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ATENTIE: In engleza, toate propozitiile trebuie sa aiba subiect. Subiectul poate fi un substantiv sau un pronume.
friend, child, doctor, cousin, baby, teenager, artist, cook, dancer, driver, teacher
Genul poate fi indicat de un pronume insotitor:
My friend sent her son a present. ("friend" este de genul feminin)
The doctor opened his bag. ("doctor" este un barbat)
Child si baby pot fi considerate neutre:
The baby closed its eyes and fell asleep.
Numele de tari sunt si ele considerate neutre:
son, daughter nephew, niece uncle, aunt
actor, actress waiter, waitress gentleman, lady
father, mother husband, wife man, woman
male, female bull, cow hero, heroine
boyfriend, girlfriend male pilot, female pilot
man dentist, woman dentist wolf, she-wolf
NOTA: In incercarea de a elimina "discriminarea de gen" (gender discrimination) exista o tendinta de a inlocui "terminatiile" -man si -woman cu -person sau de a le elimina complet. In alte cazuri au fost create alte expresii sau alte cuvinte lipsite de gen.
salesman, saleswoman salesperson
chairman, chairwoman chairperson sau chair
steward, stewardess flight attendant
B.1. Substantivele numarabile - se pot numara, adica au numar. Pot avea atat forme de singular cat si de plural. La plural avem urmatoarele forme:
book, books day, days house, houses
donkey, donkeys handkerchief, handkerchiefs
potato, potatoes church, churches brush, brushes
bus, buses box, boxes kiss, kisses
baby, babies factory, factories fly, flies
NOTA: Exista exceptii:
kilo, kilos photo, photos piano, pianos
radio, radios soprano, sopranos
calf, calves wife, wives wolf, wolves loaf, loaves
half, halves leaf, leaves life, lives shelf, shelves
thief, thieves knife, knives self, selves
foot, feet tooth, teeth goose, geese
man, men woman, women
mouse, mice louse, lice
*child, children person, people
sheep, deer, aircraft, fish (RAR: fishes) trout, salmon, series, species, means, headquarters
clothes, pants, pyjamas, scissors, eyeglasses, scales, stairs, savings, earnings, belongings, outskirts, wages, premises, surroundings, archives, customs, police, the Middle Ages
crisis, crises cactus, cacti phenomenon, phenomena
datum, data libretto, libretti fungus, fungi
nucleus, nuclei stimulus, stimuli criterion, criteria
basis, bases thesis, theses oasis, oases
axis, axes medium, media bacterium, bacteria
NOTA: Engleza moderna foloseste adesea data, media, bacteria cu sens plural, dar cu un verb la singular.
The latest data is highly encouraging.
The Kennedys are world-famous.
family, aristocracy, nobility, government, enemy, proletariat, press, opposition, jury, community, army, audience, crew, staff, team, committee, public
NOTA: Ocazional substantivele colective sunt folosite la plural si sunt numarabile.
Romeo and Juliet came from two feuding families.
The governments of
Only two teams can get to the finals.
B.2. Substantivele nenumarabile - NU pot fi numarate, adica nu au numar. De obicei au numai forma de singular. Se impart in urmatoarele categorii:
water wood metal paper
grass glass oil silver
gold sand snow rain
bread milk coffee butter
wine fire food salt
love beauty hope relief intelligence
experience advice purity joy design
freedom information courage evil
duty capacity education
time patience reality
NOTA: Work este nenumarabil, dar job este numarabil.
Harriet is looking for work. James has two jobs.
Works inseamna: fabrica, parte mecanica, productie literara, fapte sau acte.
Mother Teresa of
My father has the complete works of Victor Hugo in his library.
The steel works are down the road.
ATENTIE: Iata cateva substantive nenumarabile in engleza care in alte limbi se pot deseori numara:
advice, baggage, luggage, furniture, damage, hair, shopping, homework, information, knowledge, money, weather, research, progress, business, spaghetti, news
Smoking is bad for your health.
The town council does not permit parking on this street.
You speak excellent English.
Politics does not interest me.
The latest news is quite encouraging.
Mathematics is an important subject. DAR: His mathematics were all wrong. (NU stiinta, ci calculele)
ATENTIE: Substativele nenumarabile nu sunt niciodata precedate de expresii de numar (a, an, one, two, three etc.). Iata cateva expresii folosite pentru a indica numarul/cantitatea:
C. Adjective folosite ca substantive - se foloseste THE + adjectiv pentru:
The injured were taken away by helicopter.
The rich are not always as happy as we imagine.
