Scrigroup - Documente si articole


HomeDocumenteUploadResurseAlte limbi doc
BulgaraCeha slovacaCroataEnglezaEstonaFinlandezaFranceza


Soccer - Basic rules of soccer - Famous soccer players


+ Font mai mare | - Font mai mic


The beginnings of soccer

The origin of football / soccer can be found in every corner of geography and history. The Chinese, Japanese, Italian, Ancient Greek, Persian, Viking, and many more played a ball game long before our era. The Chinese played 'football'  games date as far back as 3000 years ago. The Ancient Greeks and the Roman used football  games to sharpen warriors for battle. In south and Central America a game called 'Tlatchi' once flourished.

But it was in England that soccer really begin to take shape. It all started in 1863 in England, when two football association (association football and rugby football) split off on their different course. Therefore, the first Football Association was founded in England.

On October 1963, eleven London clubs and schools sent their representatives to the Freemason's Tavern. These representatives were intent on clarifying the muddle by establishing a set of fundamental rules, acceptable to all parties, to govern the matches played amongst them. This meeting marked the birth of The Football Association. The eternal dispute concerning shin-kicking, tripping and carrying the ball was discussed thoroughly at this and consecutive meetings until eventually on 8 December the die-hard exponents of the Rugby style took their final leave. They were in the minority anyway. They wanted no part in a game that forbade tripping, shin-kicking and carrying the ball. A stage had been reached where the ideals were no longer compatible. On 8 December 1863, football and rugby finally split. Their separation became totally irreconcilable six years hence when a provision was included in the football rules forbidding any handling of the ball (not only carrying it).

Only eight years after its foundation, The Football Association already had 50 member clubs. The first football competition in the world was started in the same year - the FA Cup, which preceded the League Championship by 17 years.

International matches were being staged in Great Britain before football had hardly been heard of in Europe. The first was played in 1872 and was contested by England and Scotland. This sudden boom of organized football accompanied by staggering crowds of spectators brought with it certain problems with which other countries were not confronted until much later on. Professionalism was one of them. The first moves in this direction came in 1879, when Darwin, a small Lancashire club, twice managed to draw against the supposedly invincible Old Etonians in the FA Cup, before the famous team of London amateurs finally scraped through to win at the third attempt. Two Darwin players, the Scots John Love and Fergus Suter, are reported as being the first players ever to receive remuneration for their football talent. This practice grew rapidly and the Football Association found itself obliged to legalise professionalism as early as 1885. This development predated the formation of any national association outside of Great Britain (namely, in the Netherlands and Denmark) by exactly four years.

After the English Football Association, the next oldest are the Scottish FA (1873), the FA of Wales (1875) and the Irish FA (1880). Strictly speaking, at the time of the first international match, England had no other partner association against which to play. When Scotland played England in Glasgow on 30 November 1872, the Scottish FA did not even exist - it was not founded for another three months. The team England played that day was actually the oldest Scottish club team, Queen's Park.

The spread of football outside of England, mainly due to the British influence abroad, started slow, but it soon gathered momentum and spread rapidly to all parts of the world. The next countries to form football associations after the Netherlands and Denmark in 1889 were New Zealand (1891), Argentina (1893), Chile (1895), Switzerland, Belgium (1895), Italy (1898), Germany, Uruguay (both in 1900), Hungary (1901) and Finland (1907). When FIFA was founded in Paris in May 1904 it had seven founder members: France, Belgium, Denmark, the Netherlands, Spain (represented by the Madrid FC), Sweden and Switzerland. The German Football Federation cabled its intention to join on the same day.

This international football community grew steadily, although it sometimes met with obstacles and setbacks. In 1912, 21 national associations were already affiliated to the Fdration Internationale de Football Association (FIFA). By 1925, the number had increased to 36, in 1930 - the year of the first World Cup - it was 41, in 1938, 51 and in 1950, after the interval caused by the Second World War, the number had reached 73. At present, after the 2000 Ordinary FIFA Congress, FIFA has 204 members in every part of the world.

Now existing leagues

UEFA Champions League, European Champion Clubs Cup - this are the two main club competitions organized by the UEFA (Union of European Football Association)

LFP - Professional Football League, commonly known as the Primera Divisin

EPL - English Premier League

MLS - Major League Soccer

Basic rules of soccer

Soccer is a game of skill of which players use their feet to move a ball down the field (roughly the size of a football field) and kick it into the other team's goal. A soccer game consists of two 45-minute halves. Any time used to treat injured players or issue penalties gets added to the end of the game. Each team needs seven players, including the goalkeeper, to play, but usually each team usually plays 11 players at a time. While some positions vary and get a bit fancy, soccer players cover for basic positions.


The goalkeeper (also called goalie, keeper or goal tender) is the only player allowed to touch the ball with his/her hands while the ball is in play. S/he stays near the goal and may use his/her hands within the penalty box, which is the larger of the two boxes drawn on the field that extend from the goal. His/her main duty is to stop every shot from entering the goal.


