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THE CONDITIONAL MOOD AND THE IF CLAUSE

Gramatica

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ADVERBUL
PRONUMELE (THE PRONOUN) - PERSONAL PRONOUNS
JOCURI EXERCITII GRAMATICALE
Interjectia (Interjection) sis Punctuatia (Punctuation – a) – limba engleza
Prepozitia
Adjectivul (The Adjective) – limba engleza
CONCORDANTA TIMPURILOR
TEST de Plasare pentru Limba PORTUGHEZA
THE FUTURITY
The Subjunctive Mood



THE CONDITIONAL MOOD AND THE IF CLAUSE

THE PRESENT CONDITIONAL





Forma

Formati conditionalul prezent cu verbul would / should + infinitiv

Afirmativ

I / you / he / she / it / we / you / they    would - work

Negativ

I / you / he / she / it / we / you / they    would not - work

Interogativ

Would I / you / he / she / it / we / you / they – work?

Negativ-Interogativ

Would I not / wouldn’t I / work? Would you not / wouldn’t you / work?

Forma contrasa

I would = I’d / you would = you’d

He would not = he wouldn’t / they would not = they wouldn’t

Should poate fi folosit pentru toate persoanele pentru a exprima indatorirea sau sugestia:

I should work today but I’m too tired. (datorie)

Alan should work harder to earn more money. (sugestie)

THE PERFECT CONDITIONAL

Forma

Formati conditionalul perfect cu would / should + have + participiu trecut

Afirmativ

I / you / he / she / it / we / you / they    would have - worked

Negativ

I / you / he / she / it / we / you / they    would not have - worked

Interogativ

Would I / you / he / she / it / we / you / they have - worked

Negativ-Interogativ

Would I not have (wouldn’t I have) worked?

Utilizare

Timpurile conditionale se folosesc:

la fel ca viitorul simplu (future-in-the-past) cand verbul principal este la trecut:

I think he will come. – I thought he would come.

pentru a face referiri la actiuni obisnuite din trecut:

When we lived in Africa we would often spend our weekends in the bush.

When Elena was a baby she would cry all night long.

in propozitii subordonate dupa: advise, agree, arrange, ask, beg, command, decide, demand, determine, insist, order, propose, recommend, request, suggest, be anxious, be determined

The doctor decided (that) the patient should have his appendix out.

Mr. Walker is anxious (that) her son should get the job.

cu it is / was + adjectiv + that… should

It’s essential that the students should get to their lesson on time.

It was strange that he should say that.

dupa can’t think, don’t know why sau see no reason why

I see no reason why we should worry.

I don’t know why my neighbour should do that.

I can’t think why Frank should apologise.

cu oferte si cereri:

Would you prefer tea or coffee?

Would you like to see my stamp collection?

Nota

Would rather… inseamna a prefera sa

I would rather have coffee than tea.

We would rather take the bus than walk.

in propozitii conditionale

Exista trei tipuri de propozitii conditionale (IF Cluase)

IF Clause – Tipul I: pentru a indica probabilitatea

Forma

Formati primul tip de propozitie conditionala cu If + prezent simplu si will / prezent simplu / imperativ + infinitiv scurt (in propozitia principala)

If I run, I will catch the train.

She smiles if you greets her.

Read that book, if you find it.

Nota

Forma contrasa este cea uzuala in engleza vorbita.

If Frank doesn’t come, we’ll start without him.

Nota



Este posibila inversarea subordonatei cu propozitia principala:

If I get home early, I’ll phone you.

I’ll phone you, if I get home early.

Utilizare

Conditionalul de tip I se foloseste astfel:

cand situatia din propozitia conditionala este probabila sau se presupune ca se va intampla. Desi sensul poate fi de prezent sau viitor, verbul din propozitia conditionala este intotdeauna la timpul prezent.

The vase will break, if you drop it.

Will you get me some milk, if you go to the supermarket?

verbele modale precum can, may, must, should il inlocuiesc pe will in propozitia principala:

You can enter the stadium, if you have a ticket.

If he isn’t in, you may leave a message.

John must work very hard, if he wants to get elected.

If you want to wear that dress this summer, you should lose some weight.

cu doua timpuri prezente (unul in fiecare propozitie) pentru a indica rezultate automate sau obisnuinte:

If you push that button, it comes on.

If you mix red and blue, you get purple.

Nota

Should poate fi plasat dupa sau in loc de if cand vorbim despre o posibilitate mai putin probabila. Notati ca subiectul este asezat dupa should.

