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I. Reading Session

According to the American marketing Association, marketing is the process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion and distribution of ideas, goods, and services to create exchanges that satisfy individual and organizational objectives.

The external environment consists of the outside forces that influence marketing strategy and decision making. The political-legal environment includes laws and regulations, both domestic and foreign, that may define or constrain business activities. The social-cultural environment is the context within which people's values, beliefs, and ideas affect marketing decisions. The technological environment includes the technological developments that affect existing and new products. The economic environment consists of the conditions, such as inflation, recession, and interest rates, which influence both consumer and organizational spending patterns. Finally, the competitive environment is the environment in which marketers must persuade buyers to purchase their products rather than their competitors.

Market segmentation is the process of dividing markets into categories of customers. Businesses have learned that marketing is more successful when it is aimed toward specific target markets: groups of consumers with similar wants and needs. Markets may be segmented by geographic, demographic, or psychographic variables. Marketers are consequently always looking for market opportunities- profitable possibilities of filling unsatisfied needs creating new ones in areas in which the company is likely to enjoy a differential advantage, due to its distinctive competencies (the things it does particularly well). Market opportunities are generally isolated by market segmentation. Once a target market has been identified, a company has to decide what goods or service to offer. This means that much of the work of marketing has been done before the final product or service comes into existence. It also means that the marketing concept has to be understood throughout the company, e.g. in the production department of a manufacturing company as much as in the marketing department itself. The company must also take account of the existence of competitors, who always have to be identified, monitored and defeated in the search for loyal customers.

Rather than risk launching a product or service solely on the basis of intuition or guesswork, most companies undertake market research (GB) or marketing research (US). They collect and analyse information about the size of a potential market, about consumers' reactions to particular product or service features, and so on. Sales representatives, who also talk to customers, are another important source of information.

Once the basic offer, e.g. a product concept, has been established, the company has to think about the marketing mix, i.e. all the various elements of a marketing programme, their integration, and the amount of effort that a company can expend on them in order to influence the target market. The best-known classification of these elements is the '4 Ps': product, place, promotion and price. Aspects to be considered in marketing products include quality, features (standard and optional), style, brand name, size, packaging, services and guarantee. Place in marketing mix includes such factors as distribution channels, locations or points of sales, transport, inventory size, etc. Promotion groups together advertising, publicity, sales promotion, and personal selling, while price includes the basic list price, discounts, the length of payment period, possible credit terms, and so on. It is the job of a product manager or a brand manager to look for ways to increase sales by changing the marketing mix (product, price, place, promotion).

It must be remembered that quite apart from consumer markets (in which people buy products for direct consumption) there exists an enormous producer or industrial or business market, consisting of all the individuals and organization that acquire goods and services that are used in the production of other goods, or in the supply of services to others. Few consumers realize that the producer market is actually larger than the consumer market, since it contains all the raw materials, manufactured parts and components that go into consumer goods, plus capital equipment such as buildings and machines, supplies such as energy and pens, and paper, and services ranging from cleaning to management consulting, all of which have to be marketed. There is consequently more industrial than consumer marketing, even though ordinary consumers are seldom exposed to it.

(English for Business Studies, Cambridge University Press, 2001, p.52)

II. Build your vocabulary

A. Listen to a marketing manager talking about her company. Complete the passage below.

It's true that we've been deeply affected by our competitor's latest . A new plan of action must be developed as soon as possible. have been particularly high in every foreign . We have lost in Russia and Venezuela. Even in the home market we . However we are not going to We are developing a new which will help us regain some of our . The war will continue for some time yet but we are confident that we can still win.

B. It is very common to use military metaphor in business; we talk about management strategy and tactics, and takeover deals are often described as coups and raids. Replace the words and phrases in exercise A with military expressions from the box.

Surprise attack; casualties; are outgunned; campaign; territory; surrender

Key strongholds; rage on;

(New Insights into Business, Longman, p.125)

C. Match up the words or expressions on the left with the definitions on the right.

1. distribution channels A all the companies or individuals involved in moving a particular good or service from the producer to the consumer;

2. to launch a product B an idea for a new product, which is tested with target consumers before the actual product is developed

3. market opportunities C attributes or characteristics of a product: quality, price, reliability, etc.

4. market research D dividing a market into distinct groups of buyers who have different requirements or buying habits

5. market segmentation E. places where goods are sold to the public - shops, stores, kiosks, market stalls, etc.

