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Course aims

I. Theoretical background

  1. Definitions
  2. The characteristics of a good presentation
  3. Types of presentations

·         The informative presentation

·         The persuasive presentation

  1. Dealing with stress and anxiety
  2. Organising / structuring a presentation

A.    Planning

B.     Preparing

·         Introducing a presentation

·         Developing a presentation

·         Concluding a presentation

  1. Using visual aids
  2. Dealing with questions
  3. Final observations

II. Tasks / Applications / Exercises / Practical issues

III. Reference list


The study of how to give effective speeches dates back to Ancient Greece. Around 350 BC Aristotle wrote the famous Rhetoric, now considered to be the first formal book on the subject. Nowadays, we are still struggling with the same problems the Greeks encountered and that speakers have faced throughout the ages.

‘There is a myth that great speakers are born not made’, this is what Steve Mandel, the author of Effective Presentation Skills, thinks. As well as it is a myth that there are persons with an innate ability to stand in front of large audiences without any sign of nervousness and deliver dynamic speeches.

People that are considered to be great speakers have usually spent years developing and practising their skill. They too had to start from the beginning and learn the basics of organisation, preparation, delivery and overcoming their nerves. And once they were able to master their basics, they continued to further develop their abilities. Learning to be a (better) speaker is similar to learning any activity. After one can manage his/her basic skills, there comes the need to seek for active places to practice them. And this may imply taking every opportunity to speak in an organised setting. The more experience one gains, the more proficient and self-confident he / she becomes.

The technological development has both complicated and simplified the task of the speaker. Today, complex graphs produced on computers, overhead projectors and their transparencies, laptops and computers with their Power Point programmes are all devices at hand to be used whenever a presentation is had in mind. But questions like “How much information should we put on graph?” and, most important “Where does that graph fit into the organisational plan?” are still to be answered before delivering any kind of presentation.*

Course aims

Thus, this practical course aims to answer the basic question “How to prepare and deliver an effective presentation?”, setting as a side goal preparing 4th year students for defending their BA projects in front of a specialized audience in an academic setting.

Proven techniques will be presented in order to give the students the possibility to deliver more effective, confident and enthusiastic presentations. Topics such as: how to use body language effectively, how to organize thoughts and information for maximum impact, how to develop and use visual aids, as well as how to deliver what you have prepared (introducing, delivering and concluding a presentation), will become handy tools for students in their attempt to become good presenters.

This practical course combines several theoretical pieces of information with practical suggestions on how to give effective presentations, having included several tasks for the students to get familiarized with different presentation issues. The course ends with a practical task which requires students to defend their BA projects in front of their colleagues.**

1.   Definitions

Speech: a formal spoken communication delivered to an audience: dedication speech, political speech, a speech of tribute, etc.

Presentation: a type of speech that is usually given in a business, academic, technical, scientific, or professional environment. The audience is likely to be a more specialized one than those attending a typical speech event. 

2.   The characteristics of a good presentation

There is no such thing as the absolute definition of the perfect presentation. However, it is safe to say that the listener always knows when she has heard a good presentation.

Characteristics of a good presentation

Analysing a poor presentation

Knowledgeable speaker

Obviously unprepared – unstructured and confusing

Kept it simple

No attempt at logical ordering of information

Avoided using jargon

Used specialist jargon

Ensured that the audience understand the aims of the presentation

Poor start and finish

Provided a clear indication of the structure of the presentation so that the audience were always clear about its ‘direction’

A lot of hesitation

Never smiled or appeared confident

Used time effectively; didn’t waste time or rush; kept the presentation within the time limits / the realms of concentration spans: 20-30 min

Negative about herself and her ability

Confident, clear delivery

Rarely looked at the audience

Held attention

Body movements limited and jerky

Maintained eye contact

Read (badly) from a paper

Used appropriate aids (OHT, handouts)

Not much information given

Ended with a clear summary redirecting attention to the aims stated at the beginning

Used no visual aids despite presence of screen

3.   Types of presentations

·         The informative presentation

·         The persuasive presentation

The informative presentation

Ø      The main purpose: to give / provide information or facts over a case-matter / to inform / to explain.

You are not normally trying to change anyone’s behaviour, attitude or beliefs.

You are simply delivering the facts.

e.g.: a report type of presentation in which you simply inform others about progress on a project.

Ø      Describing performance to date

Useful expressions:

                        came down with a lot of criticism.

Our idea             was very appreciated by the critics.

                                    was given considerable importance by the critics.

Ø      Analysing performance

Useful expressions if you want to give one main reason:

The main explanation for this is…

A particular reason for this is…

A key problem is…

Useful expressions if you want to give more than one main reason:

There are two reasons / explanations for this. First,… Second,…

This is due to… and also to…

One reason for this is… another reason is…

Ø      Signposting the route through a presentation

In a longer presentation it is useful and very important to make the structure of your presentation clear to the audience, by showing them where one part ends and a new one starts:

I’ll begin by… (+ verb + ing)

Let’s start with… (+ noun)

If I could now turn to…

My next point is…

Now, turning to…

Now, what about…?

Let me now move on to…

Ø      Using summaries

·         Try to use them particularly in longer presentations;

·         Give them at the end of major parts of your presentation or after a key point;

·         Use them as check points to summarise or to draw a conclusion before you move on to a new point.

So that’s the general picture for… and now let’s look at…

That completes my overview of… so now I’d like to move on to…

Don’t forget to use rhetorical questions as a useful device to involve the audience in your presentation (about the rhetorical questions technique, see below)

The persuasive presentation

Ø      The main purpose: to make the audience accept your ideas / to convince the audience of your suggestions.

You are trying to change some aspects of your audience’s behaviour, attitude or beliefs.

e.g.: you may want them to accept your plans, give you money, change directions on a project, etc.

In this type of presentation it is very important to build convincing arguments. In this respect, highlight the relationship between the different points you want to make by using connective words in order to ease your audience follow your arguments and anticipate the direction you are moving in:

§         to show a different argument: however, on the other hand, although, in spite of this;

§         to show a consequence: therefore, so, consequently, because of this, as a result;

§         to show an additional argument: moreover, in addition to this, not only… but also…

A frequent tactic in persuasive presentations is to point out the relationship between cause and effect. You can do this by:

§         showing the factual relationship between cause and effect;

§         setting out the facts so that they strongly imply a consequence, but without stating it directly;

§         setting out the facts so that they strongly argue for doing something, i.e. directly arguing the case for change;

§         summarising and making recommendations for action.

