Scrigroup - Documente si articole

Username / Parola inexistente      

Home Documente Upload Resurse Alte limbi doc  


BulgaraCeha slovacaCroataEnglezaEstonaFinlandezaFranceza
GermanaItalianaLetonaLituanianaMaghiaraOlandezaPoloneza
SarbaSlovenaSpaniolaSuedezaTurcaUcraineana

AdministrationAnimalsArtBiologyBooksBotanicsBusinessCars
ChemistryComputersComunicationsConstructionEcologyEconomyEducationElectronics
EngineeringEntertainmentFinancialFishingGamesGeographyGrammarHealth
HistoryHuman-resourcesLegislationLiteratureManagementsManualsMarketingMathematic
MedicinesMovieMusicNutritionPersonalitiesPhysicPoliticalPsychology
RecipesSociologySoftwareSportsTechnicalTourismVarious

Basic Principles in Keeping a Watch

various

+ Font mai mare | - Font mai mic



Basic Principles in Keeping a Watch

IMO STCW Convention 1978
Regulation II/1

ANNEX A
BASIC PRINCIPLES
TO BE OBSERVED IN KEEPING
A NAVIGATIONAL WATCH
1. Parties shall direct the attention of shipowners, ship operators, masters and watchkeeping personnel to the following principles which shall be observed to ensure that a safe navigational watch is maintained at all times.
2. The master of every ship is bound to ensure that watchkeeping arrangements are adequate for maintaining a safe navigational watch. Under the master's general direction, the officers of the watch are responsible for navigating the ship safely during their periods of duty when they will be particularly concerned with avoiding collision and stranding.
3. The basic principles, including but not limited to the following, shall be taken into account on all ships.
4. Watch arrangements
(a) The composition of the watch shall at all times be adequate and appropriate to the prevailing circumstances and conditions and shall take into account the need for maintaining a proper look-out.
(b) When deciding the composition of the watch on the bridge which may include appropriate deck ratings, the following factors, inter alia, shall be taken into account:
(i) at no time shall the bridge be left unattended;
(ii) weather conditions, visibility and whether there is daylight or darkness;
(iii) proximity of navigational hazards which may make it necessary for the officer in charge of the watch to carry out additional navigational duties;
(iv) use and operational condition of navigational aids such as radar or electronic position indicating devices and any other equipment affecting the safe navigation of the ship;
(v) whether the ship is fitted with automatic steering;
(vi) any unusual demands on the navigational watch that may arise as a result of special operational circumstances.
5. Fitness for duty
The watch system shall be such that the efficiency of watchkeeping officers and watchkeeping ratings is not impaired by fatigue. Duties shall be so organized that the first watch at the commencement of a voyage and the subsequent relieving watches are sufficiently rested and otherwise fit for duty.
6. Navigation
(a) The intended voyage shall be planned in advance taking into consideration all pertinent information and any course laid down shall be checked before the voyage commences.
(b) During the watch the course steered, position and speed shall be checked at sufficiently frequent intervals, using any available navigational aids necessary, to ensure that the ship follows the planned course.
(c) The officer of the watch shall have full knowledge of the location and operation of all safety and navigational equipment on board the ship and shall be aware and take account of the operating limitations of such equipment.
(d) The officer in charge of a navigational watch shall not be assigned or undertake any duties which would interfere with the safe navigation of the ship.
7. Navigational equipment
(a) The officer of the watch shall make the most effective use of all navigational equipment at his disposal.
(b) When using radar, the officer of the watch shall bear in mind the necessity to comply at all times with the provisions on the use of radar contained in the applicable regulations for preventing collisions at sea.
(c) In cases of need the officer of the watch shall not hesitate to use the helm, engines and sound signalling apparatus.
8. Navigational duties and responsibilities
(a) The officer in charge of the watch shall:
(i) keep his watch on the bridge which he shall in no circumstances leave until properly relieved;
(ii) continue to be responsible for the safe navigation of the ship, despite the presence of the master on the bridge, until the master informs him specifically that he has assumed that responsibility and this is mutually understood;
(iii) notify the master when in any doubt as to what action to take in the interest of safety;
(iv) not hand over the watch to the relieving officer if he has reason to believe that the latter is obviously not capable of carrying out his duties effectively, in which case he shall notify the master accordingly.
(b) On taking over the watch the relieving officer shall satisfy himself as to the ship's estimated or true position and confirm its intended track, course and speed and shall note any dangers to navigation expected to be encountered during his watch.
(c) A proper record shall be kept of the movements and activities during the watch relating to the navigation of the ship.
9. Look-out
In addition to maintaining a proper look-out for the purpose of fully appraising the situation and the risk of collision, stranding and other dangers to navigation, the duties of the look-out shall include the detection of ships or aircraft in distress, shipwrecked persons, wrecks and debris. In maintaining a look-out the following shall be observed:
(a) the look-out must be able to give full attention to the keeping of a proper look-out and no other duties shall be undertaken or assigned which could interfere with that task;
(b) the duties of the look-out and helmsman are separate and the helmsman shall not be considered to be the look-out while steering, except in small ships where an unobstructed all -round view is provided at the steering position and there is no impairment of night vision or other impediment to the keeping of a proper look-out. The officer in charge of the watch may be the sole look-out in. daylight provided that on each such occasion:
(i) the situation has been carefully assessed and it has been established without doubt that it is safe to do so;
(ii) full account has been taken of all relevant factors including, but not limited to: -state of weather -visibility -traffic density -proximity of danger to navigation -the attention necessary when navigating in or near traffic separation schemes.
(iii) assistance is immediately available to be summoned to the bridge when any change in the situation so requires.
10. Navigation with pilot embarked
Despite the duties and obligations of a pilot, his presence on board does not relieve the master or officer in charge of the watch from their duties and obligations for the safety of the ship. The master and the pilot shall exchange information regarding navigation procedures, local conditions and the ship's characteristics. The master and officer of the watch shall co-operate closely with the pilot and maintain an accurate cheek of the ship's position and movement.
11. Protection of the marine environment
The master and officer in charge of the watch shall be aware of the serious effects of operational or accidental pollution of the marine environment and shall take all possible precautions to prevent such pollution, particularly within the framework of relevant international and port regulations.
ANNEX TO RESOLUTION 1
RECOMMENDATION ON OPERATIONAL GUIDANCE FOR OFFICERS
IN CHARGE OF A NAVIGATIONAL WATCH



