank you?
  8. There’s ………………… in the safe. It’s quite empty!
  9. There is ………………… waiting at the moment. The waiting room is empty.
  10. Shall I make them ………………… for dinner? They haven’t had ………………… to eat since last night.



3. Asezati cuvintele in ordinea corecta.

  1. is writing/she/him/a love letter

…………………………………………………………………………….

  1. enjoyed/I/them/telling/about it

…………………………………………………………………………….

  1. is interesting/it/to listen/to him

…………………………………………………………………………….

  1. you/can’t/to him/it/give?

…………………………………………………………………………….

  1. likes/he/her/calling

…………………………………………………………………………….

  1. you/don’t/fix/why/for us/it?

…………………………………………………………………………….

  1. it/cleaned/we/for him

…………………………………………………………………………….

  1. will repair/they/it/for us

…………………………………………………………………………….

  1. sent/we/to them/it

…………………………………………………………………………….

  1. please/it/give/to him

…………………………………………………………………………….

APLICATII

RACISM

1. The fight against racism.

A. Martin Luther King Jr.

Martin Luther King Jr. was one of the most important leaders of the American civil rights movement. King was a Baptist minister and also became a civil rights activist early in his career. He led the Montgomery Bus Boycott.

The Montgomery Bus Boycott was a political and social protest campaign started in 1955 in Montgomery, Alabama, intended to oppose the city's policy of racial segregation on its public transit system. The boycott was triggered by her arrest, when she was charged for violating racial segregation laws in Montgomery after refusing to give up her bus seat to a white man. She was sitting in the fifth row (the first row that blacks could occupy), along with three other blacks. Soon, all of the first four rows were filled up, and a white man walked on. Since blacks and whites could not be in the same row, the bus driver wanted all of the blacks to move. The other three blacks complied, but Parks refused and was practically dragged off of the bus. When found guilty on December 5, Parks was fined $10 plus a court cost of $4, but she appealed. As a result, Rosa Parks is considered one of the pioneers of the civil rights movement.   

His efforts led to the 1963 March on Washington, where King delivered his “I Have a Dream” speech.

I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: ‘We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal’.

I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character.

Here he presented the civil rights movement to the public and established himself as one of the greatest orators in U.S. history. In 1964, King became the youngest person to receive the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts to end segregation and racial discrimination through civil disobedience and other non-violent means. King was assassinated on April 4, 1968, in Memphis, Tennessee.

B. Nelson Mandela

Nelson Mandela is a former freedom fighter who became the first president of South-Africa in the post-apartheid period. His ambition as a child was to study law and make a contribution to the freedom movement in South Africa.

An association of young blacks, whose aim was to improve the situation for black people in the whole of Africa, was formed in South Africa in 1912, called the African National Congress (ANC). They wanted to represent the millions of working people in the towns and countryside who had no vote and no power.

During the 1950s, Mandela was banned from working as a lawyer and was often arrested and imprisoned.

From 1962, he spent 27 years in detention before he was released on 11th February 1990. After being sentenced, he said this:

I have fought against white domination, and I have fought against black domination. I have cherished the ideal of a democratic and free society in which all people live together in harmony and with equal opportunities. It is an ideal which I hope to live for and to achieve. But if necessary, it is an ideal for which I am prepared to die.

In 1991, the ANC held its first national conference inside South Africa after being banned for decades. Mandela was elected president of the ANC. In 1993, he agreed to accept the Nobel Peace Prize on behalf of all the South Africans who suffered to bring peace to the nation. He was president of South Africa from 1994 to 1999.

2. Rearrange the words to form correct sentences and find the famous quotations.

you love If you them people have to no judge time. (Mother Teresa)

that I will 'race' finally people one that realize hope is come to only there - the race human - and of members it that are we all.” (Margaret Atwood)

3. Do we still have racism today? If yes, can you find some examples in Romania for racism?

4. Come up with a few solutions to fight racism.

5. Do you know some of the most important articles in the Declaration of Human Rights? Fill in the gaps in the articles below with the words in italics.

law protection

rights Declaration

reason brotherhood

equal conscience

security discrimination

free servitude

liberty

slavery

Article 1.

All human beings are born ………….. and equal in dignity and …………… They are endowed with ……………….. and …………………………… and should act towards one another in a spirit of ………………………………….

Article 3.

Everyone has the right to life, ……………………. and ………………………..of person.

Article 4.

No one shall be held in ……………………… or ………………………….; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms.

Article 7.

All are ……………… before the law and are entitled without any ………………………………….. to equal protection of the …………….. All are entitled to equal ……………………………. against any discrimination in violation of this ………………………………… and against any incitement to such discrimination.

Did you know?

Apartheid in South Africa was a system of legalized racial segregation enforced by the National Party South African government between 1948 and 1994. Apartheid legislation classified South Africa's inhabitants and visitors into racial groups (Black, White, Coloured and Indian).

The system of apartheid sparked significant internal resistance. The government responded to a series of popular uprisings and protests with police brutality, which in turn increased local support for the armed resistance struggle. In response to popular and political resistance, the apartheid government resorted to detentions without trial, torture, censorship, and the banning of political opposition.

6. Follow the clues for Across and Down to fill in the crossword.

Across

1. is one of the fundamental principles behind Human Rights.

3. Many during war have their human rights violated.

7. The human are a collection of freedoms and liberties.

8. Freedom of is a human right that is often contested by authoritarian regimes.

9. All people are entitled to have their rights protected by the

Down

2. The UN is the organization that ensures that human rights are observed everywhere.

International is a very well-known organization fighting for human rights.

5. is the most important inalienable human right.

6. Sometimes, the violation of human rights is only solved in



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