If I should visit India, I’ll go and see the Taj Mahal.

Should I visit India, I’ll go and see the Taj Mahal.

Nota

Pentru a indica sfatul, comanda sau cererea, in propozitia principala se pot folosi: could, would, had better, ought to:

Bill had better get his hair cut, if he wants to get that job.

I would pay the fine, if you don’t want to get into trouble with the police.

cu timpuri prezente alternative (continue sau perfecte) in propozitia conditionala:

If you are making a cup of coffee, I’ll have one too.

If the children have finished dinner, I’ll wash up.

Nota

Unless = If … not

Unless it’s a sunny day tomorrow, we won’t go on that picnic = If it is not a sunny day tomorrow, we won’t go on that picnic.

Otherwise = or else

If you don’t study, you’ll fail the exam = you must study, otherwise you’ll fail the exam = you must study, or else you’ll fail the exam.

IF Clause – Tipul II : pentru a indica improbabilitatea sau ipoteza

Forma

Formati al doilea tip de propozitie conditionala cu If + past simple si would + infinitivul scurt (in propozitia principala)

If you invited her she would come.

If you did not invite her she would not come.

Nota

Tipul II de conditional se refera la prezent sau la viitor. Trecutul din subordonata conditionala nu are sens de trecut. Este un conjunctiv care indica improbabilitatea sau ipoteza.

Utilizare

Conditionalul de tipul II se foloseste:

cand situatia din subordonata conditionala este putin probabil sa se petreaca sau reprezinta exprimarea unei posibilitati ipotetice:

If I won the lottery, I would stop working. (but I don’t belive I win)

cu referire la o situatie prezenta sau viitoare, foarte improbabila sau ireala:

If I were you, I’d buy a bigger car. (but I’m not you)

If the distance to the train station were shorter, I’d walk there. (the distance is unlikely to change)

Nota

Conjunctivul verbului to be este were pentru toate persoanele. Totusi, in engleza vorbita auzim uneori was la persoana I si a III-a.

If I was to visit…

If it was a nice day…

pentru a face o sugestie politicoasa sau pentru a exprima o ipoteza perfect realizabila:

If we go in two cars, we’ll be more comfortable.

If we went in two cars, we’d be more comfortable.

Nota

Conditionalul de tipul II este considerat mai politicos pentru a face o sugestie sau a da un sfat:

Will I catch the shops open, if I run?

You will catch them open, if you walk. Sau mai politicos:

You would catch them open, if you walked.

verbele modale la un timp trecut il pot inlocui pe would. Sensurile se modifica in mod corespunzator:

If Mr. Lynch applied for the job, he would get it. (sigur in mod virtual)

If Mr. Lynch applied for the job, he might get it. (posibil)

If Mr. Lynch got the job, he could start next Monday. (abilitate)

cu forme continue fie in subordonata conditionala, fie in propozitia principala:

If I weren’t at work today, I would be at home mowing the lawn.

If I were giving a presentation, I’d use slides.



IF Clause – Tipul III : pentru a indica imposibilitatea

Forma

Formati al treilea tip de propozitie conditionala cu If + mai mult ca perfect si would have + participiu trecut (in propozitia principala)

If they have invited David he would have gone.

Forma contrasa: atat I had cat si I would = I’d

If they’d invited David, he’d have gone.

Nota

Tipul III de conditional se refera la trecut si indica imposibilitatea. Este imposibila indeplinirea actiunii din principala pentru ca actiunea din subordonata conditionala nu s-a petrecut.

Utilizare

Conditionalul de tipul III se foloseste:

cand situatia din subordonata conditionala este in trecut, deci imposibila:

If we had taken an umbrella with us last night, we would not have got wet. (We didn’t take an umbrella last night so we got wet.)

cu could (cu referire la abilitate sau permisiune) si might (cu referire la posibilitate) in locul lui would in propozitia principala:

I could have made a cake, if you had told me it was your husband’s birthday. (abilitate)

I might have won the squash game last night, if I hadn’t eaten such a big meal before playing.

cu forme continue fie in subordonata conditionala fie in principala:

If the driver hadn’t been going slowly, he would have crashed into the car in front.

He would have been driving faster, if he hadn’t realised the danger.

Nota

In engleza vorbita tipurile II si III de conditional apar amestecate:

Luckily it didn’t rain. If it had rained, I would be wet now.

I didn’t pass my driving test. If I had passed it, I could be driving my car now.

