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Forma: adjectivele limbii engleze sunt invariabile. Ele nu au gen sau numar.
Adjectivele demonstrative sunt SINGURA exceptie. Aceste adjective sunt variabile. This, that se folosesc su substantive la singular. These, those se folosesc cu substantive la plural.
This shirt has been ironed. That blouse looks dirty.
These flowers are beautiful. Those bushes need cutting.
Pozitie: adjectivele sunt asezate:
in fata substantivelor.
I’m reading an interesting book.
dupa verbele: be, become, seem, appear, feel, sound, taste, make, keep, look (= appear), get/turn/grow (= become)
I feel sad.
The weather grew cool.
He makes Janice happy.
dupa un complement direct
Jane found the programme boring.
She painted her nails bright red.
Unele dintre aceste verbe pot avea alte sensuri atunci cand sunt determinate de adverbe:
Gladys looked (= appeared) attractive.
Gladys looked (= examined) carefully the price tag.
Tipuri: adjectivele se impart in sase tipuri: calificative, posesive, interogative, cantitative, demonstrative si distributive.
Forma: exemple de astfel de adjective sunt: young, empty, small, spacious, black, elegant, ugly, strong, lonely, intelligent, round, happy
The old man was sitting in the sun.
Adjectivele pot fi folosite ca substantive. Ele cer un verb la plural.
The young are often impacient.
Faceti diferenta intre little (= mic), little (= nu mult) si a little (= o cantitate mica).
She babysits for a little girl.
Fish eat little food.
He lent me a little money.
Participiile prezente (formele in –ing) si participiile trecute (formele de tipul –ed) sunt folosite ca adjective calificative. Participiile prezente au sens activ, iar participiile trecute au sens pasiv.
Participiu prezent Participiu trecut
The student grew bored during the lecture.
Spielberg’s new film is frightening.
Pretty este atat adejectiv cat si adverb.
Ellie is a pretty girl. (= attractive)
Adjectivele sunt determinate de adverbe.
Those boots are very tight.
I feel totally exhausted.
Utilizare: adjectivele si prepozitiile
Adjectivele sunt adesea urmate de prepozitii.
At to about of
Bad married sad rude
Expert cruel sincere stupid
Good kind sorry kind
Slow loyal sure nice
Quick polite thrilled polite
Excited faithful worried sure
Shocked sensitive curious generous
Surprised rude enthusiastic
With on in
Delighted dependent interested
Unele adjective isi schimba sensul cand primesc o alta prepozitie.
Todd is good at algebra. /Todd is good to his sister.
They are always kind to us. / It’s kind of Helen to help.
Cand doua sau mai multe adjective sunt folosite impreuna:
adjectivele subiective sau de opinie (boring, lovely, lazy) sunt asezate in fata adjectivelor obiective sau concrete (old, red, square).
Ann is an active young lady.
adjectivele obiective sau concrete stau in umratoarea ordine:
dimensiune – varsta – forma – culoare – origine – material – scop
a small oval plate / an antique French table / a black metal walking stick / an enormous black steel lifting device
dupa un verb ultimele doua adjective sunt legate cu AND.
Sam grew bitter and aggressive.
The bread smelled fresh, fragrant, and appetizing.
A. Comparativul si superlativul adjectivelor se formeaza:
adaugand –er si –est la sfarsitul:
adjectivelor terminate in –y, -er, -ly
Adjectivele de o silaba terminate intr-o consoana, dubleaza consoana: fat, fatter, fattest
Adjectivele terminate in consoana + y: transfomra pe y in i: pretty, prettier, prettiest
adaugand more si most inaintea adjectivelor de doua sau mai multe silabe
Adjectiv comparativ superlativ
Warm warmer the warmest
Happy happier the happiest
Clever cleverer the cleverest
Boring more boring the most boring
Excited more excited the most excited
Adjectiv comparativ superlativ
Good, well better the best
Bad worse the worst
Little less the least
Much, many more the most
Far farther the farthest
further the furthest
old older the oldest
elder the eldest
late later the latest
near nearer the nearest
Good si well au sensuri diferite:
Beth is good. (= behaves well)
Beth is well. (= she is in good health)
Farther si further se refera ambele la distanta, dar further mai poate insemna si in plus / extra
Further testing will be necessary.
Older si elder se refera ambele la varsta, dar elder se foloseste pentru relatii de familie
The cathedral is the oldest building in town.
Jason is the eldest brother.
The latest inseamna cel mai recent, the last inseamna cel final, ultimul
The latest news was broadcast five minutes ago.
The last news report is at midnight.