The defenders play in front of the goalie and defend the goal. They usually pass the ball to players farther up the field rather than dribble the ball toward the opponent's goal themselves.


The midfielders (also called half-backs) usually run more than the other players. They move the ball between the defensive and offensive ends of the field with a combination of dribbling and passing. While they play the entire length of the field, they often position themselves between the defenders and the forwards.


The forwards are the players who score the most goals. They usually play between the midfielders and the other team's goal. Most of the forwards' game is to dribble briefly and shoot the ball to try to score.

The basic rules of soccer mostly deal with putting the ball into play.

Kick off

Before the game, a coin toss determines which team gets to choose between picking which goal they'll defend and kicking off to start the game. To kick off, one of the forward players kicks the ball off the center line, usually to a teammate.

Throw in

When the ball goes out of bounds on either side of the field, which ever team did not touch the ball last gets to throw the ball back into play. The throw in takes place at the point where the ball left the field and requires a player to throw the ball with both hands extending from behind his head while keeping his feet on the ground.

Goal kick

When the offensive team makes the ball goes out of bounds at the end of the field (aptly called an end line), the defensive team gets a goal kick. A player from that team may kick the ball from the ground anywhere within the goal area. The ball cannot be touched again until it leaves the penalty box.

Corner kick

When the defensive team makes the ball go out of bounds at the end of the field, the offensive team gets a corner kick. A player from that team kicks the ball into play from either corner of that end of the field. The other players may touch the ball as soon as it's kicked.

Some of the basic rules of soccer gives penalties to teams and players who break them. Those rules include players using their hands and any action the referees deem dangerous play and inappropriate play.

Hand infractions and other not-so-serious fouls give indirect free kicks to the other team. The player to kicks during the free kick may do so from the point of the infraction, as determined by the ref. The ball must touch one other player before going into the goal.

Dangerous plays and other physical contact infractions lead to direct free kicks for the other team. During a direct free kick, the ball may go directly into the goal for a score, without touching any other players first.

Penalty kick

If an infraction occurs within the penalty box (or penalty area), the other team gets to kick the ball directly at the goal from a point 12 feet away, with no players other than the goalkeeper in the way. During a penalty kick, the goalkeeper must not move until the ref blows his whistle to start the kick.

Yellow card

If a player violates the rules or shows unsportsmanlike conduct, the referee can issue a caution. The caution is called a yellow card, which is the color of the card he shows the player as a warning.

Red card

If a player makes an extreme infraction, the referee can kick that player out of the game by showing her a red card. A player can also receive a red card by getting two yellow cards during one game.


If a player passes the ball to a teammate who has moved into the defensive team's end of the field ahead of the ball, the team would be called off-sides. The other team would then get an indirect kick. Players cannot be called off-sides during goal kicks, corner kicks and throw ins. Off-sides is usually the most confusing rule.

Soccer pitch

The length of the pitch for international adult matches is in the range 100110 m (110120 yd) and the width is in the range 6475 m (7080 yd). Fields for non-international matches may be 91120 m (100130 yd) length and 4591 m (50101 yd) in width, provided that the pitch does not become square. The longer boundary lines are touchlines or sidelines, while the shorter boundaries (on which the goals are placed) are goal lines. A rectangular goal is positioned at the middle of each goal line. The inner edges of the vertical goal posts must be 7.3 m (8 yd) apart, and the lower edge of the horizontal crossbar supported by the goal posts must be 2.44 m (8 ft) above the ground. Nets are usually placed behind the goal, but are not required by the Laws.

In front of each goal is an area known as the penalty area. This area is marked by the goal line, two lines starting on the goal line 16.5 m (18 yd) from the goalposts and extending 16.5 m (18 yd) into the pitch perpendicular to the goal line, and a line joining them. This area has a number of functions, the most prominent being to mark where the goalkeeper may handle the ball and where a penalty foul by a member of the defending team becomes punishable by a penalty kick. Other markings define the position of the ball or players at kick-offs, goal kicks, penalty kicks and corner kicks.


The ball used in football (soccer) is called a football (or soccer ball). The ball is an air-filled sphere with a circumference of 6870 cm, a weight 410450 g, inflated to a pressure of 812 psi, and covered in leather or 'other suitable material. The weight specified for a ball is the dry weight: older balls often became significantly heavier in the course of a match played in wet weather. The standard ball is a Size 5. Smaller sizes exist: Size 3 is standard for team handball; others are used in underage games or as novelty items.

Famous soccer players

Edson Arantes de Nascimento

Athlete, professional soccer player. Born Edson Arantes de Nascimento on October 23, 1940, in Tres Coracoes, Brazil. Although he was poor, Pel grew up to be an international sports superstar. Throughout his childhood, he played soccer whenever and wherever he could, sometimes using a stuffed sock for a ball. He joined his first soccer team at the age of 12.

