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INFINITIVUL

Gramatica

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Trimite pe Messenger
NUMERALUL (THE NUMERAL) - CARDINAL NUMERAL
The Gerund
VORBIREA INDIRECTA
ARTICOLUL ZERO (ZERO ARTICLE)
The infinitive
INFINITIVUL
ADVERBUL IN ENGLEZA
VERBE COMPLEXE
SUBSTANTIVUL IN ENGLEZA
PRONUMELE



I.          INFINITIVUL





Forma

Formele principale de infinitiv sunt:

Infinitiv prezent to work

Infinitiv prezent continuu to be working

Infinitiv perfect to have worked

Infinitiv perfect continuu to have been working

Infinitiv pasiv to be worked

Utilizare: Infinitivul cu TO

Infinitivul cu to se poate folosi ca:

Subiect

To leave the front door unlocked is risky.

Dar este mai folosita propozitia care incepe cu it:

It is risky to leave the front door unlocked.

complement

principalele verbe urmate de infinitiv cu to:

agree, appear, arrange, ask, attempt, be about, care choose, consent, decide, do one’s best, decline, demand, expect, fail, forget, happen, hate, hope, hurry, learn, like, love, manage, mean/intend, neglect, offer, plan, prefer, prepare, pretend, promise, prove, refuse, remember, seem, tend, try, turn out, volunteer, want, be able to afford, make up one’s mind

The couple appears to be happy.

I can’t afford to study abroad.

She refused to go with him.

Nota

Unele verbe – like, love, hate, prefer, care, mean, intend – pot fi urmate de infinitivul cu to si de forma in –ing.

She likes to skate.

She likes skating.

Ori conditionalul

I’d love to see Eve.

Would you prefer to do it now?

That… should (be) este o constructie care poate urma si dupa agree, arrange, ask, decide, demand.

The girls agreed to organize a party.

The girls agreed that they should organize a party.

The girls agreed that a party should be organized.

Infinitivul continuu urmeaza adesea dupa appear, happen, pretend, seem.

It seems to be raining.

The children pretended to be hiding.

pentru a exprima scopul:

The dog buried the bone to hide it.

In order si so as pot fi folosite pentru a sublinia scopul:

Matt is memorizing the rules in order to pass the test.

We cut the hedge so as to improve the view.

Pentru a exprima scopul sau functia unui obiect, folositi infinitivul cu TO sau for + -ing

He used the scissors to cut the rope.

He used the scissors for cutting the rope.

Nota

Cand doua subiecte diferite fac necesara folosirea unei subordonate, folositi so that pentru a introduce subordonata si a exprima scopul.

I deposited the money in the bank so that my son can use it in later years.

Nota

Pentru a exprima negatia puneti not inaintea infinitivului cu TO.

He ran in order not to be late.

Nota

Folositi and (in loc de TO) pentru a exprima scopul dupa go sau come.

We should go and buy some milk.

Come and visit us!

dupa un verb urmat de how, what, when, where, why.

Principalele verbe sunt: ask, decide, discover, find out, forget, know, see, learn, remember, understand, think, wonder

We wondered how to do it.

I couldn’t decide what to wear.

Nota

Whether + infinitiv cu to poate fi folosit:

Dupa wonder si know.

Alex wondered whether to knock or wait outside.

Dupa formele interogative si negative ale verbelor decide, know, remember.

Did you finally decide whether to go camping or not?

dupa un verb urmat de complement

verbele principale sunt: advise, allow, command, enable, encourage, forbid, expect, force, invite, oblige, order, permit, persuade, remind, request, teach, tell, like, help, want

Tony advised me to finish the job quickly.

We invited our friends to ski with us.

Nota

Infinitivul cu to poate inlocui o propozitie relativa:

Dupa the only, the last, the first, the second etc.

Joe was the first to board the submarine. (= Joe a fost primul care s-a imbarcat pe submarin.)

Dupa substantive / pronume, pentru a arata care le este utilizarea.



