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THE FUTURITY

Gramatica



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THE FUTURITY

Exista mai multe modalitati de exprimare a actiunilor viitoare. Alegerea unei anumite modalitati depinde de felul actiunii viitoare: planificata, intentionata, asteptata, iminenta sau daca face parte dintr-un program.



THE SIMPLE FUTURE

Forma

Formati viitorul cu shall /will + infinitiv fara to

Afirmativ

I / we shall work

you / he / she / it / you / they will work

Negativ

I / we shall not work

you / he / she / it / you / they will not work

Interogativ

Shall I / we work?

Will you / he / she / it / you / they work?

Interogativ negativ: Shall I not (shan't I) work? Will you not (won't you) work? Will he not (won't he) work?

Forme contrase

I shall - I'll; you will - you'll; he will - he'll; we shall - we'll

Nota

Deoarece in limba vorbita will il inlocuieste pe shall, tendinta actuala este de inlocuire a lui shall cu will chiar si in scris.

Utilizare

Viitorul simplu se foloseste:

pentru a exprima o reactie sau decizie spontana sau neplanificata, facuta la momentul vorbirii:

Mary, the phone is ringing. Oh. Is it? I'll answer it.

I'm too tired to go out tonight. I think I'll stay home.

Nota

Pentru deciziile neplanificate, facute in momentul vorbirii, se foloseste viitorul simplu. Pentru referirile ulterioare la aceste decizii se foloseste prezentul continuu cu sens de viitor sau forma cu going to in locul viitorului cu will.

pentru evenimente probabile in viitor: pentru a transmite ceea ce vorbitorul stie, crede, spera, presupune, se teme, se indoieste, se asteapta sa, se intreaba daca stie ca se va intampla:

After this rainy summer, I expect the harvest will be good.

I hope Lucky Jim will win, I've bet 100 on him.

pentru a prezice evenimente viitoare:

By the year 2050 we will all be driving electric cars.

pentru a te oferi sa faci ceva:

I can't do my homework. Don't worry. I'll help you.

pentru a accepta sau refuza sa faci ceva:

Can you give me a lift to the station tomorrow morning? Of course, I'll pick you up at 8.30.

pentru a promite ca faci/ nu faci ceva:

I'll say hello to Kathy for you.

I won't tell anybody about what happened last night.

pentru a cera cuiva sa faca ceva:

I'm trying to do some work. Will you be quiet, please?

Nota

Will not (sau won't) se foloseste adesea pentru a exprima o intentie negativa foarte clara:

He won't move his car = He refuses to move his car.

Nota

Will se foloseste cu adverbe de probabilitate, cum sunt: probably, perhaps, certainly:

The factory workers will probably get a pay increase this year.

Nota

Shall se poate folosi pentru sugestii sau oferte la persoana I singular si plural - shall I .? Shall we .?

Where shall I put these boxes? (= where do you suggest I put them?)

Shall we go now?

Raspunsuri scurte si interogatii disjunctive

Pentru a forma raspunsuri scurte, lui yes sau no li se poate adauga structura subiect + will

Will it break if I sit on it? Yes, it will.

2. THE FUTURE CONTINUOUS

Uneori se mai numeste si viitorul progresiv.

Forma

Formati viitorul continuu cu shall /will be + .ing

Afirmativ

I / we shall be working

You/ he / she / it / you / they will be working

Negativ

I / we shall not be working

You/ he / she / it / you / they will not be working

Interogativ

Shall I / we be working?

Will you/ he / she / it / you / they be working?

Interogativ negativ: Shall I not (shan't I) be working? Will you not (won't you) be working? Will he not (won't he) be working?

Utilizare

Viitorul continuu se foloseste:

pentru a exprima actiuni in desfasurare in viitor, cand timpul este mentionat sau dedus:

Margaret will be wearing her usual red dress at the party on Saturday night.

This time next week I'll be lying on a hot sunny beach. What will you be doing?

pentru a exprima ceva care a fost deja planuit sau decis, fara intentia vorbitorului si fara a se mentiona un timp anume:

I'll be going to the newsagent's soon. Can I get you a newspaper?

pentru a intreba politicos despre planurile altora. Aceasta forma sugereaza ca dorim sa ne potrivim cu planurile celeilalte persoane, nu sa le schimbam:

Will you be using your car this evening? No, why? Could I borrow it?

3. THE FUTURE PERFECT SIMPLE

Forma

Formati viitorul perfect cu shall / will + have + participiul trecut

Afirmativ

I / we shall have worked

You/ he / she / it / you / they will have worked

Negativ

I / we shall not have worked

You/ he / she / it / you / they will not have worked

Interogativ

Shall I / we have worked?

Will you/ he / she / it / you / they have worked?

Interogativ negativ: Shall I not (shan't I) have worked? Will you not (won't you) have worked? Will he not (won't he) have worked?

Utilizare

Viitorul perfect se foloseste:

pentru a exprima o actiune care se va fi petrecut deja pana la un anumit moment din viitor. Este importanta mentionarea momentului:

I will have retired from work by the time I'm 65.

