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ADJECTIVUL

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ADJECTIVUL

Forma: adjectivele limbii engleze sunt invariabile. Ele nu au gen sau numar.





Nota

Adjectivele demonstrative sunt SINGURA exceptie. Aceste adjective sunt variabile. This, that se folosesc su substantive la singular. These, those se folosesc cu substantive la plural.

This shirt has been ironed. That blouse looks dirty.

These flowers are beautiful. Those bushes need cutting.

Pozitie: adjectivele sunt asezate:

in fata substantivelor.

I’m reading an interesting book.

dupa verbele: be, become, seem, appear, feel, sound, taste, make, keep, look (= appear), get/turn/grow (= become)

I feel sad.

The weather grew cool.

He makes Janice happy.

dupa un complement direct

Jane found the programme boring.

She painted her nails bright red.

Nota

Unele dintre aceste verbe pot avea alte sensuri atunci cand sunt determinate de adverbe:

Gladys looked (= appeared) attractive.

Gladys looked (= examined) carefully the price tag.

Tipuri: adjectivele se impart in sase tipuri: calificative, posesive, interogative, cantitative, demonstrative si distributive.

Adjectivele calificative

Forma: exemple de astfel de adjective sunt: young, empty, small, spacious, black, elegant, ugly, strong, lonely, intelligent, round, happy

The old man was sitting in the sun.

Nota

Adjectivele pot fi folosite ca substantive. Ele cer un verb la plural.

The young are often impacient.

Nota

Faceti diferenta intre little (= mic), little (= nu mult) si a little (= o cantitate mica).

She babysits for a little girl.

Fish eat little food.

He lent me a little money.

Participiile prezente (formele in –ing) si participiile trecute (formele de tipul –ed) sunt folosite ca adjective calificative. Participiile prezente au sens activ, iar participiile trecute au sens pasiv.

Participiu prezent Participiu trecut

Boring bored

Amusing amused

Interesting interested

Tiring tired

Frightening frightened

The student grew bored during the lecture.

Spielberg’s new film is frightening.

Nota

Pretty este atat adejectiv cat si adverb.

Ellie is a pretty girl. (= attractive)

Arnold is pretty rich. (= rather)

Nota

Adjectivele sunt determinate de adverbe.

Those boots are very tight.

I feel totally exhausted.

Utilizare: adjectivele si prepozitiile

Adjectivele sunt adesea urmate de prepozitii.

At to about of

Bad married sad rude

Expert cruel sincere stupid

Good kind sorry kind

Slow loyal sure nice

Quick polite thrilled polite

Excited faithful worried sure

Shocked sensitive curious generous

Surprised rude enthusiastic

Amused anxious

With on in

Delighted dependent interested

Disgusted expert

Pleased successful

Satisfied

Generous

Nota

Unele adjective isi schimba sensul cand primesc o alta prepozitie.

Todd is good at algebra. /Todd is good to his sister.

They are always kind to us. / It’s kind of Helen to help.

Topica

Cand doua sau mai multe adjective sunt folosite impreuna:

adjectivele subiective sau de opinie (boring, lovely, lazy) sunt asezate in fata adjectivelor obiective sau concrete (old, red, square).

Ann is an active young lady.

adjectivele obiective sau concrete stau in umratoarea ordine:

dimensiune – varsta – forma – culoare – origine – material – scop

a small oval plate / an antique French table / a black metal walking stick / an enormous black steel lifting device

dupa un verb ultimele doua adjective sunt legate cu AND.

Sam grew bitter and aggressive.

The bread smelled fresh, fragrant, and appetizing.

Comparatia adjectivelor

A.     Comparativul si superlativul adjectivelor se formeaza:

adaugand –er si –est la sfarsitul:

adjectivelor monosilabice

adjectivelor terminate in –y, -er, -ly



Nota

Adjectivele de o silaba terminate intr-o consoana, dubleaza consoana: fat, fatter, fattest

Adjectivele terminate in consoana + y: transfomra pe y in i: pretty, prettier, prettiest

adaugand more si most inaintea adjectivelor de doua sau mai multe silabe

Comparatia regulata

Adjectiv    comparativ superlativ

Warm warmer the warmest

Happy happier the happiest

Clever cleverer the cleverest

Boring more boring the most boring

Excited more excited the most excited

Comparatia neregulata

Adjectiv    comparativ superlativ

Good, well better the best

Bad worse the worst

Little less the least

Much, many more the most

Far farther the farthest

further the furthest

old older the oldest

elder the eldest

late later the latest

the last

near nearer the nearest

the next

Nota

Good si well au sensuri diferite:

Beth is good. (= behaves well)

Beth is well. (= she is in good health)

Farther si further se refera ambele la distanta, dar further mai poate insemna si in plus / extra

Boston is farther / further than Plymouth.

Further testing will be necessary.

Older si elder se refera ambele la varsta, dar elder se foloseste pentru relatii de familie

The cathedral is the oldest building in town.

Jason is the eldest brother.