The nearest se refera la distanta, the next la timp / cronologie
The nearest hotel is ten miles away.
The next train is leaving in half an hour.
B. pentru a face comparatii, folositi:
as + adjectiv + as in propozitii afirmative pentru a exprima egalitatea
as/so + adjectiv + as in propozitii negative
Your eyesight is as good as mine.
Peter isn’t as/so short as his brother.
adjectivul la comparativ + than pentru a exprima diferenta
That watch is more expensive than this Timex.
Pentru a forma comparatii cu substantive, pronume si verbe in –ing, folositi prepozitia like
He works like a dog.
Try to behave like him.
It’s like talking to a brick wall.
Comparatiile pot fi facute cu more cat si cu less
Exista o diferenta intre engleza formala si cea familiara.
Formal: than/as + i/he/she/we/they + verb
Familiar: than/as + me/him/her/us/them
You are as tall as I am. You are as tall as me.
Bill is older than she is. Bill is older than her.
Cand acelasi verb se repeta in aceeasi propozitie, folositi un auxiliar pentru al doilea verb.
This CD sounds better than that CD sounds. = This CD sounds better than that CD does.
comparativ + and + comparativ
pentru a exprima cresterea sau descresterea gradata a calitatii
The baby is growing bigger and bigger.
I’m feeling more and more irritated with Eric.
the + adjectiv la superlativ… + of/in
pentru a exprima superioritatea sau inferioritatea
OF se foloseste pentru a indica un grup de oameni sau obiecte.
IN se foloseste pentru a indica un loc.
This is the oldest book in the library.
This book is the best of/in the series.
Forma: adjectivele posesive sunt:
My your his/her/its our your their
Its este adjectiv posesiv.
It’s este forma contrasa a lui it + is.
Utilizare: adjectivele se folosesc:
pentru a face referire la posesor.
I took off my coat.
We drove our car.
cu parti ale corpului si haine.
The children washed their hands before dinner.
Jim puts on his new hiking boots.
cu own, pentru a intari ideea de posesie.
She cleaned her own room.
Adjectivele posesive sunt invariabile. Ele au aceeasi forma pentru substantive la singular si la plural.
My book, my books his pen, his pens
3. Adjectivele interogative
Forma: Exista trei adjective interogative: what, which si whose
Utilizare: Adjectivele interogative se folosesc astfel:
what se foloseste pentru lucuri:
What book are you reading?
which se foloseste pentru persoane sau lucuri in cazul unei alegeri limitate:
Which book do you prefer?
whose se foloseste pentru persoane si exprima posesia:
Whose car have they borrowed?
Adjectivele interogative sunt invariabile. Ele au aceeali forma pentru substantive la singular si la plural.
What photo,what photos / which pen,which pens / whose coat,whose coats
whose preceda substantivul pe care il determina.
Whose cat is this?
Whose bags are over there?
cand what/which/whose + substantiv joaca rolul de subiect al unei propozitii, verbul este la forma afirmativa.
cand what/which/whose + substantiv joaca rolul de complement al unei propozitii, verbul este la forma interogativa.
What team won? What team did you applaud?
Which train arrived late? Which train did Mary take?
Whose coat lost a button? Whose coat did Ben borrow?
Forma: adjectivele cantitative sunt: much, many, little, few, some, any, no si toate numerele.
Utilizare: A. much, many, little, few
many si few se folosesc cu substantive numarabile.
much si little se folosec cu substantive nenumarabile.
Many magazines, few inhabitants
Much money, little happines
much si many se folosesc de obicei in propozitii negative si interogative. In propozitii afirmative folositi a lot of, plenty of, a great deal of, a large number of.
Neagativ si interogativ
There isn’t much ice in the freezer.
Do you have many friends?
The plum tree has pleanty of plums this year.
much si many se pot combina cu how.
How much money do you need?
How many birds live in that nest?
Much si many se folosesc uneori in propozitii afirmative.
Many guests complained.
Much time has been wasted.
How much / many + substantiv poate fi subiect sau complement. Verbul din propozitie se modifica in mod corespunzator.
How much money did he take?
How much is missing?
B. some, any, no sunt adesea denumite partitive.
some si any indica o anumita cantitate
no inseamna nici unele, nici unii, deloc
Se folosesc cu: substantive la plural.
substantive nenumarabile la singular.
There is some bread but no milk in the kitchen.
Have you bought any biscuits?
some se foloseste in:
We earned some money picking strawberries.
Intrebari, cand se asteapta un raspuns afirmativ
Haven’t you lost some buttons on that jacket?
Oferte si cereri
Would you like some coffee?
any se foloseste in:
I can’t lend you any flour.