Jack is running for the 8.10 train. He looks at his watch; it's now 8.12. He thinks to himself, it's useless running, the train will have left by now.

4. THE FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS

Forma

Formati viitorul perfect continuu cu shall / will + have been + .ing

Afirmativ

I / we shall have been working

You/ he / she / it / you / they will have been working

Negativ

I / we shall not have been working

You/ he / she / it / you / they will not have been working

Interogativ

Shall I / we have been working?

Will you/ he / she / it / you / they have worked?

Interogativ negativ: Shall I not (shan't I) have been working? Will you not (won't you) have been working? Will he not (won't he) have been working?

Utilizare

Viitorul perfect continuu se foloseste:

pentru a exprima faptul ca o actiune se va afla inca in desfasurare la un anumit moment in viitor:

They will have been building that house for 2 years next Christmas.

Nota

Diferenta dintre timpurile perfect prezent si timpurile viitoare perfecte:

Perfect prezent simplu:

Mr. + Mrs. Fox have known each other for 7 years.

Viitorul perfect simplu:

Mr. + Mrs. Fox will have known each other for 8 years next April.

7 years

past    now

7 years .. 8 years

past    now next April

Prezent perfect continuu:

Mr. + Mrs. Fox have been living together for 7 years.

Viitorul perfect continuu:

Mr. + Mrs. Fox will have been living together for 8 years next April.

5. THE FUTURE-IN-THE-PAST SIMPLE

Forma

Formati viitorul in trecut simplu cu should / would + infinitivul scurt

Afirmativ

I / we should work

You/ he / she / it / you / they would work

Negativ

I / we should not work

You/ he / she / it / you / they would not work

Interogativ

Should I / we work?

Would you/ he / she / it / you / they work?

Interogativ negativ: Should I not (shouldn't I) work? Would you not (wouldn't you) work?

Utilizare

Viitorul in trecut se foloseste:

pentru a exprima o actiune viitoare vazuta dintr-un punct de vedere trecut. Se foloseste in propozitii subordonate completive directe:

She told me that she would go there soon.

6. THE FUTURE-IN-THE-PAST CONTINUOUS

Forma

Formati viitorul in trecut continuu cu should / would + be + participiul prezent

Afirmativ

I / we should be working

You/ he / she / it / you / they would be working

Negativ

I / we should not be working

You/ he / she / it / you / they would not be working

Interogativ

Should I / we be working?

Would you/ he / she / it / you / they be working?

Interogativ negativ: Should I not (shouldn't I) be working? Would you not (wouldn't you) be working?

Utilizare

Viitorul in trecut continuu se foloseste:

pentru a exprima un viitor continuu dintr-un punct de vedere trecut:

The woman assured us that, in less than half an hour, her baby would be sleeping.

7. TO BE TO FUTURE

Utilizare

Viitorul cu to be to se foloseste:

pentru ceva care este destinat sa se intample:

The famous tennis player began the match in which he was to break his arm.

pentru un plan sau un aranjament oficial:

The President was to arrive at 10 o'clock.

pentru vointa unei persoane, alta decat vorbitorul:

This bad news is to be given to him after his exam.

pentru o datorie:

What exercises are we to do?

pentru o posibilitate, probabilitate:

Prices are to be much higher soon.

8. TO BE ABOUT TO FUTURE

Utilizare

Viitorul cu to be about to se foloseste:

pentru a exprima ceva care e pe punctul de a se intampla:

Our guests are about to leave.

I am about to go to the seaside

9. TO    BE GOING TO FUTURE (The Near Future)

Forma

Se formeaza cu to be + going to + infinitiv

Afirmativ

I am / you are/ he, she, it is/ we, you, they are going to work

Negativ

I am / you are/ he, she, it is/ we, you, they are not going to work

Interogativ

Am I / are you / is he, she, it / are we, you, they going to work?

Interogativ negativ: Am I not (aren't I) going to work? Are you not (aren't you) going to work? Is he not (isn't he) going to work?

Utilizare

Forma cu going to se foloseste:

pentru a exprima intentia de a face in viitor ceva ce nu a fost aranjat dar probabil se va intampla:

Jim and Sue are going to move to Liverpool when they finish their training.

Sarah and John are going to get married next year.

pentru a prezice o intamplare in viitor:

Acest timp se foloseste pentru a exprima ceea ce credem ca se va intampla, in special atunci cand ceva din situatia prezenta indica un rezultat in viitorul imediat. Timpul nu este de obicei mentionat.

Look how fast those cars are moving. There is going to be an accident.

That little girl isn't looking where she's going. She is going to walk into that tree.

forma cu was/were going to e folosita pentru a exprima o intentie din trecut care nu s-a realizat:

I was going to phone you last night but I fell asleep in front of the TV

My parents were going to go to Scotland for their holidays but they changed their minds and went to Ireland instead.

