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CONJUNCTIVUL

Gramatica

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GRAMATICA LIMBII ENGLEZE

CONJUNCTIVUL

Conjunctivul a disparut aproape complet in engleza. Se mai pastreaza anumite forme – mai ales la trecut – pentru a exprima indoiala, regretul sau situatiile reale.




A. Forma.

  1. Conjunctiv prezent – are aceasi forma la INFINITIVUL fara to. Are aceeasi forma pentru toate persoanele.

God save the king!

They be damned!

  1. Conjunctiv trecut – are aceeasi forma ca si trecutul simplu. Verbul be are forma were pentru toate persoanele.

It’s time we went home.

I wish I were nicer.

  1. Conjunctiv mai mult ca perfect – are aceeasi forma ca mai mult ca perfectul.

We wished we had had better weather.

B. Utilizare.

  1. Conjunctiv prezent.
    • poate fi intalnit in texte poetice, mai ales din secolele trecute. In engleza moderna a supravietuit in foarte putine expresii:

Heaven help me!

God bless you! (adesea adresat unei persoane care a stranutat)

anumite verbe primesc that…should, mai ales in constructii pasive. In special in engleza americana should este adesea omis si in locul lui se foloseste conjunctivul prezent al verbului subordonat. Iata cateva din aceste verbe (vezi Lectia 15, 16 si 19):

advise    agree arrange ask command

decide    demand determine insist order

propose    suggest recommend

The students agreed that Jeff (should) be the one to go to the conference.

The associates proposed that a contract (should) be written.

  1. Conjunctiv trecut.

dupa as if pentru a exprima indoiala sau irealitatea:

He behaves as if he were Napoleon.

He treats me as if I were his slave.

NOTA: Daca verbul principal trece la trecut, conjunctivul trecut ramane neschimbat.

He behaved as if he were

He treated me as if I were…

dupa it is (high) time, pentru a arata ca este foarte tarziu:

It’s time he studied more.

It’s high time we returned home.

NOTA: Aceleasi propozitii se pot construi cu for + complement + INFINITIV cu to.

It’s time for him to study more.

It’s high time for us to return home.

dupa with:

o       pentru a exprima regretul in legatura cu prezentul, folositi conjunctivul trecut.

She wished that dress weren’t so expensive.

They wished one of them knew John’s fax number.

o       pentru a exprima regretul in legatura cu trecutul, folositi conjunctivul mai mult ca perfect.



She wishes that dress hadn’t been so expensive.

They wish one of them had known John’s number.

NOTA: If only exprima de asemenea regretul. Are aceeasi structura ca si wish.

If only I were rich!

If only I had been born rich!

pentru a exprima o dorinta in viitor, folositi would + verb (acesta NU este un conjunctiv):

I wish my boyfriend would write.

I wish it would rain.

NOTA: I wish you would este un inceput obisnuit pentru o dorinta care exprima iritarea.

I wish you wouldn’t smoke!

I wish he’d help me!

EXERCITII

1. Completati propozitiile. Decideti mai intai daca va referiti la prezent, trecut sau viitor.

  1. I don’t like the school I go to. I wish ……………………………………………
  2. Jack doesn’t like the colour of his eyes. Jack wishes………………………
  3. I’m sorry that I didn’t study more before the last English test. I wish………………………………………………………………………………
  4. I’d be happy if it rained tomorrow. I wish……………………………………….
  5. They are sorry they aren’t brothers. They wish.……………………………….
  6. She is sorry she knew about it in advance. She wishes……………………
  7. We are sorry that you are sick. We wish……………………………………….
  8. He would be happy if Marlene visited him next week. He wishes……………………………………………………………………………
  9. I’d like you to leave the dog at home. I wish…………………………………
  10. We’d be happy if the washing machine started to work again. We wish………………………………………………………………………………

2. Puneti verbele dintre paranteze la forma corecta.

  1. It’s two hours past your bedtime. It’s time you ………… (go) to bed.
  2. The principal proposed (that) ethics ………… (teach) to all classes.
  3. Fred and Helena dance as if they ………… (be) professionals.
  4. We wish we ………… (know) why the telephone doesn’t work.
  5. If only ………… (not rain) yesterday!
  6. I wish you ………… (call) her tomorrow. It’s her birthday.
  7. Bud smashed all the plates yesterday. He behaved as if he ………… (be) crazy.
  8. I wish he ………… (take) his pills when he was supposed to.
  9. If only we ………… (know) in time that he was so depressed!
  10. He weighs 100 kg! It’s high time he ………… (go) on a diet.

3. Puneti verbele dintre paranteze la forma corecta.

  1. Timmy always acts as if he ………… (need) extra energy.
  2. They recommended (that) the passports ………… (stamp) twice.
  3. Everyone wishes the Second World War ………… (not happen).
  4. If only he ………… (be) right, but unfortunately he is wrong.
  5. The presidents decided (that) the agreement ………… (sign)
  6. We all wish he ………… (resign). He’s so incompetent!
  7. Bradley is about to divorce his wife. He now wishes he ………… (never met) her.
  8. If only we ………… (have) the money for the operation. Sandy is suffering so much!
  9. It’s high time the government ………… (call for) new elections!
  10. I wish I ………… (stay) at home. The party was terribly boring!


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