I need a pot to make a tea. (= Am nevoie de un ibric in care sa pot face ceai.)

Nota

Remind, teach si tell pot fi si ele urmate de that:

He reminded Sue to come on time.

He reminded Sue that she had to /should come on time.

Dar tell isi schimba sensul in functie de constructie:

Tod told her to stop. = Tod ordered her to stop.

Tod told her that the water was boiling. = Tod informed her that the water was boiling.

dupa pasivul verbelor assume, believe, consider, feel, know, understand, suppose

They are assumed to be fair players.

Aceste verbe pot fi urmate de complement + infinitiv cu TO si de that:

He assumes them to be fair players.

He assumes that they are fair players.

Nota

Suppose isi poate schimba sensul la pasiv:

You are supposed to inseamna Este datoria ta sa…

dupa anumite substantive

principalele verbe sunt: ability/inability, ambition, decision, demand, desire, determination, effort, failure, offer, plan, promise, refusal, wish

We made our wish to help them quite obvious.

Hillary’s failure to pass the exam disappointed them.

dupa anumite adjective

principalele adjective sunt: cruel, good, rude, anxious, glad, kind, nice, pleased, surprised, easy, difficult, likely, prepared, ready, late, early

She was pleased to hear from us.

You are likely to meet them.

Nota

In constructiile cu it, of + pronume/substantiv, urmeaza adesea dupa adjectiv.

It was nice of you to come.

It was rude of the man to slam the door.

dupa too + adjectiv/adverb si dupa adjectiv/adverb + enough si dupa have + enough + substantiv

The soup was too hot to eat.

The water wasn’t warm enough to swim in.

We didn’t have enough time to finish the test.

Nota

For + substantiv/pronume pot fi introduse in fata infinitivului:

He ran too fast for us to follow.

Infinitivul fara TO

Infinitivul fara TO poate fi folosit dupa:

verbe modale

may, can, must, shall, should, will, would

We may come tomorrow.

feel, see, hear, watch, let la forma activa

Claire heard him cough.

Nota

Forma in – ing se foloseste adesea dupa feel, see, hear, watch (atat forme active cat si pasive)

Claire heard him coughing. / He was heard coughing.

had better si would rather

Dan had better study harder.

make

The teacher made Ellen correct her errors.

Nota

La forma pasiva make este urmat de infinitiv cu TO:

Ellen was made to correct her errors (by the teacher).

but sau except

Jack and Karen do nothing but argue.

I’ve done it all except do the calculations.

why sau why not

Why waste your energy on such a hopeless cause?

Why not go and ask him now?

folositi infinitivul perfect fara to:

Cu must pentru a exprima deductii pozitive in trecut:

There’s Al’s cap. He must have come home.

Cu can’t/couldn’t pentru a exprima deductii negative in trecut:

I can hear noise. They can’t have gone to bed yet.

Exercitii:

1. A fost vazut cum fura batista unei batrane. 2. Se stie ca a imblanzit o caprioara. 3. Se pare ca i s-a terminat zaharul. 4. S-a dovedit ca hotul a spus adevarul. 5. N-as vrea sa fi plecat singur de acasa. 6. Isi ordon sa pleci chiar acum. 7. Cred ca s-a maritat de mult. 8. Astept sa pleci. 9. Se zice ca s-a intors din strainatate. 10. I s-a ordonat sa uite tot ce a vazut. 11. Din intamplare inca n-a sosit. 12. Cu cine se zice ca seamana? 13. De ce se zice ca e hot?

Cheia exercitiilor:

1. He was seen to steal an old lady’s handkerchief. 2. She is known to have tamed a deer. 3. He seems to have run out of sugar. 4. The thief turned out to have told the truth. 5. I should not like him to have left alone. 6. I order you to leave right now. 7. I think her to have got married long ago. 8. I am waiting for you to leave. 9. He is said to have returned from abroad. 10. He was ordered to forget everything he had seen. 11. He happens not to have arrived yet. 12. Whom is she said to look like? 13. Why is he said to be a thief?







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