Exercitii

Puneti verbele din paranteza la forma corecta folosind will sau going to:

1. The fire has gone out. Oh, yes! I (go) and get some wood. 2. What are you doing with that pan? I (get) lunch ready. 3. Mr. Doyle has just arrived. Oh, good, I (meet) him at the lift. 4. I haven't bought any cigarettes because I (try) to give up smoking. 5. I've got a hole in my trousers. Give them to me. I (mend) them for you. 6. Look what I bought at the auction this morning! How nice, where (you/ put) it? 7. Did you post that letter for me? I completely forgot. I (do) it now. 8. What would you like to drink: red or white wine? I (have) red, please. 9. I see you are wearing your overalls. .(you/fix) your car? 10. Have you booked the flight? Not yet, I (do) it tomorrow. 11. I (go) shopping later. Really, I (come) with you. 12. What (you/do) when you leave university? I don't know yet; perhaps I (travel) around Europe for a year. 13. You look exhausted. Sit down and I (make) you a cup of tea. 14. When (you/buy) a new car? This one is falling to pieces. I can't afford it now, I (change) it next year when I get a pay rise. 15. (you/pass) me the salt, please? 16. (you/park) my car for me? 17. I (make) a cup of coffee, if you wish. 18. (you/decorate) the whole house yourself? 19. Do you want me to help you with that maths exercises? No, thanks I (solve) it myself. 20. I (not buy) any more new clothes until I've lost five kilos.

Puneti verbele din paranteza la viitorul simplu sau continuu:

1. The weather (probably, be) fine tomorrow so we (go) on a trip to the seaside. 2. We (lie) on the beach and (swim) in the water between 10 and 12 in the morning. 3. At noon we (have) lunch in a restaurant on the pier. 4. Then we (walk) along the shore and (look) at the ships for a while. 5. We (eat) ice-creams and (listen) to the brass band between 4 and 5 in the afternoon. 6. About 5 o'clock in the afternoon we (go) to our car and (drive) back home. 7. In the evening we (sit) round the table in the living-room and (tell) jockes. 8. We (go) to bed about 10 o'clock. I'm sure we (have) a good time tomorrow.

Puneti verbele din paranteza la forma corecta: prezent, viitor sau viitor perfect:

1. By the time the writer (meet) his readers, he (write) 200 pages of his novel. 2. I (give) Cathy your message before you (see) her. 3. Mr. Brown (teach) our class until 10 o'clock. By 10.05 he (leave) the classroom. 4. When father (return) from his trip, we (already, leave) on holiday. 5. The cook (prepare) the dinner before the guests (arrive). 6. The next time you (meet) George, he (be) an engineer for two months. 7. When you (go) into the office, the post (already, arrive). 8. They (close) the shop by the time you (get) there. 9. The company (deliver) the materials until the beginning of the May. They (deliver) everything by the first of May. 10. When you (see) Jack next month, he (almost, finish) his military service.

Puneti verbele din paranteza la prezent, prezentul perfect, viitor sau viitorul perfect (simplu sau continuu):

1. What (you, do) when you (graduate)? 2. By next December, Henry (work) in this factory for two years and he (learn) a lot of useful things. 3. Mr. Brown (fly) to America tomorrow. He (eat) his lunch while he (fly) over the ocean. 4. Mrs. Barton (wait) in the car while her husband (get) the petrol. 5. Next week my friends (lie) on the beach while I (write) examination papers. I (work) hard for a week; when I (finish), I (be) exhausted. 6. I (already, have) lunch by the time you (arrive). 7. I (go) to bed as soon as I (finish) my work. 8. I (just, come) back from school by seven o'clock tomorrow. 9. When I (live) in this district for a few months, I (know) the names of all the streets. 10. The doctor (operate) from eight to ten in the morning; don't let anyone get into the operating theatre.

Cheia exercitiilor:

*1. I'll go 2. I'm going to get 3. I'll meet 4. I'm going to try 5. I'll mend 6. are you going to put 7. I'll do 8. I'll have 9. are you going to fix 10. I'll do 11. I am going to go, I'll come 12. are you going to do, I'll travel 13. I'll make 14. are you going to buy 15. will you pass 16. will you park 17. I'll make 18. are you going to decorate 19. I'll solve 20. I'm not going to buy

* 1. will probably be fine, we'll go 2. will be lying, will be swimming 3. will be having 4. will be walking, we'll look 5. We'll be eating, we'll be listening to 6. We'll go, we'll drive 7. We'll be sitting, we'll be telling 8. We'll go, we'll have

* 1. meets, will have written 2. I'll give, see 3. will teach, will has left 4. returns, will already have left 5. will prepare, arrive 6. meet, will have been 7. go, will already have arrived 8. will have closed, get 9. will deliver, will have delivered 10. See, will almost has finished

* 1. are you going to do, graduate 2. will have been working, will have learnt 3. Is flying, we'll be eating, will be flying 4. will be waiting, gets 5. will be lying, I am writing, I'll work, I'll finish, I'll be exhausted 6. I'll already have had lunch, arrive 7. I'll go, finish 8. I'll just have come back 9. I've lived, I'll know 10. will be operating



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