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Centrum Performance®

Vitamin A

  • Retinoic Acid is important in Rod and cone cells for vision
  • Hair, skin, eyes = impt in night vision and blindness
  • Necessary in PTH function → cofactor
  • Impt. Component of CSF
  • Deficiency:
    • Night Blindness
    • ↓ Ca2+ ↑ P = hypothyroidism
  • Vitamin A Excess
    • ↑↑ PTH Effect
      • Moans, Groans → Pancreatitis
      • Bones → PTH leaching bone
      • Stones → Ca2+
    • Excess production of CSF → pseudotumor cerebri = only cause of ICP that causes no herniation
      • Presents with Headache and papilledema
      • CT → Ventricle enlargement
      • LP → ↑↑ pressure
      • Treatment:
        • Serial LP’s to siphon excess CSF

Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) → TTP

  • Pyruvate dehydrogenase
  • α - keto glutarate dehydrogenase
  • Branched Chain amino acid dehydrogenase
  • Transketolase

Vitamin B1 Deficiecy:

  • Wet Beri Beri = High output cardiac failure
  • Dry beri beri = w/o heart failure
  • Alcoholic = Wernicke’s encephalopathy (temporal lobe) - ataxia, nystagmus
    • Korsakoff (Mammilary bodies) - confabulation, psychosis

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin, FADH2)

  • Angular cheliosis/stomatitis
  • Best source = Milk, vegetables
  • Sun can breakdown riboflavin → reason why milk is no longer stored in glass bottles
  • Magenta colored tongue

Vitamin B3 = NIACIN


Niacin Deficiency

Pellagra = 3 D’s = Dementia, Diarrhea, Dermatitis, Death

Hartnup’s Disease presents very similar

o       A problem with the transport of Tryptophan → which is needed to make niacin


needed to make Niacin

Source = corn

Hartnup’s Disease = defective renal transport, similar to Pellagra

Vitamin B4 = Lipoic acid

Vitamin B5 = Pantothenic acid → CoA

Vitamin B6 = Pyridoxine

Cofactor for all TRANSAMINASES (AST/ALT)

INH pulls B6 out of the body

Deficiency → neuropathy

Vitamin B12 = Cyanocobalamin


o       Methyl malonyl CoA Mutase = needed in prevention of myelin neuropathy

o       Homocysteine methyl transferase

Water soluble although absorbed in proximal ileum


o       Dorsal column/Corticalspinal Tracts will be affect because they are the longest tracts therefore, need the most

o       Megaloblastic Anemia


Thymidine synthesis, purine synthesis.

1st vitamin to run out in association with rapidly dividing cells


o       Megaloblastic Anemia without neuropathy

o       Deficiency in pregnancy can cause neural tube defects in the fetus

o       Homocystienemia with risk of DVT and atherosclerosis


o       Alcoholics and pregnancy - body stores can be depleted in 3 months

Vitamin C

Scurvy - bleeding gums/hair follicles

o       Needed in:

Proline and lysl hydroxylase - collagen synthesis

Dopamine hydroxylase - catecholamine synthesis

Absorption of iron in GI tract

Vitamin D

Calcium absorption in Gut

Reabsorption of Ca2+ from kidneys

Osteoblastic activity → ↑ both Ca2+ and P

Decreased in Rickets

o       Children

o       Lateral Bowing of legs

Decreased in Osteomalacia = Soft bones

Vitamin D resistance Rickets

o       X-linked dominant ( Father → daughter)

o       Kidney is leaking phosphorus, so calcium goes with it

Vitamin E

anti-oxidant ( absorbs free radicals)

Skin, eyes, hair

Decreased in Retinopathy

Decreased in Alzheimer’s

Vitamin K

Clotting Factors 2,7,9,10, (1972) proteins C (shortest half life) & S

γ-carboxylation of these factors


Cofactor for all CARBOXYLASES

Pyruvate carboxylase ( Gluconeogenesis/FA Syn)

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