Pel started playing professional soccer while in his teens. In 1958, he helped Brazil win its first World Cup victory. His performance in the finalsscoring two goalsmade him an international sensation. He also played for the professional Brazilian team Santos from 1956 to 1974 and scored more than 1,000 goals during his time with the club. He retired from Santos in 1974, but was lured back to the game with an offer from a team in the United States the next year. He joined the New York Cosmos, a part of the North American Soccer League. As a member of the Cosmos, Pel became a household name in the United States and fans flocked to see him play.

Retiring for the second time after the 1977 season, Pel has pursued his own business opportunities, such as a coffee company and a sports and marketing firm. Along with his ventures, he has served as a spokesman for numerous international companies. Pel does a lot of charity work, especially for children's organizations.

Diego Armando Maradona

Footballer, born in Lanus, Argentina. Diego Armando Maradona became Argentina's youngest ever international in 1977, transferred to Boca Juniors for ₤1 million as a teenager, and in 1982 became the world's most expensive footballer when he joined Barcelona for 5 million.

He broke the record again in 1984 when the Italian club Napoli paid ₤6-9 million for him. He captained Argentina to their second FIFA World Cup win in 1986, having eliminated England in the quarter-finals when he scored a highly controversial goal. At the height of success, his career then foundered amid accusations of drug-taking. Following a 15-month ban, he returned by popular demand, though without a club, to the World Cup side as captain in 1994, but was again suspended from the team following a positive drug test. He signed for Santos in 1995 and announced his retirement in 1997.

In 2000, he developed a severe heart condition following cocaine use, subsequently moving to Cuba for two years treatment for drug abuse. In 2003, he was reunited with the son he had previously refused to recognize as his own. His health improved by 2005 when he began a new career as a television chat-show host. Most guests were drawn from the worlds of football and show business, including Zidane and Ronaldo, but also included interviews with other notable personalities such as Fidel Castro and Mike Tyson.

Franz Beckenbauer

Footballer, born in Munich, SE Germany. As player, coach, manager, and administrator, he became a dynamic force in German football during the 1970s. With club Bayern Munich (196276) he had many successes in domestic and European football, among them three European Cups in a row (1974, 1975, ). He captained the West German national side to European Nations Cup success in 1972 and to the World Cup triumph of 1974. Other honours include European Footballer of the Year (1972, 1976). He retired from international soccer in 1977 after winning 103 caps, a record at that time. He became manager of West Germany in 1986, and in 1990 became the first person to have won the World Cup (united Germany) both as a captain and a manager. He is currently president of FC Bayern Munich and in 1998 was appointed vice-president of the German Football Association.

Ronaldo de Assis Moreira

Brazilian soccer star Ronaldinho was born Ronaldo de Assis Moreira on March 21, 1980, in Porto   Alegre. He's named after fellow Brazilian soccer star Ronaldo. His career began with the youth team Gremio in Porto Algere, and his first senior appearance came in 1998 Libertadores Cup. In 2001, Ronaldinho left Gremio to play European football and signed a five-year contract with Paris Saint-Germain, but his manager Luis Fernandez claimed that he was too focused on the Paris nightlife rather than on his football.

On July 19, 2003, he was traded to F.C. Barcelona for 18 million pounds and on December 20, 2004, he was named FIFA World player of The Year. Ronaldinho also plays for the Brazilian National team, and made his debut on June 26, 1999, against Latvia, and won the 2002 World Cup with the team. He is married to dancer Janaina Nattielle Viana Mendes, and they have a son named Joao.

Other famous players: Batistuta, Javier Zanetti, Lionel Messi, Pablo Aimar, Cafu, Dida, Kaka, Rivaldo, Robert, Ronaldo, C.Ronaldo, Bobby Moore, David Beckham, Michael Owen, Steven Gerrard, Ryan Giggs, Wayne Rooney, Petr Cech, Dennis Bergkamp, Fabien Barthez, Lilian Thuram, Michel Platini, Patrick Vieira, Thierry Henry, Zinedine Zidane, Bernd Schneider, Gerd Muller, Jens Lehman, Jurgen Klinsmann, Lothar Mathaus, Michael Ballack, Oliver Kahn, Philipp Lahm, Sebastian Deisler, Asamoah Gyan, Stephen Appiah, Sulley Ali Muntari Bhaichung Bhutia, Alessandro Del Piero, Adrian Mutu, Cannavaro, Christian, Filippo Inzaghi, Nesta, Paolo Maldini, Roberto Baggio, Yoshikatsu Kawaguchi, Ji Sung Park, Freddy Adu, Mia Hamm.

Politica de confidentialitate | Termeni si conditii de utilizare



Vizualizari: 1156
Importanta: rank

Comenteaza documentul:

Te rugam sa te autentifici sau sa iti faci cont pentru a putea comenta

Creaza cont nou

Termeni si conditii de utilizare | Contact
© SCRIGROUP 2024 . All rights reserved