INTRODUCTION
1.
This Recommendation contains operational guidance of general application for officers in charge of a navigational watch, which masters are expected to supplement as appropriate. It is essential that officers of the watch appreciate that the efficient performance of their duties is necessary in the interests of the safety of life and property at sea and the prevention of pollution of the marine environment.

GENERAL
2.
The officer of the watch is the master's representative and his primary responsibility at all times is the safe navigation of the ship. He should at all times comply with the applicable regulations for preventing collisions at sea (see also paragraphs 22 and 23).

3. It is of special importance that at all times the officer of the watch ensures that an efficient look-out is maintained. In a ship with a separate chart room the officer of the watch may visit the chart room, when essential, for a short period for the necessary performance of his navigational duties, but he should previously satisfy himself that it is safe to do so and ensure that an efficient lookout is maintained.

4. The officer of the watch should bear in mind that the engines are at his disposal and he should not hesitate to use them in case of need. However, timely notice of intended variations of engine speed should be given where possible. He should also know the handling characteristics of his ship, including its stopping distance, and should appreciate that other ships may have different handling characteristics.

5. The officer of the watch should also bear in mind that the sound signalling apparatus is at his disposal and he should not hesitate to use it in accordance with the applicable regulations for preventing collisions at sea.

TAKING OVER THE NAVIGATIONAL WATCH
6.
The relieving officer of the watch should ensure that members of his watch are fully capable of performing their duties, particularly as regards their adjustment to night vision.

7. The relieving officer of the watch should not take over the watch until his vision is fully adjusted to the light conditions and he has personally satisfied himself regarding:

(a) standing orders and other special instructions of the master relating to navigation of the ship;

(b) position, course, speed and draught of the ship;

(c) prevailing and predicted tides, currents, weather, visibility and the effect of these factors upon course and speed;

(d) navigational situation, including but not limited to the following:

(i) operational condition of all navigational and safety equipment being used or likely to be used during the watch;

(ii) errors of gyro and magnetic compasses;

(iii) presence and movement of ships in sight or known to be in the vicinity;

(iv) conditions and hazards likely to be encountered during his watch;

 (v) possible effects of heel, trim, water density and squat* on underkeel clearance.
8. If at the time the officer of the watch is to be relieved a manoeuvre or other action to avoid any hazard is taking place, the relief of the officer should be deferred until such action has been completed.

PERIODIC CHECKS OF NAVIGATIONAL EQUIPMENT
9.
Operational tests of shipboard navigational equipment should be carried out at sea as frequently as practicable and as circumstances permit, in particular when hazardous conditions affecting navigation are expected; where appropriate these tests should be recorded.

10. The officer of the watch should make regular cheeks to ensure that:

(a) the helmsman or the automatic pilot is steering the correct course;

(b) the standard compass error is determined at least once a watch and, when possible, after any major alteration of course; the standard and gyro-compasses are frequently compared and repeaters are synchronized with their master compass;



(c) the automatic pilot is tested manually at least once a watch.

(d) the navigation and signal lights and other navigational equipment are functioning properly.

AUTOMATIC PILOT
11.
The officer of the watch should bear in mind the necessity to comply at all times with the requirements of Regulation 19, Chapter V of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1974. He should take into account the need to station the helmsman and to put the steering into manual control in good time to allow any potentially hazardous situation to be dealt with in a safe manner. With a ship under automatic steering it is highly dangerous to allow a situation to develop to the point where the officer of the watch is without assistance and has to break the continuity of the look-out in order to take emergency action. The change~over from automatic to manual steering and vice-versa should be made by, or under the supervision of, a responsible officer.

ELECTRONIC NAVIGATIONAL AIDS
12. The officer of the watch should be thoroughly familiar with the use of electronic navigational aids carried, including their capabilities and limitations.