Ø      Outlining options

If there are alternatives to your proposal, explain them. This will show that you have looked at different ways of dealing with the situation:

We’ve / I’ve considered / looked at three options.

One way to solve this problem is… Another is to…

There are two alternatives…

The first option is to…

But what about the second option?

So, now let’s look at the third option, which is to…

Outline both weaknesses and benefits for each of the options you consider:

What are the benefits?

Now, what about the advantages?

Now, I’d like to look at the benefits.

There are, however, disadvantages…

But there are some problems too.

On the other hand…

If there are a series of benefits or weaknesses, make it clear which are your strongest points, and which are your secondary.

Ø      Emphasising and highlighting key points

There are a number of different ways you can emphasise and highlight key points in your presentation to give it more impact, and to sound more persuasive:

1.      Stressing an auxiliary verb (is, was, were, will, has. With negatives put the stress on words like no or not: is not or will not):


It’s consuming a lot of time from your class.  BECOMES   It is consuming a lot of…

We aren’t recommending any major change.  BECOMES  We are not recommending…

The idea doesn’t need any changes.  BECOMES   The idea needs no changes.

2.      Adding the auxiliary do, does or did in an affirmative sentence, just in front of the verb:


We see a need for change.  BECOMES  We do see a need for change.

The critics knew about it before.   BECOMES  The critics did know about it before.

3.      Changing the normal word order of a sentence:


We’re suggesting a change of style.  BECOMES  What we’re suggesting is a change…

4.      Repeating key words and ideas:


We need to change our approach and considerations towards his work.


We need to change our approach towards his work and we also need to change our considerations towards his work.

In persuasive presentations it is necessary to tell the audience specifically what benefits they will receive if they do what you ask. Benefits can be stated before going into the body of the presentation, or at the end of the presentation, or, ideally, in both places.

In persuasive presentations you would normally need a ‘call-to-action’ statement in your conclusion. Tell the audience what they need to do, what specific action they need to take, how to take it, and when it must be taken.

Ø      Observation: The majority of presentations delivered in a professional setting are persuasive.

4.   Dealing with stress and anxiety

Natural symptoms (triggered by psychological changes) that you might experience before / during a presentation: a nervous stomach, sweating, shaking hands and legs, rapid breathing, increased heart rate, etc. This only means that you are a normal human being.

The trick: make your excess energy work for you. ‘Make the butterflies in your stomach all fly in one direction’ so that you can use stress positively for your presentation, which should become dynamic and enthusiastic.

Tips for reducing anxiety

Ø      Organise

Lack of organisation is one major cause for generating anxiety => plan / organise / prepare in advance the skeleton of your presentation, as well as the details in order for you to be freed from the burden of setting up a ‘red thread’ on the spot.

Ø      Visualise

Picture yourself at the exact location of the presentation and put yourself in the shoes that you’ll be wearing at that particular moment. Imagine yourself walking into the room where the presentation is programmed to take place, and rehearse mentally what you planned: introduce yourself to the audience, deliver your presentation with enthusiasm, answer the possible projected questions that might come from your audience, and leave the room confident hat you did a good job.

Do not imagine that your presentation will be a disaster. A positive attitude towards what is going to happen covers half of the success of your presentation. Still, if you cannot look at the bright side from the beginning, then think about the worst thing that can happen and then look at its probability. Then put it down on a piece of paper and look at it. When you look at your worries on paper they often seem unlikely to happen anymore and less overwhelming. 

Ø      Practise


Take a step forward and try to rehearse not only mentally, but also standing up as if in front of your audience and use all the materials you have prepared for the presentation: visual aids, technical equipment, handouts, etc. Even dress with the clothes you considered wearing at your presentation (at least two dressed rehearsals are recommended) and, if possible, have someone assess you or videotape you. After listening to the observations of your assessor / after watching the tape, include all the necessary changes that you think important for the final act: the actual presentation.

Ø      Breathe deeply

Sit up, vertical but relaxed, and inhale deeply a number of times.

Ø      Relax

Disregard the tension accumulated in your muscles / body, try not to think of it and, instead, relax: breathe in – ‘I am’, breathe out – ‘relaxed’. Try to detach yourself from the physical surrounding / the setting / the room / the context, clear your mind of everything except the repetition of  ‘I am relaxed’ and continue this exercise for several minutes/times. Remember, this exercise is to be done quietly so that no one knows you’re relaxing!

Ø      Move around

Do not stand in one spot and never gesture because tension accumulates this way! In order to relax you need to release tension by stretching your muscles. Do not keep your arms tighten in one fix position, but let them get involve in your presentation as if you were in an animated one-to-one conversation. Still do not exaggerate with your gestures, because you risk becoming exasperating and tiring for your audience.

Ø      Eye contact with the audience

Treat your audience as individuals. Look at people as you speak. This is another way for you to relax and in the same time a means of involving your audience in your presentation as if communicating with them in person. 

5.  Organising / structuring a presentation


Before a presentation ask yourself these questions (the “WH-“ questions):

why am I giving this presentation to this particular audience?”

what do I want to accomplish with this presentation?”

who are my audience?”

 where is it taking place?”

 when is it taking place?”

A. Planning: before starting preparing:


 STEP 1: Think about the specific objectives

Write down in a simple sentence what your objective(s) might be, in direct relation to the types of presentations analysed above:

e.g.: ‘My objective is to inform the audience about progress on my research.’

‘My objective is to persuade upper management to grant me a 20% wage raise.’

Aims talk about the purpose of your presentation in broad terms.

Objectives should be results oriented. They should, consequently, be expressed in result or action terms. Use action words such as:

·         identify

·         agree

·         assess

·         decide

·         recognize

·         prepare

Do not use vague words like:

v     emphasise

v     appreciate

v     be aware of

Objectives are a statement of what you want your audience to do not what you want to present.

Do not forget that there are often hidden objectives that are not explicitly linked to the subject but are important for you. These may include things such as:

Show your professor that you are a competent and valuable member of the research team / conference team / etc.

These unspoken objectives will be achieved by achieving the spoken ones.

  STEP 2: Assess your audience

Too many presenters are concerned with their tasks on how to sort out the material and do not spend enough time thinking about the audience.

The audience should be the central focus of the presentation. As a presenter you need to get your message across to them.

You must choose material that is appropriate to them and present it within a structure and using language that they will understand. This material must be presented with enthusiasm ad energy.