IF ONLY

If only se poate folosi la toate cele trei tipuri de conditional pentru a sublinia speranta sau regretul

If only the wind blows in the right direction, we’ll get back to the shore safe and sound. (prezent = speranta)

If only we had an engine on this boat, we could get back in no time. (trecut simplu = dorinta)

If only we had taken a siren with us, we could have sent an S.O.S. (mai mult ca perfectul = regret)

Nota

Will / would / could / should si alte verbe modale nu se folosesc de obicei in propozitia conditionala. Exista si exceptii:

If you would ask him for me, I would be grateful. (solicitare politicoasa)

If my brother would tell me why he’s so upset, perhaps I could help. (pentru a indica vointa)

If you will eat so much all the time, you are bound to get fat. (pentru a indica vointa, incapatanarea)

Nota

Inversiune:

If he had the time, he…

Had he had the time, he…

Exercitii

Alegeti should sau would pentru a completa spatiile in aceasta povestire:

It is only fair that you ….(1) know about Harry’s past before you marry him. When he was a child he ….(2) always get himself into trouble and his father always insisted that he …. (3) tell us where he was going. Once he went down to the river to fish, he said. But I could see no reason why he ….(4) take his air-rifle with him. I was so worried that I begged that his father ….(5) follow him; he did just that and to his surprise he saw that Harry was shooting at the fish instead of catching them with a rod. His father was so furious that he ordered that Harry ….(6) hand his rifle over to the police. He said he …..(7) but we suspect he kept it hidden away somewhere because we …..(8) hear shooting in the fields every now and then. Well my dear, it is better that you …..(9) hear these things before making an important decision. …..(10) you perhaps prefer to meet Harry’d older brother? Now he is a completely different person!

Puneti verbele din paranteze la forma corecta: conditionalul I, II sau III:

1. We (drive) out of town after dinner unless you are too tired. 2. If I (be) able to spell correctly, I’d be so happy! 3. If you had arrived in the daytime I (meet) you at the station. 4. If you keep calm, you (remember) what to do. 5. If Mr. Brown (drive) more carefully he wouldn’t have had the accident. 6. She would get too hot if you (cover) her up. 7. He would have known what was wrong if he (look) at the engine. 8. If the engine had been repaired he (be able) to use the car. 9. They will send you the spare parts you need on condition they (get) your order. 10. An interpreter (help) you if you cannot understand the Customs officer.

Puneti verbele din paranteze la forma corecta: prezent, viitor, imperativ

1. Unless Betty (have) enough money, she (not be able) to buy the sweater. 2. The boys (not go) up the mountain tomorrow if it (be) foggy. 3. If the television programme (be) good on Sundays, my parents always (stay) at home and (watch) TV. 4. She (buy) a large car provided she (win) the lottery. 5. If you (put) sugar in warm water, it (dissolve).

Puneti verbele din paranteze la forma corecta:

1. If you would come with me, I (show) you the town. 2. If I were you I (be) more careful. 3. She (get) a job as an interpreter on condition she knew two languages well. 4. He wouldn’t start work on the project unless his manager (agree) to the plan. 5. If I (know) this language well, I could translate the book into Romanian.

Puneti verbele din paranteze la forma corecta:

1. Vera: Thank goodness! I thought you’d missed it. Laura: I very nearly did. What (you, do) if I (miss) it? 2. Vera: I think I (get) out of the train. Then I (wait) for you on the platform. 3. Laura: If I (not, find) a taxi I (not, get) here in time. 4. Vera: I thought you were coming by bus. Laura: I was, but it broke down when we were halfway here. If I (wait) for another one, I (certainly, miss) this train. 5. Vera: How lucky that you found a taxi. Laura: Oh, yes. It (be) a nuisance if we (miss) the train.

Cheia exercitiilor:

* 1. Should 2. Would 3. Should 4. Should 5.    Should 6. Should 7. Would 8. Would 9. Should 10. Would

* 1. We’ll drive 2. Were 3. Would have met 4. You’ll remember 5. Had driven 6. Covered 7. Had looked 8. Would have been able 9. Get 10. Will help

* 1. Has, will not be able 2. Will not go, is 3. Is, stay, watch 4. Will buy, wins 5. Put, dissolves

* 1. Would show 2. Would be 3. Would get 4. Agreed 5. knew

* 1. would you have done, had missed 2. Would have got, would have waited 3. Hadn’t found, wouldn’t have got 4. Had waited, would certainly have missed 5. Would have been, had missed







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