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Conjunctia (The Conjunction) - limba engleza


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Conjunctia (The Conjunction) - limba engleza

O conjunctie este ca un pod, leaga cuvintele sau grupurile de cuvinte intre ele.

1. Conjunctia coordonatoare (The coordinating conjunction)

Este folosita pentru legarea a 2 'elemente coordonatoare', adica cuvinte sau grupe de cuvinte de rang egal. Cele mai comune conjunctii coordonatoare sunt: and, but, for, nor, or, so, yet.   

O conjunctie coordonatoare poate lega cuvinte singure de acelasi rang: 2 substantive, 2 pronume, 2 verbe sau adjective; de asemenea, aceasta poate lega expresiile si propozitiile.

Exemple (Nouns) Jerry and Kelly love each other

(Verbs) Go and tell them the news.

(Pronouns) She knows you and me very well.

(Adjectives) My daddy is powerful but loving.

(Clauses) There was no room left in the house, so they went to a hotel.

(Participial phrase) You will find a baby, wrapped in clothes and lying in a feeding box.

Cand o conjunctie coordonatoare leaga 2 propozitii simple, o propozitie compuse (compound sentence) este formata. O propozitie simpla are un subiect si un predicat, pe cand propozitia compusa are cel putin 2 din fiecare. Exemplu: The boy will come to you and he will give you a book. - Acestea sunt 2 propozitii simple unite prin conjunctie 'and', ele devenind 'propozitie independenta' (pe rand) intr-o propozitie compusa.

2. Conjunctii subordonatoare (Subordinating conjunctions)

Acestea sunt folosite pentru a uni elemente de 'rang ne-egal' dintr-o propozitie. De obicei, elementele sunt: 1) o propozitie independenta si 2) o propozitie dependenta (subordonata).

Exemplu: Jerry went to Texas because he was of Dallas City. - In aceasta propozitie, adverbul scris cu litere ingrosate este o conjunctie subordonatoare, aceasta introduce propozitia subordonata 'Because he was of Dallas City.' Aceasta ne spune de ce a plecat Jerry in Texas.

O propozitie subordonata spune cum, cat de mult, cand, unde, sau de ce; de aceea ea este clasificata ca fiind o 'propozitie adverbiala' (adverb clause).

Urmatoarele cuvinte si grupuri de cuvinte sunt conjunctii subordonatoare: after, although, as, as long as, as much as, because, before, except, how, if, inasmuch as (intrucat), in order that, provided (cu conditia), since, that, though, unless, until, what, when, whenever, where, whereas, wherever, whether, while, whoever, whomever.

Exemple: 1) Tom became a teacher when he graduated school. 2) When he graduated school, Tom became a teacher. - 'When' este conjunctia subordonatoare care introduce propozitia 'when he graduated'.

Cand propozitia dependenta este prima, aceasta este urmata de virgula (ex. 2).

Cand propozitia independenta este prima, nu se va folosi nici o virgula pentru a separa cele 2 propozitii (ex. 1).

O fraza care este formata dintr-o propozitie independenta plus una sau mai multe propozitii dependente, aceasta este numita 'o propozitie complexa'. Exemplu: Stay in town (propozitia independenta) until (introduce propozitia dependenta si spune 'how long'[to stay in town]) I tell you it is safe (propozitia dependenta).

3. Conjunctii corelative (Correlative conjunctions)

Acestea sunt conjunctiile coordonatoare folosite in perechi (pairs). Exemple:, both.and, either.or, if.then, neither.nor, not only.but also.

Conjunctiile corelative leaga elemente de rang si nume egal (cum ar fi adjectivele sau substantivele) si accentueaza elementele legate.

(Adjectives) He had done either good or bad things.

(Nouns) Both Marga and Jerry went in the park.

4. Mai multe despre adverbele conjunctive (More about conjunctive adverbs)

Unele adverbe conjunctive leaga 2 propozitii independente. Aceste adverbe se numesc 'adverbe de legatura' (linking verbs); ele exprima relatia dintre ideile exprimate in cele 2 propozitii independente.

(a) Idea din propozitia a 2 a rezulta din idea primei propozitii.

Exemplu: He was my face; therefore, I must not be sad anymore.

(b) Contrastul dintre ideile celor 2 propozitii:

Exemplu: John was a weak man; however, he had a strong motivation.

(c) Idea din propozitia a 2 a este continuarea ideii din prima propozitie.

Exemplu: Janet trusted her daddy; furthermore, she obeyed his orders.

Iata cateva adverbe de legatura ce sunt folosite in mod comun:

Result Contrast Continuation

Accordingly (deci)    Conversely (in mod contrar) Also

As a result    However Further

Therefore Nevertheless (totusi) Furthermore

Thus (astfel)    Nonetheless (cu toate acestea) In addition

Test 'Conjunction'

Gaseste conjunctiile coordonatoare de mai jos si scrie-le in stanga.

_____________ 1. She got to the hospital and gave birth to a baby.

_____________ 2. The workers left and went to their homes.

_____________ 3. John was an ordinary man, yet he had much wisdom.

_____________ 4. The boss warned the driver, so he resigned.

Gaseste conjunctiile subordonatoare de mai jos si scrie-le in stanga.

_____________ 1. When he woke up, he did what was normal.

_____________ 2. He went there because he was from Dallas.

_____________ 3. After Angie got there, many girls were playing cards.

_____________ 4. Dan stayed home until he was well.

Gaseste conjunctiile corelative de mai jos si scrie-le in stanga.

_____ _______ ______ ___________ 1. Both Mary and Angie go to school.

_____ _______ ______ ___________ 2. He played football either good or bad before dinning.

_____ _______ ______ ___________ 3. Dave was as smart as he was handsome

_____ _______ ______ ___________ 4. He was not only good but also loving.

_____ _______ ______ ___________ 5. He was neither dead nor alive.

Scrie in stanga conjunctiile adverbiale din propozitiile de mai jos.

_____ _______ ______ ___________ 1. He loves people; as a result, they love him.

_____ _______ ______ ___________ 2. Mary obeyed her dad; therefore, she received many gifts.

_____ _______ ______ ___________ 3. Sarah had a son; thus, her sorrow turned into joy.

_____ _______ ______ ___________ 4. Jo loved Mark; nevertheless, she made mistakes.

_____ _______ ______ ___________ 5. Tom was a carpenter; furthermore, he was a hard worker.

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