Scrigroup - Documente si articole

Username / Parola inexistente      

Home Documente Upload Resurse Alte limbi doc  

AstronomieBiofizicaBiologieBotanicaCartiChimieCopii
Educatie civicaFabule ghicitoriFizicaGramaticaJocLiteratura romanaLogica
MatematicaPoeziiPsihologie psihiatrieSociologie


Timpuri verbale in engleza

Gramatica

+ Font mai mare | - Font mai mic




DOCUMENTE SIMILARE

Trimite pe Messenger
Dictionar roman englez
The infinitive
VERBUL ( THE VERB) - CATEGORIILE GRAMATICALE
Atributul- sinteza teoretica - Clasificarea atributului dupa natura morfologica
SUBSTANTIVUL IN ENGLEZA
ADVERBUL
ADVERBUL IN ENGLEZA
Timpuri verbale in engleza
VERBE COMPLEXE
The Gerund



I.TIMPURILE MODULUI INDICATIV

I. THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE

-arata o actiune prezenta, generala sau o stare permanenta, o idee de viitor





(EVERYDAY)

The building stands over 200 feet high.

SE FORMEAZA:

-afirmativ: S + V (-es persoana a III sg.)

(-s )

I go to school everyday.

He goes to school everyday.

-interogativ: DO (vb. auxiliar) / DOES (pers, III nr. Sg.) + S + V?

Do I go to school everyday?

Does he go to school everyday?

-negativ: S + DO / DOES + NOT + V

I don’t go to school everyday.

He doesn’t go to school everyday.

II.THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE

- arata o actiune care se desfasoara acum, in momentul vorbirii.(NOW)

SE FORMEAZA:

-afirmativ: S +TO BE(la prezent)+V-ING

I am going to school now.

She is singing now

-interogativ: AM/IS/ARE+S+V-ING?

Am I going to school now?

Is she singing now?

-negativ: S+AM/IS/ARE+NOT+V-ING

I am not going to school now.

She is not singing now.

III. THE SIMPLE PAST TENSE

arata o actiune care s-a desfasurat intr-un moment bine definit din trecut si s-a incheiat.

(YESTERDAY).

SE FORMEAZA:

-afirmativ: S + V –ed / II

Cu forma a-II-a pt. Verbele neregulate.

Cu terminatia –ed pentru verbele regulate

I went to school yesterday.

He went to school yesterday.

I arrived home last week.

He arrived home last week.

-interogativ: DID + S + V ?

Did I go to school yesterday ?

Did he go to school yesterday?

Did I arrived home last week?

Did she arrived home last week?

-negativ: S + DID + NOT + V

I didn’t go to school yesyterday.

She didn’t go to school yesterday.

I didn’t arrived home last week.

She didn’t arrived home last week.

OBS: Timpul; momentul de desfasurare a actiunii poate fi precizat printrun adverb de timp.

Ex: yesterday, a day/ week/ month/ year ago, last week/ summer etc.

IV. THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE

arata o actiune care s-a desfasurat in mod continuu si neintrerupt intr-o perioada de timp bine determinata din trecut (sau in acelasi timp cu unul sau mai multe actiuni tot din trecut).

OBS: se traduce prin imperfect.

SE FORMEAZA:

-afirmativ: S + TO BE(la trecut) +V-ing

I was talking about you all morning yesterday.

You were shopping all afternoon last week.

-interogativ: WAS / WERE + S + V-ing?

Was I talking about you all morning yesterday ?

Were you shopping all afternoon last week?

-negativ: S +WAS / WERE + NOT + V-ing.

I wasn’t talking about you all morning.

You weren’t shopping all afternoon last week.

V.      THE SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE

-arata o actiune care se va desfasura intr-un moment din viitor.

(TOMORROW)

SE FORMEAZA:

-afirmativ: S + SHALL (I sg,pl) / WILL(II,III,sg,pl.) + V

He will graduate in July.

I shall go to the seaside in August.

-interogativ: SHALL / WILL + S + V?

Shall I open the window?

Will you pass me the butter?

-negativ: S + SHALL / WILL + NOT + V

I shall not go to the seaside in August.

He will not go to the seaside in August.

VI.        FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE

arata o actiune care va fi in curs de desfasurare intr-un moment bine definit din viitor .

SE FORMEAZA:

-afirmativ: S + SHALL / WILL + BE + V-ing.

I shall be going to the seaside this time in August.

He will be going to the seaside this time in August.

-interogativ: SHALL / WILL + S + BE + V-ing.

Shall I be going to the seaside this time in August?

Will he be going to the seaside this time in August?



-negativ: S + SHALL / WILL + NOT + V-ing.

We shall not be flying to London this time next year.

He will not be flying to London this time next year.

VII.THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE

arata o actiune care s-a desfasurat intr-un trecut apropiat, este nedefinita in timp si are legatura cu prezentul( sau se desfasoara si in prezent)

se traduce prin perfectul compus dar si prin prezent.

