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DIATEZA PASIVA - ENGLEZA

Gramatica

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DIATEZA PASIVA - ENGLEZA

Numai verbele tranzitive au diateza pasiva.




John cried Cry este un verb intranzitiv. Nu are pasiv.

John sold the house Sell este un verb tranzitiv. Are pasiv.

Regula generala

Pentru a transforma o propozitie la diateza activa intr-una la diateza pasiva:

complementul direct devine subiect

be are acelasi timp ca verbul principal

verbul principal devine participiu trecut

subiectul devine agentul, precedat de by

Nota

Agentul se exprima de obicei cu by. Dar cand agentul este o substanta sau materie prima folositi with.

The novel was written by Defoe.

The floor was covered with mud.

Adesea nu este necesara specificarea agentului.

The burglar was sentenced one year in prison.

Echivalentele activ – pasiv:

He keeps the door open. The door is kept open.

He is selling the car. The car is being sold.

He closed the window. The window was closed.

He was opening the gate. The gate was being opened.

Ha has shut the book. The book has been shut.

He had written the letter. The letter had been written.

He will carry the bag. The bag will be carried.

He would buy the pen. The pen would be bought.

He would have repaired the box. The box would have been repaired.

He is thought to have arrested her. She is thought to have been arrested.

Locking the safe…    The safe being locked

Having rescued the boy… The boy having been rescued…

Nota

In engleza vorbita, get (in locul lui be) se foloseste adesea pentru diateza pasiva.

The house got sold. = the house was sold.

You’ll get hurt. = you’ll be hurt.

Reguli speciale

Pentru a transforma o propozitie la diateza activa intr-una la diateza pasiva

Infinitivul activ devine Infinitiv pasiv

  1. dupa verbele modale

Activ Pasiv

Tom may write the book. The book may be written.

You must tell him. He must be told.

  1. dupa like/love/wish/want + complement direct
Activ Pasiv

She liked us to water the She liked the flowers to be

flowers at dawn. watered at dawn.

Nota

Alte combinatii verb + complement + infinitiv formeaza in mod normal pasivul:

Activ Pasiv

They told us to go. We were told to go.

He is asking Sue to dance.    Sue is being asked to dance.



Infinitivele pasive sunt de obieci infinitive cu to!

They saw Emmy jump. Emmy was seen to jump.

He makes Ed rest. Ed is made to rest.

folositi that… should + infinitiv pasiv

  1. dupa agree, decide, arrange, demand + infinitiv + complement

Activ    Pasiv

We agreed to take Tim. We agreed that Tim should be taken.

They decided to reduce the price. They decided that the price should

be reduced

  1. dupa advise, insist, propose, recommend, suggest + forma in –ing + complement
Activ Pasiv

She adivised finishing the job.    She advised that the job should be finished.

Nota

Dupa need folositi un gerunziu sau infinitiv pasiv. Sensul este identic. Ambele propozitii sunt pasive.

The phone needs repairing.

The phone needs to be repaired.

doua forme alternative de pasiv se pot folosi in mod impersonal cu: assume, belive, claim, estimate, find, know, presume, report, say, suppose, understand

Activ    Pasiv

They say that he is a genius. It is said that he is a genius.

He is said to be a genius.

prepozitiile sunt plasate dupa verbul pasiv:

a.      verbe complexe (verb + prepozitie)

Activ    Pasiv

They looked for C. everywhere. C. was looked for everywhere.

b.      verb + prepozitie + complement

Activ    Pasiv

He had to write to his parents daily.    His parents had to be written to daily.

propozitiile cu doua complemente (complement direct si indirect) au doua forme posibile de pasiv:

Activ    Pasiv

He told her a lie. She was told a lie.

A lie was told to her.

They sent him a letter. He was sent a letter.

A letter was sent to him.

Utilizare

Pasivul se foloseste:

pentru a sublinia actiunea si nu agentul

The criminal was arrested.

cand agentul este necunoscut, neimportant sau evident

Clinton was elected president.

He is said to be a bad-tempered man.

Exercitii:

Traduceti in limba engleza urmatoarele propozitii

1. In astfel de cazuri se trimite dupa doctor. 2. Ti se ofera o inghetata, de ce n-o iei? 3. A fost asteptat doua ore aseara. 4. Mi se arata casa, cand s-a stins lumina. 5. Nu imi pot inchipui de cand ii cunosti pe acesti scriitori. 6. Nu-mi puteam aduce aminte in ce a fost preschimbata veverita. 7. Va fi consultat doctorul in aceasta chestiune si sper ca va sti ce este. 8. Va fi fost aparat de toti dusmanii inainte sa ceara ajutor. 9. Vanatorul prezise ca se va trage in vulpe si nu va fi nimerita. 10. Daca ai fi impiedicat sa-ti faci temele, copiii care o fac ar fi pedepsiti. 11. Ar fi fost el operat daca nu-l cunostea chirurgul?

Cheia exercitiilor:

1. In such cases a doctor is sent for. 2. You are offered an ice-cream, why don’t you take it? 3. He was waited for for two hours last night. 4. I was being shown around the house when the light went out. 5. I can’t imagine how long you have been acquainted with these writers. 6. I could not remember what the squirrel had been changed into. 7. The doctor will be consulted on this matter and I hope he will know what it is. 8. He will have been defended from all his enemies before he asks for help. 9. The hunter predicted the fox would be fired at and missed. 10. If you were hindered from doing your homework, the children who did that would be punished. 11. Would he have been operated on if the surgeon had not known him?






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