13. The echo-sounder is a valuable navigational aid and should be used whenever appropriate.

RADAR
14.
The officer of the watch should use the radar when appropriate and whenever restricted visibility is encountered or expected, and at all times in congested waters having due regard to its limitations.

15. Whenever radar is in use, the officer of the watch should select an appropriate range scale, observe the display carefully and plot effectively.

16. The officer of the watch should ensure that range scales employed are changed at sufficiently frequent intervals so that echoes are detected as early as possible.

17. It should be borne in mind that small or poor echoes may escape detection.

18. The officer of the watch should ensure that plotting or systematic analysis is commenced in ample time.

19. In clear weather, whenever possible, the officer of the watch should carry out radar practice.

NAVIGATION IN COASTAL WATERS
20.
The largest scale chart on board, suitable for the area and corrected with the latest available information, should be used. Fixes should be taken at frequent intervals; whenever circumstances allow, fixing should be carried out by more than one method.

21. The officer of the watch should positively identify all relevant navigation marks.

CLEAR WEATHER
22. The officer of the watch should take frequent and accurate compass bearings of approaching ships as a means of early detection of risk of collision; such risk may sometimes exist even when an appreciable bearing change is evident, particularly when approaching a very large ship or a tow or when approaching a ship at close range. He should also take early and positive action in compliance with the applicable regulations for preventing collisions at sea and subsequently cheek that such action is having the desired effect.

RESTRICTED VISIBILITY
23.
When restricted visibility is encountered or expected, the first responsibility of the officer of the watch is to comply with the relevant rules of the applicable regulations for preventing collisions at sea, with particular regard to the sounding of fog signals, proceeding at a safe speed and having the engines ready for immediate manoeuvres. In addition, he should;

(a) inform the master (see paragraph 24);

(b) post a proper look-out and helmsman and, in congested waters, revert to hand steering immediately;

(c) exhibit navigation lights;

(d) operate and use the radar.

It is important that the officer of the watch should know the handling characteristics of his ship, including its stopping distance, and should appreciate that other ships may have different handling characteristics.



CALLING THE MASTER
24.
The officer of the watch should notify the master immediately in the following circumstances;

(a) if restricted visibility is encountered or expected;

(b) if the traffic conditions or the movements of other ships are causing concern;

(c) if difficulty is experienced in maintaining course;

(d) on failure to sight land, a navigation mark or to obtain soundings by the expected time;

(e) if, unexpectedly, land or a navigation mark is sighted or change in soundings occurs;

(f) on the breakdown of the engines, steering gear or any essential navigational equipment;

(g) in heavy weather if in any doubt about the possibility of weather damage;

(h) if the ship meets any hazard to navigation, such as ice or derelicts;

(i) in any other emergency or situation in which he is in any doubt.

Despite the requirement to notify the master immediately in the foregoing circumstances, the officer of the watch should in addition not hesitate to take immediate action for the safety of the ship, where circumstances so require.

NAVIGATION WITH PILOT EMBARKED
25. If the officer of the watch is in any doubt as to the pilot's actions or intentions, he should seek clarification from the pilot; if doubt still exists, he should notify the master immediately and take whatever action is necessary before the master arrives.

WATCHKEEPING PERSONNEL
26.
The officer of the watch should give watchkeeping personnel all appropriate instructions and information which will ensure the keeping of a safe watch including an appropriate look-out.

SHIP AT ANCHOR
27.
If the master considers it necessary, a continuous navigational watch should be maintained at anchor. In all circumstances, while at anchor, the officer of the watch should:

(a) determine and plot the ship's position on the appropriate chart as soon as practicable; when circumstances permit, cheek at sufficiently frequent intervals whether the ship is remaining securely at anchor by taking bearings of fixed navigation marks or readily identifiable shore objects;

(b) ensure that an efficient look-out is maintained;

(c) ensure that inspection rounds of the ship are made periodically;

(d) observe meteorological and tidal conditions and the state of the sea;

(e) notify the master and undertake all necessary measures if the ship drags anchor;

(f) ensure that the state of readiness of the main engines and other machinery is in accordance with the master's instructions;

(g) if visibility deteriorates, notify the master and comply wi th the applicable regulations for preventing collisions at sea;

(h) ensure that the ship exhibits the appropriate lights and shapes and that appropriate sound singals are made at all times, as required;

(i) take measures to protect the environment from pollution by the ship and comply with applicable pollution regulations.

* Squat: The decrease in clearance beneath the ship which occurs when the ship moves through the water and is caused both by bodily sinkage and by change of trim. The effect is accentuated in shallow water and is reduced with a reduction in ship's speed.






Politica de confidentialitate



DISTRIBUIE DOCUMENTUL

Comentarii


Vizualizari: 1731
Importanta: rank

Comenteaza documentul:

Te rugam sa te autentifici sau sa iti faci cont pentru a putea comenta

Creaza cont nou

Termeni si conditii de utilizare | Contact
© SCRIGROUP 2022 . All rights reserved

Distribuie URL

Adauga cod HTML in site