6. packaging F. possibilities of filling unsatisfied needs in sectors in which a company can profitably produce goods or services

7. points of sale G someone who contracts existing and potential customers, and tries to persuade them to buy goods or services

8. product concept H collecting analyzing and reporting data relevant to a specific marketing situation (such as a proposed new product)

9. product features I to introduce a new product onto the market

10. sales representative J wrappers and containers in which products are sold

(English for Business Studies, Cambridge University Press, 2001, p.50)

III. Focus on language: A. Verbs often confused RISE, RAISE, and And ARISE



Simple past

Past Participle







Reach a higher level, position, rank






Bring up/mention/put forward

Put up/make higher






Occur/appear/become evident

Choose the correct form of the correct verb and complete the sentences that follow:

    1. Sales.... from $ 68 m in 2000 to $ 156 m in 2001.
    2. It is often necessary to ..... funds o finance the launch of a new product.
    3. The company cannot afford to ..... salaries to keep in line with inflation.
    4. The marketing manager will ..... this question at the next meeting.
    5. I would like to ..... a point here, if I may.
    6. The company's profits ....... by 25% last year.
    7. Inflation ...... by 8% this year.
    8. The candidate .... the question of salary.
    9. The company was forced to ...... prices.
    10. Some unexpected difficulties have ........
    11. The company's turnover has ...... 5 times in recent years.
    12. The campaign certainly succeeded in ...... brand awareness.
    13. The bank has .......interest rates again.
    14. Through his work and skill he ..... to a senior position very soon.

Focus on language: B. Quantifiers: The use of quantifiers before an adjective can make it more precise.

Ex: The common thread was that they all wanted a much faster and easier service than anything already available said Dave.

Put these quantifiers in the correct column:

Slightly a little considerably significantly

Moderately far somewhat much

a. a small degree of difference

b. a degree of difference

c. a large degree of difference

IV. Practice

A. Rewrite the following sentences using a quantifier and a comparative form of the adjective in brackets.

Example: We have a very large market share in comparison to or competitors (big)

Our market share is much bigger that our competitors'.

1. This year's sales figures increased by only 1% on last year's figures. (high)

This year's figures are ............

2. In recent years a few advertising laws concerning children have been relaxed. (easy)

Advertising to children.....

3. Our products only cot a bit more than our competitors' products. (expensive)

Our products are ...............

4. In comparison to the US, advertising laws in Europe are very complex. (complex)

5. We can see a small improvement in our market share this year. (good)

This year's market share is..........

6. It is interesting to learn other languages, but English is the international language of business. (useful)

English is...............

B. Translate into English:

Marketingul este acea functie a organizatiei, care prin intermediul unor metode si tehnici stiintifice, permite identificarea si satisfacerea, in mod systematic, a nevoilor, cerintelor si dorintelor publicului tinta la nivelul dorit de acesta.

Aceasta functie a marketingului doreste sa puna in evidenta caracterul practice, pragmatic, pe care il are aceasta stiinta. Bineinteles ca o abordare din perspective a ceea ce inseamna , in general, definirea unei stiinte, ar putea sa conduca la o exprimare relative diferita a conceptului de marketing.

Totusi, desi nu contine termenul de "stiinta" sau "stare de spirit" , doi termeni desul de des intilnii in definitii, definitia de mai sus pune la cel mai inalt nivel abordarea prcatica din perspectiva stiintifica si nu empirica. Mijloacele prin care o anumita organizatie cunoaste si se adapteaza cerintelor mediului intern si extern, sunt "metodele si tehnicile stiinifice".

Nu in ultimul rind, trebuie precizat ca modul in care a fost realizata definitia, pleaca de la premisa car in caracterul sau pronuntat aplicativ, marketingul reprezinta, la ora actuala, pentru orice organizatie, in primul rind o modalitate practica (stiintific determinata) viabila de care aceasta trebuie sa tina seama - pentru a desfasura o activitate eficienta si mai putin o stiinta care trebuie studiata si dezvoltata pentru a-si dovedi utilitatatea practica.

In final, trebuie mentionat faptul ca functia de marketing a organizatiei este foarte importanta, pentru ca permite optimizarea utilizarii resurselor necesare satisfacerii optime a clientilor.

(Ready For Business, Editura Universitara, Bucuresti, 2004, p. 179)

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