Put yourself in the shoes

of the people who will be listening to your presentation!

When assessing your audience, think of the following three items:

a.      What are the values, needs and constraints on your audience?

o       With smaller groups ® you can provide more in-depth analysis

o       With larger groups ® you may have to look at more general ideas

b.      How well informed is your audience?

Do not use abbreviations, acronyms or technical terms that might be unfamiliar to your audience. And if you do use terms restricted to your domain, make sure you explain them briefly to your audience.

c.       What will work, what won’t work?

Ask yourself: what types of arguments and evidence will gain the most favourable reaction from the audience, and conversely, the most unfavourable one. Then plan your arguments accordingly.

Advice: start organising the body of the presentation and not worry about the introduction until later. Introductions are often generated by what goes into the body. Effective speakers have learned to build from the centre of their speech outwards.

B. Preparing: start working your plan out:

  STEP 3: Brainstorm the main ideas

Use index cards and put down on each one main idea. Let the ideas flow at this point. Don’t edit (that will come later). Generate as many ideas as possible. Once you have too many, start eliminating the recurrent ones, the too detailed ones, etc. and make sub-points in your presentation out of them. (5 main ideas is the ideal number for a presentation).

STEP 4: State the sub-points

Once you have the main points of your presentation, it is time to develop supporting ideas: explanations, arguments, evidences, proofs, data or other devices to support your main ideas.

Main ideas                                                                   Sub ideas

   (General assertions)                                                          (Specifics)

STEP 5: State the benefits

In persuasive presentations it is necessary to tell the audience specifically what benefits they will receive if they do what you ask. Benefits can be stated before going into the body of the presentation, or at the end of the presentation, or, ideally, in both places.

STEP 6: Prepare handouts

Now it is the time for you to decide what handouts (how many, if any) would add to your presentation.

There are 3 major uses of handouts in a presentation:

1.      To reinforce important information;

2.      To summarise action items for the audience to follow up;

3.      To supply supporting information you don’t want cluttering your visual aids.

Once you have decided what handouts would be beneficial for your presentation, you have to decide when you are going to hand them out.

There are 3 alternatives:

1.      Before the presentation

Problem: your audience may wish to satisfy their curiosity about the contents of your handouts as you are speaking => When people are reading, they are not listening => Solution: have the handout in place when the audience enters the room. This will allow them to read it before you begin speaking. In addition, you can explain the handout, satisfying their curiosity about its contents.

2.      During the presentation

You have to take care with this. Handouts during a presentation must be distributed quickly and be relevant to the point you are making. Otherwise they will be a distraction, not an aid. You must have someone help you distribute them.

3.      At the end of the presentation

During the presentation you may inform the audience that they will receive a handout covering certain points at the end of your presentation. This will avoid their taking unnecessary notes.

  STEP 7: Develop visual aids

Once your organisational pattern has been established, you need to decide if and where you are going to use visual aids (for guidelines for developing and using visual aids, please refer to chapter 7). For now, it is important only that you decide how they will fit into your plan.

  STEP 8: Main idea preview review sentence

Preview and review the main points of your presentation. Use a sentence to present your main idea and another sentence to review it, apart from the introduction and conclusion.

Horizontal Scroll: Tell  them  what   you’re  going  to  tell  them
Tell  them
Then  tell  them  what   you  told  them


! all effective presentations

make the pattern of organisation  crystal clear to the audience !

STEP 9: Develop the introduction

Now, after going through the body of your presentation, you are ready to develop your introduction. Introductions serve the following purposes:

a.       Get the audience’s attention and make them concentrate on you, the speaker;

b.      Provide background information on your subject;

c.       Introduce yourself – tell them who you are and why you are qualified to speak on the subject.

STEP 10: Develop the conclusion

Good conclusions always return to the material in your introduction, i.e. background material, anecdote, rhetorical question or data that you used there.

In persuasive presentations you would normally need a ‘call-to-action’ statement in your conclusion. Tell the audience what they need to do, what specific action they need to take, how to take it, and when it must be taken.

Introductions and conclusions

put the head and tail on the body of your presentation.

Without them, or with them not fully developed,

your presentation is incomplete

and this will be obvious to your audience.

·        Introducing a presentation

The introduction gives the audience an overview of your subject and message of your presentation.


Make sure you state from the very beginning:

v     your question policy: inform your audience when you prefer to answer their questions (any time during your presentation or at the

 end of your presentation);

v     your time policy: tell your audience how much time your presentation will last.

In the introduction you may also want to thank the person who introduced you (if the case) and greet your audience.

A good introduction should include a brief statement explaining the purpose of the presentation. So make sure you tell the audience:

à        Why you are there;

à        What you are going to talk about.

Here are some useful expressions for stating the purpose of the presentation:

In my presentation I’ll be proposing two new techniques to incorporate in…to improve…

In my presentation today I’m going to explain the technical problems involved in…

This morning I’d like to review the progress on the… project.

The subject/topic of this presentation is…

If you want to create more impact, you can change the normal word order and begin your statement of purpose with the word ‘what’:

What I’d like to do this morning is to present the results of my study over…

What I’m going to explain this afternoon are the problems involved in….

What I’ll be proposing in my presentation are two new ideas regarding…

Many successful introductions include information about the main points to be developed during the presentation, and the order in which the presenter will develop these. This is called signposting. Signposting will help you:

¨      define the limits of the presentation;

¨      focus the audience on the aspects of the topic you want to talk about.

Here are some useful expressions for signposting a presentation:

I’ll be developing three main points.

First, I’ll give you… Second,… Lastly,…

My presentation will be in two main parts. In the first part I’ll… And then I’ll…

Firstly, I’d like to… Secondly, we can… And I’ll finish with…

It is very important, right from the beginning, to be able to engage the attention of the audience. One way to do this is to make your introduction as interesting and lively as possible:

ü      Anecdote

An anecdote is a short story used to help illustrate some point. It is sometimes humorous, but not always.

e.g. ‘My son came to me the other day and said: ‘Dad if you raise my pocket money by 2 pounds I’ll mow the lawn twice a week. For another 10 percent you’ll get the best looking lawn in the area.’ In the same way, if e raise salaries for our workers 10 per cent, we should expect to increase productivity.’

ü      Inclusive pronouns

Use words like you, your, us, our to make your audience feel involved in your presentation.

ü      Examples / stories from life

Illustrate the point of your presentation with examples or stories from life. This will help to bring your presentation to life.