The latest inseamna cel mai recent, the last inseamna cel final, ultimul

The latest news was broadcast five minutes ago.

The last news report is at midnight.

The nearest se refera la distanta, the next la timp / cronologie

The nearest hotel is ten miles away.

The next train is leaving in half an hour.

B.     pentru a face comparatii, folositi:

as + adjectiv + as in propozitii afirmative pentru a exprima egalitatea

as/so + adjectiv + as in propozitii negative

Your eyesight is as good as mine.

Peter isn’t as/so short as his brother.

adjectivul la comparativ + than pentru a exprima diferenta

That watch is more expensive than this Timex.

Nota

Pentru a forma comparatii cu substantive, pronume si verbe in –ing, folositi prepozitia like

He works like a dog.

Try to behave like him.

It’s like talking to a brick wall.

Comparati

Comparatiile pot fi facute cu more cat si cu less

Paris is more interesting than Houston.

Houston is less interesting than Paris.

Nota

Exista o diferenta intre engleza formala si cea familiara.

Formal: than/as + i/he/she/we/they + verb

Familiar: than/as + me/him/her/us/them

Formal    Familiar

You are as tall as I am. You are as tall as me.

Bill is older than she is. Bill is older than her.

Nota

Cand acelasi verb se repeta in aceeasi propozitie, folositi un auxiliar pentru al doilea verb.

This CD sounds better than that CD sounds. = This CD sounds better than that CD does.

comparativ + and + comparativ

pentru a exprima cresterea sau descresterea gradata a calitatii

The baby is growing bigger and bigger.

I’m feeling more and more irritated with Eric.

the + adjectiv la superlativ… + of/in

pentru a exprima superioritatea sau inferioritatea

OF se foloseste pentru a indica un grup de oameni sau obiecte.

IN se foloseste pentru a indica un loc.

This is the oldest book in the library.

This book is the best of/in the series.

Adjectivele posesive

Forma: adjectivele posesive sunt:

My    your his/her/its our your their

Nota

Its este adjectiv posesiv.

It’s este forma contrasa a lui it + is.



Utilizare: adjectivele se folosesc:

pentru a face referire la posesor.

I took off my coat.

We drove our car.

cu parti ale corpului si haine.

The children washed their hands before dinner.

Jim puts on his new hiking boots.

cu own, pentru a intari ideea de posesie.

She cleaned her own room.

Nota

Adjectivele posesive sunt invariabile. Ele au aceeasi forma pentru substantive la singular si la plural.

My book, my books his pen, his pens

3. Adjectivele interogative

Forma: Exista trei adjective interogative: what, which si whose

Utilizare: Adjectivele interogative se folosesc astfel:

what se foloseste pentru lucuri:

What book are you reading?

which se foloseste pentru persoane sau lucuri in cazul unei alegeri limitate:

Which book do you prefer?

whose se foloseste pentru persoane si exprima posesia:

Whose car have they borrowed?

Nota

Adjectivele interogative sunt invariabile. Ele au aceeali forma pentru substantive la singular si la plural.

What photo,what photos / which pen,which pens / whose coat,whose coats

whose preceda substantivul pe care il determina.

Whose cat is this?

Whose bags are over there?

cand what/which/whose + substantiv joaca rolul de subiect al unei propozitii, verbul este la forma afirmativa.

cand what/which/whose + substantiv joaca rolul de complement al unei propozitii, verbul este la forma interogativa.

Subiect Complement

What team won? What team did you applaud?

Which train arrived late? Which train did Mary take?

Whose coat lost a button? Whose coat did Ben borrow?

Adjective cantitative

Forma: adjectivele cantitative sunt: much, many, little, few, some, any, no si toate numerele.

Utilizare: A. much, many, little, few

many si few se folosesc cu substantive numarabile.

much si little se folosec cu substantive nenumarabile.

Many magazines, few inhabitants

Much money, little happines

much si many se folosesc de obicei in propozitii negative si interogative. In propozitii afirmative folositi a lot of, plenty of, a great deal of, a large number of.

Neagativ si interogativ

There isn’t much ice in the freezer.

Do you have many friends?

Afirmativ

The plum tree has pleanty of plums this year.

much si many se pot combina cu how.

How much money do you need?

How many birds live in that nest?

Nota

Much si many se folosesc uneori in propozitii afirmative.

Many guests complained.

Much time has been wasted.

Nota

How much / many + substantiv poate fi subiect sau complement. Verbul din propozitie se modifica in mod corespunzator.

How much money did he take?

How much is missing?

B. some, any, no sunt adesea denumite partitive.

some si any indica o anumita cantitate

no inseamna nici unele, nici unii, deloc

Se folosesc cu: substantive la plural.

substantive nenumarabile la singular.

There is some bread but no milk in the kitchen.

Have you bought any biscuits?

some se foloseste in:

propozitii afirmative

We earned some money picking strawberries.

Intrebari, cand se asteapta un raspuns afirmativ

Haven’t you lost some buttons on that jacket?