The impossible has strong attraction for some people.
the French, the Chinese, the English, the Japanese, the Irish
DAR: the Poles, the Germans, the Romanians, the Finns
D. Substantive compuse. Ele pot fi:
armchair can opener one-way street
alarm clock fast food
compact disk human race
tooth brush drinking water
waiting room welfare state
yellow pages pocket money
chain factory (a factory for chains)
cotton skirt (a skirt made of cotton)
a ten-year-old girl (a girl who is ten years old)
car accident (an accident involving cars)
mail boxes sleeping bags t-shirts
NOTA: Uneori, dar rar, substantivele la plural pot fi folosite ca adjective:
sports car, customs department, clothes store, sales division, savings bank, news item
passers-by runners-up sisters-in-law
E. Posesia - OF si genitivul sintetic.
door of the car car door
frame of the picture picture frame
headquarters of the company company headquarters
the color of the wall the wall color
NOTA: Adjectivele nu au numar. Substantivele care devin adjective sunt la singular:
the tops of the boxes the box tops
- toate substantivele singulare
- substantivele plurale care NU se termina in -s
-substantive plurale terminate in -s
1. Completati cu forma corecta de plural.
2. Formati substantive compuse potrivind coloana A cu coloana B.
1. arm a. sitter
2. bottle b. pages
3. fast c. heating
4. yellow d. chair
5. lawn e. directory
6. telephone f. mower
7. chewing g. conditioner
8. central h. bag
9. air i. opener
10. tea j. food
11. alarm k. gum
12. post l. clock
13. baby m. stop
14. heart n. tale
15. burglar o. attack
16. fairy p. office
17. credit q. lens
18. bus r. card
19. bank s. alarm
20. contact t. account
3. Subliniati forma corecta.
1. Read the descriptions of some of the worst jobs ever!
1. Water caddy
As basic sanitation and running water only became available in the late 19th century, people needed to have water carried to their homes.
There were people who were paid to do exactly that: carry a 30-kilogram barrel on their back, to deliver water to houses and apartments all over the city. It also includes climbing many flights of stairs and a fair number of hills. Not to mention that you are not allowed to drink from it and this can become very tormenting on a hot day.
In order to make a living, one had to deliver about 36 barrels of water every day.
2. Leech collector
In the past, doctors believed that draining people of blood was very helpful. For that, they used leeches.
Because leeches were used quite often, doctors paid people to get them.
Usually women went to lakes and marshes to collect the worms. In order to find them, they used their own legs as bait. When they were attached, the leeches were put in jars and sent to doctors who delivered this expensive treatment.
This job left women with scarred legs.
3. Stone worker
In the medieval times of building castles and cathedrals, stone workers were in great demand.
First, there was the stone quarry, were people worked in very difficult conditions, without mechanised tools.
Then, there was the job of stone carver which meant many hours of carving hard rocks and inhaling dust.
If you worked on a constructions site, then your job would involve dangerous conditions of unsafe scaffolding at a great height.
In an age when people were executed by order of the king, the most common form was beheading and hanging.
The first needed the help of an executioner using a ceremonial axe and a knife. Aside from having to perform the horrifying act, the executioner was also hated by everyone, including his family.
Sometimes the condemned paid the executioner to deal with them quickly - this meant to have a steady hand. It didn't always happen: Mary Queen of Scots only died after the second axe blow.
5. Whipping boy
In the past, the monarch ruled by divine right. This meant that the king or queen was chosen by God to rule. Their children were also divine.
However, this became a problem when a young prince or princess behaved badly and needed to be punished. As a divine person could not be punished, there was always a position of whipping boy at the court.
You would be fed, housed and clothed by the royal court - all you had to do is take the whipping deserved by the prince or princess, in case they did something bad.
6. Food taster
In the old days, aristocrats and kings tried to take out their enemies by poisoning their food.
In order to protect themselves, the kings would hire an official food taster.
Your job would be to takes everything before it touched the royal lips. The good side was that you had the chance to taste some of the best foods the royal chefs had to offer. The bad side was that you could always fall to the floor in agony and die from the poison meant for the king. Which actually happened, from time to time.
2. Which of these jobs in the past you absolutely couldn't do, under any circumstances? Please provide reasons.
3. Go to https://www.usgenweb.org/research/occupations.shtml to see a list of old occupations explained.
4. Why do you think we have such a high rate of unemployment today? Tick the appropriate answers.
5. Try to come up with possible solutions for unemployment.
Did you know?
Unemployment is calculated using an unemployment rate, as follows:
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