ü      Humour

Humour is a great way to break the ice. But beware! Humour must be linked to either the speaker, subject, audience or to the occasion. There is nothing worse than a bad joke, or a joke that has no connection with the speech. Nothing is more embarrassing than a joke that falls flat.

e.g.: ‘Did you hear about the duck who walked into a shop, ordered a lot of items and asked it all to be put on his bill? Well, today I’d like to talk about data processing in our organisation.’

ü            Questions

Ask the audience questions to involve them in the presentation. This is particularly appropriate for informal presentations when you have a small audience.

ü      Rhetorical questions

A rhetorical question is a question with an obvious answer, which the speaker does not expect the audience to supply. This device is an excellent way to get the audience’s attention, as it gives one-way communication the appearance of a dialogue with the audience. Use them with large audiences in order to:

·         Build links between various points in your presentation;

·         Help keep the audience interested;

·         Make the audience feel involved in your presentation.

e.g.: The author was nor very well received by the critics.

What’s the explanation for this?

How can we explain this?

What can we do about it?

How will this affect us?

What are the implications for the community of writers?

ü      Shocking statement

A statement such as ‘Last year enough people died in road accidents to fill every seat in Wembley Stadium. This is why I am going to convince you of the necessity to wear seatbelts.’ will help you capture your audience’s attention.

ü      Action

Ask the audience to do something

e.g.: ask for a show of hands

·        Developing a presentation

It is this stage that the main ideas, the core of the presentation, the most important aspects of your plan are to be enforced. It’s just that not only what you tell your audience contributes to the success of your presentation, but also how you communicate the intended message. You must share your enthusiasm with your audience if you want them to be enthusiastic about the ideas you present.

Standing stiffly, with little animation in your body, speaking in a monotone voice, without good eye contact is a sure way to deliver a dull speech. You communicate with much more than words. Your non-verbal actions show your feelings. If these channels are blocked because of nerves, your rapport with the audience will suffer.

Use a natural, conversational style and try to relate to people in the audience in a direct and friendly manner. This is vital even in the most formal situations.

Effective communication is usually achieved by considering the following:

²    Voice:                         

There are three main problems associated with voice: a monotone voice, an inappropriate rate of speech (usually talking too fast) or volume that is too loud or too soft.

Make sure your voice is working for you.

  1. Monotone

Most monotonous voices are caused by anxiety. As the speaker becomes tense, the muscles in the chest and throat become less flexible and air flow is restricted. When this happens, the voice loses its natural animation and becomes monotonous.

To bring back the natural animation, you must relax and release tension. Body movement is vital, but this one doesn’t have to be dramatic – just enough to loosen the muscles and get you breathe normally.

  1. Talking too fast

The average conversational rate of speech is about 125 words per minute. When anxious, the rate usually increases. An increased rate of speech is not necessarily a problem if your articulation is good. However, if the audience needs to take notes, you need to watch your pace.

Another indication that you are talking too fast is when you trip over words. When this happens, slow down. Listen for yourself to say the last word of a sentence, pause where the full stop would be, and then proceed to your next sentence.

Pausing in a presentation can be an effective device to allow your important points to sink in. don’t be afraid to allow periods of silence during your presentation. The audience needs time to digest what you are saying.

  1. Problems with volume

In most cases, problems with volume can be solved with practice. You need to stay aware of your volume. It is appropriate to ask during an actual presentation, ‘Can you hear me at the back?’ The audience will usually be honest because they want to hear what you are saying!

To find out if you have a volume problem before a presentation, ask someone who will give you a straight answer. Ask that person if you can be heard at the back of the room, if lack of volume makes you sound insecure or if you are speaking too loudly.

²    Appearance:

  Should complement what you have to say. Think of your audience what will think.

²    Posture:

Keep your posture upright but relaxed. Stand up straight but not stiff. Your feet should be pointed at the audience with your weight evenly distributed. Don’t place your weight on one hip, then shift to the other and back again. This shifting can distract the audience.

²    Eye contact: maintain it all the times.

In our culture we expect good, direct eye contact. Yet, in many presentations, the speaker will look at a spot on the back of the wall, or at a screen, or at notes – everywhere but into the eyes of the audience.

Eye contact opens the channel of communication between people. It involves the audience in the presentation, and makes the presentations more personal. (This is true even in formal presentations.) Good eye contact between the speaker and the audience also helps to relax the speaker by connecting the speaker with the audience and reducing the speaker’s feeling of isolation.

The rule of thumb for eye contact is 1-3 seconds per person. Try not to let your eyes dart around the room. Try to focus on one person, not too long to make that individual feel uncomfortable, but long enough to pull him or her into your presentation. Then move on to someone else.

When you give a presentation, don’t just look at your audience – see them.  Seek out individuals, and be aware that you are looking at them. If the group is too large to look at each individual separately, make eye contact with individuals in different parts of the audience. People sitting near the individuals you select will feel that you are actually looking at them.

²    Interest and Enthusiasm:        

Establish yourself as someone worth listening to. Maintain brain contact as well as eye contact.

²    Gestures:

The importance of natural gestures, uninhibited by nerves, cannot be overlooked. Too often nervousness restricts this important channel of communication. You use gestures for emphasis in normal, casual, everyday situations without thinking about what you are doing with your hands.

Learn to gesture in front of an audience exactly as you would if you were having an animated conversation with a friend – nothing more, nothing less.

Using natural gestures won’t distract from your presentation; however, doing one of the following certainly will: keeping hands in your pocket; or handcuffed behind your back; or keeping your arms crossed; or wringing your hands nervously. 

Instead you may: smile; keep your hands free and above your stomach level; avoid mannerisms; move with confidence.

²    Mannerisms: check your mannerisms on video.

²    Rehearse: practice makes perfect. Rehearse where at all possible.

·        Concluding a presentation

Without a good conclusion a presentation is not complete. One way to end a presentation is to summarise briefly your main arguments and draw conclusions for the audience.

The conclusion of a persuasive presentation often includes recommendations and/or a call for action from the audience.

Useful vocabulary:







Notice how they are used:

My suggestion

Our proposal                              would be/is to set up a new project.

The recommendation

We recommend

I’d like to suggest                       setting up a new project.

I propose

We suggest

I recommend                              you set up a new project.