Does Sarah have any talent?
Propozitii subordonate cu if/whether
We don’t know if there are any survivors.
Propozitii afirmative cu un substantiv la singular, cu sensul de tot, oricare, indiferent care
Any advice is welcome.
Buy any brand of toothpaste.
no se foloseste in:
propozitii afirmative pentru a exprima negatia
My husband speaks no Spanish.
No drinks were offered during the flight.
Some, any, no se combina cu –one, -body, - thing formand cuvintele compuse: someone, somebody, something, anyone, anybody, anything, no one, nobody, nothing
Aceste pronume urmeaza aceleasi reguli.
Does anyone want to accompany me?
They saw something strange that night.
No one answered the phone.
The test flight took place without anybody on board.
Adjectivele demonstrative: this, that, these, those
Demonstrativele sunt singurele adjective variabile din limba engleza. Se acorda in numar cu substantivul determinat.
This rug these rugs
That tree those trees
This, these se refera la persoane si lucruri din apropierea vorbitorului.
That, those se refera la persoane si lucruri aflate mai departe de vorbitor.
These pastries are delicious.
This chair is rather uncomfortable.
That airplane is flying too low.
Those clouds look fluffy.
Adjective distributive: each, every, all, both, either, neither
Utilizare: A: each, all, every
each inseamna “considerat separat sau individual”. E urmat de substantiv la singular.
Each child received a prize.
all inseamna “considerati impreuna”, ca grup. Substantivele numarabile care urmeaza sunt la plural.
All men are created equal.
every poate insemna “considerati impreuna” sau “considerati separat”. Urmeaza un substantiv la singular.
Every girl had a red hair ribbon.
both inseamna “amandoi, amandoua”
I’ve read both books.
D. either, neither
either inseamna “oricare din cei/cele doi/doua”. Urmeaza un substantiv la singular.
Either dress is suitable for the party.
neither inseamna “nici unul/una din cei/cele doi/doua”. Urmeaza un substantiv la singular. Verbul trebuie sa fie afirmativ.
Neither dress is suitable for the party.
Either … or implica o alegere:
You can have either eggs or bacon for breakfast.
Neither … nor subliniaza cele doua negatii:
Neither women nor children were admitted.
In acest timp de expresie substantivele numarabile sunt la plural.
Adjectivele sunt adesea urmate de constructii infinitivale.
That’s nice to know!
It was foolish to do that!
We found it easy to memorize.
It is dangerous to ski there.
Alegeti forma corecta a adjectivului din paranteza:
1. This is the … book I have read for a long
time (good). 2. He has one of the … cars on the road (fast). 3. The work you
are doing today is … than the work you did yesterday (easy). 4. Ann often wears
… dresses then her mother (expensive). 5. Which is the … play you have lately
read? (interesting). 6. The actress on the stage was the … girl I have ever
seen (striking). 7. Tom is … than his friend (tall). 8. They have a … garden
than ours (lovely). 9. He said this was the … day in his life (important). 10.
He was … than his wife when the child broke the window (angry). 11. He was the
… man in the world to do that (late). 12. A: ‘Which was your … subject at
school and which was your … (good, bad)?’ B: ‘Physics was my … and history my …
(good, bad).’ 13. Is
Alegeti forma corecta a adjectivelor din paranteza:
1. What is the (late) information you’ve got? 2. Her (old) brother is called Jim. 3. We were in a hurry to catch the (late) bus. 4. Which is (old) of the two? 5. Who is the (old) member of the students’ club? 6. They got down to business without (far) delay. 7. I’ve got a still (old) edition of the dictionary. 8. The (old) sister was twenty years (old) then the youngest. 9. The (late) half of May was quite rainy. 10. I was told to wait until (far) notice. 11. I wish I had bought it at the (near) shop. 12. He provided them with (far) information as agreed. 13. The (near) station is Calea Victoriei. 14. John’s (late) novel was a (good) seller and for sure it won’t be his (late) one. 15. He is the (little) writer of the two. 16. I saw him meet her at the (far) end of the street. 17. I shall need (far) help with this.
1. Best 2. Fastest 3. Easier 4. More expensive 5. Most interesting 6. Most striking 7. Taller 8. More lovely 9. Most important 10. Angrier 11. Last 12. Best, worst, best, worst 13. Farther 14. Youngest, oldest
1. Latest 2. Elder 3. Last 4. Older 5. Oldest 6. Further 7. Older 8. Eldest, older 9. Latter 10. Further 11. Nearest 12. Further 13. Next 14. Latest, best, last 15. Lesser 16. Farthest 17. Further
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