SE FORMEAZA:

-afirmativ: S + HAVE / HAS + V-ed/III

-interogativ: HAVE / HAS + S + V-ed/III

-negativ: S + HAVE / HAS + NOT + V-ed/III

They have just arrived.

Where have they been?

They haven`t arrive yet.

datorita faptului ca actiunea exprimata de acest timp este nedefinita,el poate fi insotit si de cele mai multe ori este, de unul din urmatoarele adverbe sau locutiuni adverbiale:

care se pun in fata verbului:

-JUST – tocmai, abia

-EVER - vreodata

-NEVER –niciodata

-OFTEN - adesea

-SELDON – rareori

-ALWAYS – intodeauna

-SOOMETIMES – candva, uneori

-ALREADY – deja

-RARELY – rareori

-FREQUENTLY – frecvent

-GENERRALY – in general

- care se pun la sfarsitul propozitiei:

-TODAY – astazi

-THIS WEEK / MONTH / SUMMER

-LATELY

-RECENTLY recent, de curand, in ultima vreme

- OF LATE

- yet – inca (in propozitii negative)

The play has just begun.

We have not finished yet.

Have you finished your paper?

SINCE , FOR – cer timpul PREZENT PERFECT in propozitiile din fata lor (deci nu in cele introduse de ele) atunci cand actiunea exprimata de verbul din propozitia respectiva continua pana in prezent.

SINCE – de, din, de la, de cand;(arata momentul inceperii actiunii.)

FOR – (arata durata actiunii)

Susan hasn’t visited Oradea since she was a little girl.

Thomas has worked in this office since he gratuated.

VIII.           THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE

arata o actiune care a inceput de curand si se desfasoara in mod continuu si neintrerupt pana in prezent.

SE FORMEAZA:

-afirmativ: S + HAVE / HAS + BEEN +V- ing

-interogativ: HAVE / HAS + S + BEEN + V-ing?

-negativ: S + HAVE / HAS + NOT + BEEN + V-ing.

We have been playing tennis for an hour now

We haven`t been playing tennis for an hour.

Have we been playing tennis for an hour?

IX. THE PAST PERFECT TENSE

- arata o actiune trecuta anterioara altei actiuni tot din trecut.

se traduce prin mai mult ca perfectul, perfectul compus sau imperfect.

Acest timp poate fi folosit impreuna cu aceleasi adverbe (locutiuni adverbiale) ca si timpul present perfect .

SE FORMEAZA:

-afirmativ: S+ HAD + V-ed / III

-interogativ: HAD + S + V-ed / III?

-negativ: S + HAD + NOT + V-ed / III

The teacher had not finished the lesson when the bell rang.

Had the teacher finished the lesson when the bell rang?

The teacher had not finished the lesson when the bell rang.

X. THE PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE

arata o actiune care a inceput intr-un moment din trecut si s-a desfasurat in mod continuu si neintrerupt pana intr-un alt moment din trecut.

- Se traduce prin mai mult ca perfectul sau imperfect.

SE FORMEAZA:

-afirmativ: HAD + BEEN + V-ing.

-interogativ: HAD + S + BEEN + V-ing?

-negativ: S + HAD + NOT + BEEN + V-ing

Andrew had been waiting for an hour when the teacher arrived.

Had Andrew been waiting for an hour till the teacher arrived.



Andrew had not been waiting forn an hour when the teacher arrived.

XI. FUTURE PERFECT TENSE

arata o actiune viitoare desfasurata inaintea altei actiuni tot din viitor.

Se traduce prin viitor anterior si prezent.

SE FORMEAZA:

-afirmativ: S + SHALL / WILL + HAVE + V-ed / III

-interogativ: SHALL / WILL + S + HAVE + V-ed / III?

-negativ: S + SHALL / WILL + NOT + HAVE + V-ed / III

I shall have finished cleaning the house by the time they arrive home.

Shall I have finished cleaning the house by the time they arrive home

I shall not have finished cleaning the house by the time they arrive home.

XII. FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE

-arata o actiune care va fi in curs de desfasurare inaintea unui moment din viitor.

-Se traduce prin viitor sau prezent.

SE FORMEAZA:

-afirmativ: S+SHALL / WILL + HAVE + BEEN + V-ing.

-interogativ: SHALL / WILL + S + HAVE + BEEN + V-ing?

-negativ: S + SHALL / WILL + NOT + HAVE + BEEN + V-ing.

They will have been working till then.

Will they have been working till then?

They will not have been working till then.

XIII. FUTURE IN THE PAST

SE FORMEAZA:

-afirmativ: S + SHOULD / WOULD + V

-interogativ: SHOULD / WOULD + S + V

-negativ: S + SHOULD / WOULD + NOT + V

XIV. FUTURE PERFECT IN THE PAST

SE FORMEAZA:

-afirmativ: S +SHOULD / WOULD + HAVE + V –ed / III.

-interogativ: SHOULD / WOULD + S + HAVE + V –ed / III?

-negativ: S + SHOULD / WOULD + NOT + HAVE + V-ed / III.

Future in the past

I should go to the theatre.

He would finish the paper.

Ann told me that she would go shopping.