We propose

A good conclusion will contain some or all of the following stages:

1)       A summary

Often a summary is needed before you give your final conclusions. Review or restate your key points from the introduction and main body of the presentation. This helps to reinforce them for your audience:

So, to summarise / sum up…

At this stage I’d like to go over / run through…

So, as we’ve seen in this presentation today…

As I’ve explained, …

2)       Conclusions

These will often take the form of:

o       a recommendation or call for action;

o       a challenge;

o       a dynamic concluding statement to reinforce your message.

3)       Support documentation

At this stage of your presentation it would be appropriate to distribute support documents, folders, handouts, copies of OHP transparencies:

I’ve a detailed marking scheme, which I’ll be passing / handing round now.

In the folder which I’ll be distributing you’ll find copies of the…

4)       Closing formalities:


I’d be happy to answer any questions.

If you have any questions, I’d be pleased to answer them.

I would welcome any comments / suggestions.

Thank you for your attention.

¢     How to create interest – Giving your message more impact

It is important to make your conclusions as forceful and as memorable as possible. For this, you may want to use the following words in bold to give more emphasis to the points:

If we really want to see whether Shakespeare was a Freemason or not, we need to research more.

Given the very / extremely little time that we have at our disposal, we should look for another solution.

The evidence brought just isn’t enough.

The operational needs are far too ambitious.

We strongly recommend the first option.

I wish to make it quite clear that this is only a temporary solution.

When giving your conclusion, slow down the pace of your presentation so far and pause, in order for you to give more impact to what you’re saying, and to give the audience time to think about the message.

6. Using visual aids

A good presentation which includes visuals will be much more effective than out without.

When you think of visual aids, you usually have in mind: overhead transparencies, flipcharts, video cassettes, Microsoft PowerPoint slides on a computer/laptop, charts, tables, maps, posters, photos, etc.

Use visual aids when you need to:

Don’t use visual aids to:

1. Focus the audience’s attention

1. Impress your audience with excessively detailed tables or graphs

2. Reinforce your verbal message / main idea (but do not repeat it verbatim)

2. Avoid interaction with your audience

3. Stimulate interest / involve and motivate the audience

3. Make more than one point

4. Illustrate points that are hard to visualise

4. Present simple ideas that may be stated verbally

When constructing visual aids employ the KISS PRINCIPLE:

KISS: Keep It Short and Simple

Don’t overload charts with too much data. When you do so, your audience will quickly lose interest, or get lost.


   USE charts like this one                                    DO NOT USE charts like this one

Crowding your presentation with too many visual aids and / or too much information will reduce their effectiveness.

For word charts use a maximum of 36 words per visual aid, excluding the title. Try to fit your material into a maximum of six lines, with no more than six words per line. If you need more room, use more lines, but fewer words. There is no need to repeat every word in your presentation. You simply want to reinforce your main ideas to the audience.

Stating information clearly and concisely on your charts makes it easier for the audience to retain information.

Ø      Developing titles for your visual aids

There are 3 basic titles for your visual aids:

1.      Subject title. Used when it is not necessary to convey a specific message but only provide information or raw data.

e.g.: Sales Figures

2.      Thematic title. Used when you tell the audience what information they should draw from the data presented.

e.g.: Sales in 2005 were up to 22 per cent over 2004

3.      Assertive title. Used when you want to give the audience your opinion about what conclusion they should draw from the data. It is used more often in persuasive presentations.

e.g.: We should focus our sales efforts on the South East

Ø      Using visual aids in your presentation

Concentrate on your audience, not on the methods you are using to attract their attention. Too many presentations rely on other media to carry the message. While external media can certainly help, it’s your rapport with the audience that makes the difference between an effective or ineffective presentation.

It is important to introduce and integrate your visuals smoothly: integrate your visuals into the presentation by preparing the audience for what they are going to see. This has two major benefits:

1.      the audience is alert and ready;

2.      you have extra time to position your visual correctly. 

Here are some useful expressions:

Now, lets look at the position for…

Now, I’ll show you the…

Lets move on now and look at the figures for…

The next slide shows…

If we now turn to the…

Explain what the visuals show. This helps to focus attention and avoid misunderstandings:

This chart compares benefits in the two countries…

The upper part of the slide gives information about…

You can see here the development over the past year.

Do not repeat everything on the slide. Instead, draw attention to particular features of the visual, repeat key facts, but in your own words, and add new information or other related information not on the visual in order to make further points. In other words ‘bounce off the visual’.

Here are some useful expressions to focus your audience’s attention on particular features on a visual:

You can see the…

As you/we can see…

What is interesting/important is…

I’d like to draw your attention to…

Notice /Observe the…                                        more formally

It is important/interesting to notice that…

Another way to focus attention an a particular feature of a visual is to use a dramatic piece of vocabulary:

The position of this equipment is extremely dangerous.

This sudden rise in prices was quite unexpected.

Ø      Directing the audience’s attention


When you use visual aids, the audience’s attention is divided. To ‘win them back’ you will need to redirect their focus. This is usually done by switching off the visual aids, and taking a step or two towards the audience.

Other methods, according to the visual aid used:

1. Switch off the overhead projector when there is a lengthy explanation about a point in the transparency and there is no need for the audience to watch the screen. Don’t click the machine on and off in a distracting way, but also don’t leave it on too long so that they focus on the transparency and not on you.

2. Turn a flipchart page when you have finished referring to it. Prepare the flipcharts in advance and leave three pages between each prepared sheet so your next page won’t be revealed until you’re ready for it.

3. Erase any writing you have on the black / green / whiteboard for the same reasons listed above. Any information noted by the audience and no longer needed for future reference can be erased.

4. Break up Power Point slide presentations by inserting a blank slide at points where an explanation is needed, or when you want to begin a new section. This will wake up your audience and help to refocus their attention.

5. Show or demonstrate an object by revealing it when it is referred to and then cover it up when it is no longer in use. If the object is not covered, most people will continue to look out of curiosity and may miss some of your presentation.

6. Avoid passing objects around the audience. This is very distracting. Instead, walk into the audience and show the object to everyone briefly, and then make it available at the end of the session.

Decide in advance where the audience should focus. Do you want their attention divided between you and the visual aid or do you need their undivided attention?

Ø      Positioning of equipment


Place the overhead / video projector screen or the flipchart at a 45-degree angle and slightly to one side of the centre of the room. In this way you may occupy the centre position, maximizing the audience’s attention on you, the speaker, and more easily focus the audience’s attention on the information being displayed.

Ø      Where and how to stand


One major problem when using visual aids is that speakers often give their presentation to the screen, and not to the audience. This problem may easily be corrected if the speaker remembers to face the audience at all times.

