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CONCORDANTA TIMPURILOR - ENGLEZA
Concordanta timpurilor se aplica, desigur, nu in propozitii, ci in fraze. Ea consta in aceea ca folosirea unui anumit timp in propozitia principala obliga la folosirea unui timp adecvat in propozitia secundara. Ce inseamna „un timp adecvat' se va vedea in continuare.
un timp „present'
Present Tense Simple, Present Tense Continuous, Present Perfect Simple, Present Perfect Continuous
Orice timp cerut de sens
2. un timp
Past Tense Simple, Past Tense Continuous, Past Perfect Simple, Past Perfect Continuous
Orice alt timp
Ex. a) Past Tense – actiune simultana – Past Tense
He said he was ill.
(El a spus ca este bolnav.)
He said he was going to school.
(El a spus ca merge la scola.)
b) Past Tense – actiune anterioara – Past Perfect
He said he had returned home a week before.
(El a spus ca se intorsese acasa cu o saptamana inainte.)
I arrived home after it had stopped raining.
(Am ajuns acasa dupa ce incetase ploaia.)
Nota 1: Daca intr-o fraza exista doua propozitii secundara cu actiunea anterioara celei din principala, se poate folosi Past Perfect in mod repetat.
Ex. She said she had
forgotten where she had put her glasses.
(Ea a spus ca uitase unde si-a pus ochelarii.)
c) Past Tense – actiunea posterioara – Future-in-the-Past
He said he would leave the next day.
(El a spus ca va pleca a doua zi.)
She promised her mother she would help her.
(Ea i-a promis mamei sale ca o va ajuta.)
Nota 2: Daca intr-o fraza exista doua propozitii secundare cu actiune posterioara celei din principala, dintre care una este temporala sau conditionala. Future-in-the-Past se poate folosi numai o singura data, dupa care (in temporala sau conditionala) se intrebuinteaza Past Tense (pentru simultaneitate) sau Past Perfect (pentru anterioritate).
Ex. He said he would
come to see me when he had time.
(El a spus ca va veni sa ma vada cand va avea timp.)
He said he would come to see me after he had finished work.
(El a spus ca va veni sa ma vada dupa ce va termina lucrul.)
He said he would buy a car if he had money.
(El a spus ca va cumpara o masina daca va avea bani.)
un timp „future'
Teoretic se poate folosi orice timp cerut
de sens, cu exceptia propozitii temporale sau conditionale,
care nu pot include un verb la viitor.
Situatiile cel mai des intalnite sunt urmatoarele:
a. Future – actiune simultana – Present
I will read this book when I have time.
(Voi citi aceasta carte cand voi avea timp.)
I will have finished studying when you come home.
(Voi fi terminat de studiat cand vei veni tu acasa.)
b. Future – actiune anterioara – Present Perfect
I will go to England after I have
received a visa.
(Voi merge in Anglia dupa ce voi obtine viza.)
Exceptii de la concordanta timpurilor
cand propozitia secundara exprima un adevar general valabil.
Ex. The teacher told the pupils water boils at 100 oC.
Profesorul le-a spus elevilor ca apa fierbe la 100 oC.
cand propozitia secundara este atributiva.
Ex. The book I am reading now was given to me by my brother.
Cartea pe care o citesc acum mi-a fost data de fratele meu.
Cand propozitia secundara este comparativa.
Ex. Last year I worked
more than I have done this year.
Anul trecut am muncit mai mult decat anul acesta.
Nota: In limba engleza contemporana, se poate observa uneori o oarecare tendinta de a nu se respecta concordanta timpurilor atunci cand verbul din propozitia principala este la trecut. Se poate intalni, de exemplu, o formulare de tipul: „He said he loves me'. Este posibil ca ceea ce apare acum ca tendinta, cu timpul, sa ajunga regula. Pentru moment insa, sfatuim pe vorbitorii romani de limba engleza sa respecte regulile de concordanta a timpurilor asa cum sunt prezentate mai sus.
Exercitii cu concordanta timpurilor
Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect (Past Tense Simple sau Continuous), avand in vedere simultaneitatea actiunilor din propozitia principala si cea secundara:
It was clear they (talk) business again.
I believed you (be) at the seaside.
I understood you (be) a painter.
They didn’t know that I (play) football.
He realized he (not remember) John’s phone number.
I was not sure if you (speak) English.
Looking out of the window, she saw the sun (shine) brightly.
He asked me if I usually (read) that newspaper.
You didn’t tell me you (have to) type this report.
He was in a hurry because he (want) to catch the train.
Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect (Past Perfect Simple sau Continuous), tinand seama de relatia de anterioritate exprimata de verbul din propozitia principala sau din cea secundara:
She told me his name after he (leave).
She didn’t even say thank you after all I (do) for her.