Oferte si cereri

Would you like some coffee?

any se foloseste in:

propozitii negative



I can’t lend you any flour.

Propozitii interogative

Does Sarah have any talent?

Propozitii subordonate cu if/whether

We don’t know if there are any survivors.

Dupa without

He left for London without any baggage.

Propozitii afirmative cu un substantiv la singular, cu sensul de tot, oricare, indiferent care

Any advice is welcome.

Buy any brand of toothpaste.

no se foloseste in:

propozitii afirmative pentru a exprima negatia

My husband speaks no Spanish.

No drinks were offered during the flight.

Dupa with

He left for London with no baggage.

Nota

Some, any, no se combina cu –one, -body, - thing formand cuvintele compuse: someone, somebody, something, anyone, anybody, anything, no one, nobody, nothing

Aceste pronume urmeaza aceleasi reguli.

Does anyone want to accompany me?

They saw something strange that night.

No one answered the phone.

The test flight took place without anybody on board.

Adjectivele demonstrative: this, that, these, those

Demonstrativele sunt singurele adjective variabile din limba engleza. Se acorda in numar cu substantivul determinat.

Singular plural

This rug these rugs

That tree those trees

This, these se refera la persoane si lucruri din apropierea vorbitorului.

That, those se refera la persoane si lucruri aflate mai departe de vorbitor.

These pastries are delicious.

This chair is rather uncomfortable.

That airplane is flying too low.

Those clouds look fluffy.

Adjective distributive: each, every, all, both, either, neither

Utilizare: A: each, all, every

each inseamna “considerat separat sau individual”. E urmat de substantiv la singular.

Each child received a prize.

all inseamna “considerati impreuna”, ca grup. Substantivele numarabile care urmeaza sunt la plural.

All men are created equal.

every poate insemna “considerati impreuna” sau “considerati separat”. Urmeaza un substantiv la singular.

Every girl had a red hair ribbon.

C.     both

both inseamna “amandoi, amandoua”

I’ve read both books.

D.     either, neither

either inseamna “oricare din cei/cele doi/doua”. Urmeaza un substantiv la singular.

Either dress is suitable for the party.

neither inseamna “nici unul/una din cei/cele doi/doua”. Urmeaza un substantiv la singular. Verbul trebuie sa fie afirmativ.

Neither dress is suitable for the party.

Nota

Either … or implica o alegere:

You can have either eggs or bacon for breakfast.

Neither … nor subliniaza cele doua negatii:

Neither women nor children were admitted.

In acest timp de expresie substantivele numarabile sunt la plural.

Nota

Adjectivele sunt adesea urmate de constructii infinitivale.

That’s nice to know!

It was foolish to do that!

We found it easy to memorize.

It is dangerous to ski there.

Exercitii:

Alegeti forma corecta a adjectivului din paranteza:

1. This is the … book I have read for a long time (good). 2. He has one of the … cars on the road (fast). 3. The work you are doing today is … than the work you did yesterday (easy). 4. Ann often wears … dresses then her mother (expensive). 5. Which is the … play you have lately read? (interesting). 6. The actress on the stage was the … girl I have ever seen (striking). 7. Tom is … than his friend (tall). 8. They have a … garden than ours (lovely). 9. He said this was the … day in his life (important). 10. He was … than his wife when the child broke the window (angry). 11. He was the … man in the world to do that (late). 12. A: ‘Which was your … subject at school and which was your … (good, bad)?’ B: ‘Physics was my … and history my … (good, bad).’ 13. Is Bucharest or Prague the … from London (far)? 14. Tom is 17 years old, his brother Jack is 19 and his sister Jane is 15. Therefore Jane is the … and Jack is the … (young, old).

Alegeti forma corecta a adjectivelor din paranteza:

1. What is the (late) information you’ve got? 2. Her (old) brother is called Jim. 3. We were in a hurry to catch the (late) bus. 4. Which is (old) of the two? 5. Who is the (old) member of the students’ club? 6. They got down to business without (far) delay. 7. I’ve got a still (old) edition of the dictionary. 8. The (old) sister was twenty years (old) then the youngest. 9. The (late) half of May was quite rainy. 10. I was told to wait until (far) notice. 11. I wish I had bought it at the (near) shop. 12. He provided them with (far) information as agreed. 13. The (near) station is Calea Victoriei. 14. John’s (late) novel was a (good) seller and for sure it won’t be his (late) one. 15. He is the (little) writer of the two. 16. I saw him meet her at the (far) end of the street. 17. I shall need (far) help with this.

Cheia exercitiilor:

1. Best 2. Fastest 3. Easier 4. More expensive 5. Most interesting 6. Most striking 7. Taller 8. More lovely 9. Most important 10. Angrier 11. Last 12. Best, worst, best, worst 13. Farther 14. Youngest, oldest

1. Latest 2. Elder 3. Last 4. Older 5. Oldest 6. Further 7. Older 8. Eldest, older 9. Latter 10. Further 11. Nearest 12. Further 13. Next 14. Latest, best, last 15. Lesser 16. Farthest 17. Further







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