Remember: Don’t speak until you have eye contact with your audience!

If you must write something on the flipchart, blackboard / whiteboard, OHP transparencies, stop talking while you write. 

Ø      Tips on using a pointer


1.      Pointers should be used to make a quick visual reference on a pictorial chart or to trace the relationship of data on a graph. Pointers are not needed on word charts since you can refer to each point by an item or number.

2.      When using a pointer keep your shoulder facing the audience. Do not hold your arm across your body to refer to something on the screen. Instead, hold the pointer in the hand which is close to the screen.

3.      Don’t play with the pointer when not using it. Either fold it up and put it away, or put it down.

4.      Direct your pointer at the screen, not the overhead projector. Standing at the projector will often block somebody’s view of the screen.

5.      Leaving the pointer on the overhead projector can focus too much attention on the screen and could detract from the speaker.

6.      Laser pointers are wonderful pointing devices, but remember not to point them at the audience. They are best used by flashing the pointer on and off, so that the place you are indicating is illuminated briefly. Don't swirl the laser around and around one place on the projection screen, or sweep it from place to place across the screen. This is very distracting for the audience, and they will end up watching the pointer and not listening to what you are saying.

7.      Likewise, and for the same reasons, avoid using the cursor as in pointer in your computer presentations.

7. Dealing with questions

Most presentations include time for questions and answers. Sometimes presenters ask for questions during the presentation, but more frequently there is a question time at the end of the presentation.


Ø      How to encourage your audience to ask questions


If you ask for questions passively you won’t encourage a response. It’s mostly a matter of body language. Standing away from the audience, hands stuffed in your pockets, and mumbling ‘Any questions?’ does not encourage questions from an audience.

Those who actively seek questions will step towards the audience, raise a hand and ask ‘Does anyone have questions for me?’ or ‘What questions do you have?’ Raising your hand will accomplish two things: one, it is the visual signal for questions and will encourage those who might be shy. Also it helps keep order. The audience will follow your lead and raise their hands, instead of calling out their questions.

Ø      How to listen to questions

You might be familiar with the situation of a speaker listening to a question coming from the audience while pacing back and forth, not looking at the questioner, and then interrupting him / her with something like: ‘You don’t have to finish, I know what you’re asking.’ The speaker may not know what is being asked until the question is finished. It is important to wait until the questioner has finished.

While the question is being asked, you should watch the person who is asking it. It is often possible to pick up clues to the intensity of the question and the feelings behind it and any hidden agendas, if you are aware of body language.

Be careful what you do with your hands during questions. Imagine giving a presentation enthusiastically, and presenting your ideas confidently. Then imagine that when you receive a question, you stand looking at the floor rubbing your hands together nervously. This behaviour can negate the confident image you projected during your presentation. Your hands should stay in a neutral position, arms at your sides, fingers open. Concentrate on the question and listen carefully.


The questions coming from the audience are usually asked:

d.      because something from what you said was not clear

e.       to raise doubts about a point

f.        to get more information

Ø      Clarifying questions

Before you answer any question, make sure you really understand it. Here are some useful tactics you can use:

·         Rephrasing the original question:

So, do we plan to analyse it further on…?

So, what you’re asking is…

If I understand the question correctly, you would like to know…

·         Asking further questions to clarify the question in case:

Are you asking me about this paper / or my previous research on the topic?

When you say… do you mean…?

·         Asking for repetition:

I’m sorry I didn’t hear. Which slide was it?

Sorry, could you repeat that?

Ø      Handling difficult or hostile questions


Sometimes you may have to handle difficult or hostile questions from the audience. These can be handled using a variety of tactics:

1.       show you understand the questioner’s position, and then introduce an alternative way of looking at the situation:


Show you understand:


Yes, I quite understand your point…

Yes, it’s something we’ve thought about a lot

That’s an accurate observation…

I know it’s difficult to accept my point of view,


Introduce an alternative point of view:


However, I know you’ll appreciate…

But the group working at this project…

On the other hand, if we consider…

But the evidence is there…

2.       evade the question altogether by:

·         not accepting responsibility / implying you haven’t got the responsibility / you are not in the position to answer this question:

For that, you should ask our team coordinator, professor Gabriel Johnson.

I’m afraid I’m not the right person to answer that.

·         delaying:

Could we leave that till later?

That is scheduled for discussion at the next conference.

I’m not sure this is the right place / time to discuss this particular question.

Ø      Offering help to clarify information


When handling the questioning phase of a presentation, it may be necessary to clarify points form the presentation. At his stage it is often helpful to show slides and transparencies again.

When responding to requests from an audience you may need to:

v     Agree to a request


Q: Could we see that slide again?

A: Yes, of course / Certainly. This is the slide we looked at earlier…

v     Offer further help


This is the slide we looked at earlier, but perhaps it will be clearer if I show you two more slides.

Would you like to see another chart?

It might help if I spoke a little more about…

I have another transparency which gives more details about…

Ø      Some last tips:


a    Maintain your style

When answering questions, it is important to maintain the same style you used in your presentation. A change in style can suggest that you are not confident about your position. When you’re asked a question to which you don’t know the answer, you don’t have to say ‘Sorry, I don’t know the answer to that.’ Instead you can say ‘I don’t know, but I’ll find out and get back to you later.’

a    Involve the whole audience in your answer

Have you seen speakers who get involved with the person who has asked the question and ignore the rest of the audience? In some situations the questioner may try to ‘hook’ the speaker with a difficult question. You can always tell if a speaker is ‘hooked’ because he or she is only aware of the person who asked the question.

a    Employ the 25 – 75 per cent rule

Direct approximately 25 per cent of your eye contact to the person who asked the question and approximately 75 per cent to the rest of the audience. (This is especially important in a hostile question-answer situation). Don’t ignore the person who asked the question, but don’t ignore the rest of the audience either. This will help you stay in command of the situation and keep the audience involved in your presentation.

a    Don’t preface your answer

Sometimes, when you hear a speaker start an answer with ‘That’s a very good / interesting question; I’m glad you asked it’, it may be a sign that the speaker is unsure of the answer. It’s best not to preface answers but simply to go into the answer. At the end of your question-answer session you might say something like ’Thank you for all your excellent questions.’

8. Final observations

Ø      Understanding body language


¢     Creating an impression

First impressions are very important; the initial 5 seconds of any first meeting are more important than the next 5 minutes; think about grooming and appropriate clothing and keep on the side of being conservative.