After I (hear) the news, I congratulated him.
When I arrived, the concert already (begin).
When it started to rain, we (dig) in the garden for an hour.
He didn’t admit that he (steal) the book.
He just (leave) home when he came across John.
Yesterday I bought a new umbrella because I (lose) my old one.
When he finally reached London, he was tired because he (travel) for three days.
I didn’t think that book to be a nice birthday present for you because I (read) it and I (not enjoy) it.
Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul Future-in-the-Past, avand in vedere faptul ca propozitia secundara exprima o actiune posterioara celei din principala:
They said they (remain) at the seaside for another week.
He hoped he (finish) reading the book in two days.
I thought you soon (have) a holiday.
I was not sure I (remain) at home that evening.
He believed the strike (end) very soon.
He promised he (drive) me home.
We all believed he (win) the competition.
As wages had gone up, we supposed prices (go up), too.
He was sure he (pass) the exam and he promised he (give) a party afterwards.
When I heard the main actor was ill, I was sue the performance (be cancelled).
Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul Present Simple sau Present Perfect Simple:
I will pay my debts after I (receive) my salary.
We shall start dinner as soon as the guests (arrive).
By the time you (finish) translating the text, I shall have typed all the letters.
After he (repair) the car, he will drive to Sinaia.
I will buy a car when I (have) enough money.
You will be surprised when you (see) how well she (look).
You will be surprised when you (see) how much she (change).
As soon as the holidays (begin), this beach will become very crowded.
I will go on playing the piano till he (tell) me to stop.
After she (learn) to type, she will take a job as a secretary.
He will write to me after he (arrive) in England.
The train will have left before we (reach) the station.
When their first baby (be born), they will have been married for five years.
When I (finish) the book, I will lend it to you.
I will never forget what you just (tell ) me.
Your mother will be upset when she (notice) you (break) the vase.
You will get a shock when you (see) the mess in that room.
You won’t be able to speak about this book till you (read) it.
It is said that one Englishman will not speak to another before they (be) introduced.
After you (drink) a coffee, you will feel better.
5. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect, tinand seama de exceptiile de la concordanta timpurilor:
I didn’t know at what temperature this metal (melt).
The teacher told the pupils what the capital of Mexico (be).
I wasn’t aware German (be) such a difficult language.
In 1998, the Romanians travelled less than they (do) this year.
Last year you spoke English less fluently than you (do) now.
Last night I (read) the book which you (read) now.
Last night I met the couple who soon (move) next door to me.
Last year I earned more money than I (earn) in the next five years.
The book I (read) in the last few days was lent to me by John.
I found out that yoga (be) a very useful practice.
6. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect, respectand toate regulile de concordanta a timpurilor, precum si exceptiile:
I will come as soon as I (finish) my work.
He told me he never (see) the sea.
He told me hibernating animal (not eat) in winter.
They (know) each other for a long time before they finally got married.
I hoped it (not rain) when I (arrive) at the beach.
When we (go) to see them last night, they were listening to music, they said they (listen to) music since 5 o’clock.
When you asked me where I (spend) my holidays, I (not decide) yet.
I will do it when I (want) to, not before.
He was very upset because I (be) late.
I did not know that you (wear) glasses since childhood.
I was surprised that his son (fail) the exam, he (trust) his son and he (not expect) such a thing to happen.
When I finally arrived home, I (be) very hungry because I (not eat) anything all day.
He said he (have to) write down my address as he (not remember) it otherwise.
You will never know how much I (suffer).
A week ago, he decided he (change) his job.
He discovered to his horror that he (eat) the worms in the cherries.
After having visited Italy, my friends told me there (be) many small houses and narrow streets in Padua.
I hoped the company where I (work) (not go) bankrupt.
After we have finished dinner, we (drink) coffee and brandy.
He was very tired and he (hope) he (have) time to rest that afternoon.
7. Traduceti in limba engleza:
Nu mi-am amintit ca ne cunoscusem cu un an inainte.
Nu am stat acasa sa te astept pentru ca nu stiam cand vei veni.
Secretara mi-a spus ca directorul este ocupat.
Stiam ca esti in Bucuresti.
Era foarte suparat ca isi pierduse dictionarul si nu era sigur ca va gasi unul nou in librarii.
I-am promis ca ii voi scrie cand voi ajunge la Londra.
Hotul nu si-a dat seama ca politia il urmarea de o saptamana.
Iti voi spune adevarul dupa ce il voi afla eu insami.
Tata imi va da un cadou dupa ce voi lua examenul.
Masina pe cae o voi cumpara va fi importata din Germania.
M-a intrebat cate litere sunt in alfabetul chinez si nu am putut sa-I raspund.
Politistul ma va intreba ce am vazut in timpul accidentul.
Politica de confidentialitate
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