Future perfect in the past

The mechanic was sure that he would have finished fixing the car by the time they came.

CONCORDANTA TIMPURILOR

Concordanta timpurilor este un set de reguli care reglementeza relatia dintre predicatul din propozitia subordonata si predicatul din propozitia subordonata.

Principala Secundara

a)    Prezent —————→ Orice timp

b)    Viitor —————→ Viitor sau Prezent

c) Trecut —————→ una dintre formele de Trecut ( future in the past)

(past perfect)

(past tense)

a)       Cand verbul din propozisia principala este la un timp prezent in propozitia secundara putem folosi orice timp:

I am sure that he will call me.

Susan is writing a book about what she saw during her travel through Europe.

b)       Cand verbul din propozitia principala este la timpul viitor, verbul din secundara poate fi la un timp viitor sau la un timp prezent.

Ann will give us everything we need when she comes

ATENTIE! In propozitiile subordonate circumstantiale de timp ca si in cele conditionale, nu se foloseste nici un fel de timp viitor format cu ajutorul verbelor auxiliare: shall, will, should, would.

- Aceste propozitii pot fi introduse prin when, before, after, while, till, until, as soon as, by the time (that), as long as, if.

- Daca propozitia subordonata este introdusa prin if sau when, dar este propozitie completiva directa, se poate folosi timpul viitor.

I am sure she doesn't know when Mary will go there.

Father wonders if John will go there.

c)       Cand in propozitia principala predicatul este la un timp trecut in propozitiile secundare predicatele trebuie sa fie tot la un timp trecut (PAST TENSE, PAST PERFECT TENSE, FUTURE IN THE PAST).

Tom waited in the library as teacher was writting .

My parents were sure they had never gone there before that day.

Susan promised him she would be there at 8 o`clock.

EXCEPTII:

Cand in propozitia subordonata este prezentat un adevar general valabil:

She knew very well that the Earth is round.

In propozitiile atributive timpul este cel cerut de context:

The girl who is near the window was my girlfriend.

Fraza conditionala are propriile ei reguli de concordanta



In prezentul istoric timpul trecut poate fi folosit pentru a da culoare stilului;

II. MODUL SUBJONCTIV

SE FORMEAZA:

forma veche este identica cu indicativ prezent fara TO

-aceeasi pentru toate persoanele atat la plural cat si la singular:

Long live the king !

German be hanged !

SUBJONCTIVUL PREZENT are forma de PAST TENSE exceptie verbul TO BE este

WERE la toate persoanele.

I wish you understood me.

If I were you I wouldn’t do that .

SUBJONCTIVUL PERFECT

- Are forma de PAST PERFECT

- acesta exprima o actiune anterioara celei exprimate de verbul din propozitia principala sau o situatie ireala imposibila.

Se traduce prin: conjunctiv perfect sau conditional perfect.

If Tom had been there he would have finished the work.

4. SUBJONCTIVUL ANALITIC

SE FORMEAZA:

A.      SHOULD / WOULD + V

MAY / MIGHT + V

WOULD +V

COULD +V

B.      -cand se foloseste ideea de anterior + HAVE

SHALL / SHOULD + HAVE + V –ed / III

MAY / MIGHT + HAVE + V –ed / III

WOULD + HAVE + V –ed / III

COULD + HAVE + V –ed / III

*Se foloseste dupa verbele:

-TO DEMAND

-TO INSIST

-TO ORDER

-TO REQUEST

-TO PROPOSE

-TO DECIDE + THAT

-TO ADVICE

-TO EXPECT

-TO RECOMAND

-TO SUGEST

-TO HURRY

Ex.We advice that everybody shall be graduated the highschool.

We expect that you should have finished the book.

*in constructiile:

IT + TO BE + ADJECTIV + VERB

Ex.: It is necessary It is faire

It is advisable It is natural

It is better It is strange

It is vital It is odd

It is important It is amazing

It is right It is ridiculos

It is desirable It is impossible

It is wonderful It is essential

It is essential for me that he should come in time.

*dupa cuvintele: -desire -request

-idea -agreement

-intention -domand

-proposal -arangement

-wish -in case

-sugestion -however

-as if

III.MODUL CONDITIONAL

-exprima o actiune dorita sau o conditie.

conditionalul prezent:

SE FORMEAZA:

SHOULD / WOULD + V

conditionalul perfect:

SE FORMEAZA:

SHOULD / WOULD + HAVE + V-ed / III

- se traduce prin modul conditional prezent sau perfect.

Conditional prezent:

I would eat a cake .

I should write my homework .

Conditional perfect:

He would have written you soon.

He should have written you as soon as possible.







Politica de confidentialitate

DISTRIBUIE DOCUMENTUL

Comentarii


Vizualizari: 1611
Importanta: rank

Comenteaza documentul:

Te rugam sa te autentifici sau sa iti faci cont pentru a putea comenta

Creaza cont nou

Termeni si conditii de utilizare | Contact
© SCRIGROUP 2020 . All rights reserved

Distribuie URL

Adauga cod HTML in site