¢     Communication by body language – posture is all-important

On first meeting, these three postures can create very different impressions:


Positive            - body facing front and open posture shows confidence

                        - direct gaze and broad smile shows friendly attention

                        - hands on hips indicates determination and ability to take control

Neutral            - direct gaze shows attention

                        - relaxed arms and legs shows a lack of tension

Negative          - indirect gaze is evasive

            - ear-pulling indicates doubt

            - slight slumping shows lack of confidence

            - body turned away signifies rejection of what the other person is saying

¢     Giving body signals


Supportive gestures, such as making eye contact and nodding while somebody is talking, creates empathy. Choose your words with care, being as honest as possible, otherwise your body language may contradict you.

Listening with approval           - slight tilt of the head together with friendly eye contact

Paying attention                      - eyes making contact and the body leaning forward show

 alertness and readiness to assist the speaker

Emphasizing a point                - using a hand to gesture empathically is one way of

 reinforcing a verbal point

Showing uncertainty                - pen biting – this shows fear and lack of confidence

- avoid habitual behaviours (fumbling change in pocket,            twirling hair).

Needing reassurance               - one hand around the neck and the other around the waist

Ø      Presentation environment:


Situation: Tom worked all week preparing for his presentation. He has rehearsed (standing up and using his visual aids) and feels prepared and confident. The morning of his presentation he arrived early in order to go over his material for the last time. As he enters the meeting room for his presentation he notices his manager and his departmental head in the audience. He is nervous but he knows he is prepared. He begins his presentation and then he moves to the overhead projector to show his first transparency. He flips the switch and nothing happens. He notices the unit is plugged in. he then checks the bulb only to find it’s burned out. He knows that most overhead projectors have spare bulbs, but when he looks for it he realises someone didn’t bother to replace it. It takes him 20 minutes to track down a new bulb.


Control your speaking environment before you actually start delivering your presentation:

1. Check whether the technical devices you intend to use are working: overhead projector, TV, video, cassette recorder, computer, laptop, video projector, even microphone (if you have to speak in front of a large audience and in a big room), etc.

2. Make sure you know how to operate the technical equipment by yourself. If you can’t, talk to a person to come and help you and practice in advance the entire presentation.

2. Make sure your handouts are easily accessible so they can be handed out with minimum disruption. Talk in advance with the person you’d like to help you distribute them.

3. See if the pointer, the chalk or the marker you intend to use are available and / or not dried out.

4. Double check the lighting and the switcher or the dimmer switch in case you need to dim the lights in the room.

 5. Control (if possible) the seating arrangement: arrange the seating so that the exit and the entrance to the room are at the rear (in case people come and go, so that the least amount of distraction is being created), get familiarised with the seating environment and with the position of the technical devices.

Ø      Some last remarks:

1.      Be prepared for interruptions (late arrivals, cell phones or pagers, burned out projector bulbs, fire drills, etc.).

2.      If you must turn down the room lights, don't turn them off entirely. Don't leave the lights down any longer than necessary - remember to turn them back up! Of course, the snores from the sleeping audience may remind you to turn the lights back on if you've forgotten.

3.      Don't apologize for any aspect of your presentation. This should be your very best effort; if you have to apologize, you haven't done your job properly.

4.      Don't criticize aspects of the trip, city, facilities, etc. during your talk. This is another way to alienate your audience quickly. For instance, they may or may not have chosen to live in this horrible climate, but it isn't your place to remind them how horrible it is. Remember that you are a guest and it is impolite to exhibit your prejudices publicly.

5.      Don't be afraid to give yourself credit for your own work, but do remember to give others credit where due. If you include slides borrowed from other people, or slides which include other people's data or figures, always give credit to these people right on that slide. This shows a professional attitude, and (better yet) can save you many words of explanation.

6.      Avoid the striptease.

7.      Have water.

8.      No matter what you do, finish on time.

@II. Tasks / Applications / Exercises / Practical issues

Assess your skills

ü1. Tick the category that best describes you as a speaker.



_______ Avoider

An avoider does everything possible to escape from having to stand in front of an audience. In some cases avoiders can seek careers that do not involve making presentations.

_______ Resister

A resister is scared of speaking in public. Resisters may not be able to avoid speaking as part of their job, but they never encourage it. When they do speak they do so painfully and with great reluctance.


The accepter will give presentations as part of the job but doesn’t seek opportunities to do so. Accepters occasionally give a presentation and feel as though they did a good job. They even find that once in while they are quite persuasive, and enjoy speaking in front of a group.

_______ Seeker

A seeker looks for opportunities to speak. The seeker understands that anxiety can be a stimulant which fuels enthusiasm during a presentation. Seekers work at building their professional communication skills and self-confidence by speaking often.

t 2. Read each statement and circle the number that best describes yourself.

Always           Never

I identify some basic objectives before planning a presentation.

5      4      3      2     1

I analyse the values, needs and limitations of my audience.

5      4      3      2     1

I write down some main ideas first, in order to build a presentation around them.

5      4      3      2     1

I incorporate both a preview and review of the main ideas.

5      4      3      2     1

I develop an introduction that will catch the attention of my audience and still provide the necessary background information.

5      4      3      2     1

My conclusion refers back to the introduction and, if appropriate, contains a call-to-action statement.

5      4      3      2     1

The visual aids I use are carefully prepared, simple, easy to read, and make an impact.

5      4      3      2     1

The number of visual aids will enhance, not detract from, my presentation.

5      4      3      2     1

If my presentation is persuasive, I support with logical arguments.

5      4      3      2     1

I use anxiety to fuel the enthusiasm of my presentation, not hold me back.

5      4      3      2     1

I ensure the benefits suggested to my audience are clear.

5      4      3      2     1

I communicate ides enthusiastically.

5      4      3      2     1

I rehearse so there is a minimum use of notes and maximum attention paid to my audience.

5      4      3      2     1

My notes contain only “key words” so I avoid reading from a manuscript.

5      4      3      2     1

My presentations are rehearsed standing up and using visual aids.

5      4      3      2     1

I prepare answers to anticipated questions, and practice replying to them.

5      4      3      2     1

I arrange seating (if appropriate) and check audio-visual equipment in advance of the presentation.

5      4      3      2     1

I maintain good eye contact with the audience at all times.

5      4      3      2     1

My gestures are natural and not restricted by anxiety.

5      4      3      2     1

My voice is strong and clear, and not monotonous.

5      4      3      2     1

Total score______

Types of presentations

FE Complete the phrases the presenter uses to make the structure of the presentation clear to the audience. Match the phrases bellow 1-5 with phrases i-v.

2 then put the sentences in the correct order in order for the plan to be coherent.

1. Now turning to

2. That gives you an overview of how the three perfect product segments have performed,

3. I’ll start with

4. Before analysing the performance over the last 12 months,

5. So now, if we could look at

i. our two top performing segments.

ii. and now I’ll move on to the outlook for he future.

iii. the performance of our three product segments, in terms of market share.

iv. the remaining segment, bags of chocolate.

v. I’d like to give you some facts about levels of chocolate consumption.

_ Use a rhetorical question to link the ideas bellow. follow the example. you may need to rephrase the wording in the second idea.


Idea 1              Recently there’s been a surge in European sales to Japan.

Idea 2              This increase reflects Japanese affluence and a recently acquired taste for

 luxury cars and designer label products.

Recently there’s been a surge in European sales to Japan. Why is this? Firstly, it reflects Japanese affluence. And secondly, a recently acquired taste for luxury cars and designer label products.

Your turn:

Idea 1              With the downturn in the US car market, our sales have dropped


Idea 2              One solution would be to reduce production.

ž  How would you change these statements to make them sound stronger and more convincing? Follow the example.


There isn’t any need to change the date of the product launch.

There is no need to change the date of the product launch.

Your turn:

a. We can keep our sales and administration departments separate, but we need to have them in one location.

b. Maintaining a separate research centre in Milan isn’t an effective solution.

c. Our proposal is to relocate all research and development to our factory in Frankfurt. 

Using visual aids in your presentation

!  1. Read the two cases described bellow and then answer the question:

Case Study 1

John has to give a presentation to his engineering group describing a major project that he is proposing for the company. He has spent weeks preparing for his 30-minute presentation. This project is important to John, and he is very nervous.

John prepared 75 overhead transparencies for the presentation. Each is crammed with information. As the presentation begins John finds that he is spending more time than he thought he would discussing each transparency. His allotted time is running out fast. He speeds up his rate of speech, and to finish on time he shows the last 35 transparencies without any discussion.

Case Study 2

Ian works in a large bank. He must make a presentation on the past, present and future of the bank’s finance department to a group of high-ranking departmental managers. Ian is keen for his presentation to go well.

In Ian’s 30-minute presentation he will use overhead transparencies, and he has prepared 10 that summarise important information from his written report. Each transparency deals with a single issue, yet has enough information to cover the subject and reinforce the points he is trying to make. He knows that a summary of information on his visual aids will provide enough meat for discussion. Ian’s philosophy is to make visual aids work for him, and not let them overwhelm the presentation.

Who do you think was most successful and why?

u/v/w All the phrases bellow can be used to prepare the audience for a visual, but the words are not in the correct order. Put them in the correct order following the example.


a. now / show / another / I’ll / slide / you

Now I’ll show you another slide…

Your turn:

b. the / to / when / turn / we

c. chart / shows / the / next

d. turning / to / now

e. slide / next / the / let’s / on / move / to

Comment on the two pictures bellow showing two different situations of presenters using visual aids. Which do you think is better? Why? Come up with arguments.



Concluding a presentation

. The statements bellow are from a presentation reviewing the performance of chocolate products, but they are not in a logical order. Put the statements in a logical order.

a. Clearly, if we are to improve our performance in this sector, action must be taken in the coming year.

b. So, in conclusion, I would ask you to give serious consideration to the measures.

c. Thank you for your attention, and if you have any questions I’d be happy to answer them.

d. But, faced with strong competition, the performance of our remaining sector, bags of chocolate, is very disappointing.

e. And, I’m confident that the measures which I’ve outlined today will do just that.

f. So, as we’ve seen, the product sectors, boxes and blocks have performed well.

*< Make the sentences bellow sound stronger. Follow the example.


As we’ve seen, the budget is …      low.

As we’ve seen, the budget is really far too low.

Your turn

a. Our costs are … high we … aren’t competitive any more.

b. Given the … high costs of a central office, we … recommend relocating your administrative functions out of London.

c. If you … want to create an effective sales team, you need to hire … qualified staff.

d. It’s … clear that the system isn’t working.

Dealing with questions

! Complete the table with the 5 techniques in the box:

Text Box: Redirect to another person	
Redirect to the questioner
Redirect to the group			
		Control the timing



Let me check I understand. Are you asking…?

Well, it all depends what you mean by…

Could you be a little more specific?



That’s a very interesting question. Could I ask you what your own view is?

You must have thought quite a lot about this. What do you think?


Anyone like to comment on that?

Has anyone else had a similar problem?


That’s a good question, but I’m afraid it’s not really my field. Mr. Hamad, can you help me to answer that?



OK, we only have a few minutes left. Is there one last question?

I’m afraid that’s all we have time for. Thank you all very much for your attention.

> read the following evading replies and categorise them under the headings bellow.


Introducing an alternative topic / position

Not accepting responsibility


a. I’m afraid that’s not my field, really. Perhaps Dr. Fielding would be able to help.

b. We’re hoping to talk about that at the meeting next week.

c. Actually, I don’t have these figures on me. Could I speak to you later?

d. Yes, I think it is important, but perhaps even more important is the inflation rate.


III. Reference list

* * *, 2004, Presentation Skills, British Council Seminar

Cusen Gabriela, 2006, Academic Discourse Practices, Lecture Notes

Ellis, Mark, O’ Driscoll, Nina, 1992, Giving Presentations, Hong Kong: Longman

Jeff, Radel, 1994, Preparing Effective Oral Presentations, Lecture Notes

Johnson, Christine, O’ Driscoll, Nina, 1991, Exchanging Information, Hong Kong: Longman

Kerridge, David, 1989, Presenting Facts and Figures, Singapore: Longman

Mandel, Steve, 1994, Effective Presentation Skills, London: Kogan Page

O’ Driscoll, Nina, Pilbeam, Palmer, 1991, Meetings and discussions, Singapore:  Longman

* Much of the information in this practical course is based on Steve Mandel’s Effective Presentation Skills and Mark Ellis and Nina O’ Driscoll’s Giving Presentations practical books.

** For the entire support and guidance in preparing the materials for this practical course, I’d like to thank Mrs. Gabriela Cusen, Lecturer Ph. D., from the English Department of the Foreign Languages and Literatures Chair, Faculty of Languages and Literatures, Transilvania University of Brasov.

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