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Pronumele inlocuiesc substantive. Cele sase tipuri de adjective (calitativ, posesiv, interogativ, cantitativ, demonstrativ, distributiv) au forme pronominale. Ele urmeaza in general reguli identice. Exista de asemenea si pronume personale si reflexive.
Adjective Calificative + one/ones = Pronume
adjectiv calificativ + one/ones inlocuieste un substantiv care a fost mentionat mai devreme.
I won't lend you my new pen. You can borrow my old one.
superlativele si culorile pot fi folosite singure.
Sandra is the best (dancer).
Don't wear your blue shoes. The black (ones) look better.
Forma: pronumele posesive sunt:
Utilizare: pronumele posesive inlocuiesc adjectivele posesive. Substantivul care lipseste a fost mentionat inainte.
This is my book. This book is mine.
Come to my house, not his.
Of yours inseamna one of your + substantiv
Of mine inseamna one of my + substantiv
John is a friend of ours. = John is one of our friends.
Pronumele interogative sunt: who, whom, whose, what, which
Utilizare: pronumele interogative se folosesc astfel:
Subiect who what
Complement whom, who what
Pronumele interogative sunt invariabile. Ele au o singura forma.
Who is that girl?
Who are those men?
Which se foloseste intr-un context cu alegere limitata. In rest se foloseste what.
What do you see? (poti vedea orice)
Which (one) is singing? (care persoana, din grupul respectiv, este cea care canta?)
pronumele interogative ca SUBIECT
cand who, what, whose si which sunt subiectul unei propozitii, verbul este afirmativ.
Who is calling me?
pronumele interogative ca si COMPLEMENT
cand who, whom, what, whose, which sunt complementul unei propozitii, verbul este la interogativ.
Whom did you call?
What has he done?
In engleza formala whom este folosit ca si complement obiect direct. Engleza vorbita il foloseste pe who.
Formal: Whom did you see?
Vorbit: Who did you see?
pronume interogative ca si COMPLEMENT PREPOZITIONAL
Whom, what, which ca si complemente prepozitionale.
With whom did Meg speak?
In what are you interested?
To which of the two addresses did they send it?
Engleza moderna prefera sa transfere prepozitiile la SFARSITUL propozitiei. In acest caz whom devine who.
Who did Meg speak with?
What are you interested in?
Which of the two addresses did they send it to?
What + be? si what + be . like? Sunt intrebari diferite.
What is Mr. Parker? He is a lawyer.
What is Mr. Parker like? He is short and arrogant.
Pronumele cantitative sunt: much, many, little, few, some, any, none.
Utilizare: much, many, little, few
many si few inlocuiesc substantive numarabile
much si little inlocuiesc substantive nenumarabile
Many are called but few are chosen.
He didn't spend much money. In fact he spent very little.
much si many se folosesc in mod normal in propozitii negative si interogative. In propozitii afirmative folositi a lot/lots sau a great deal.
The baby isn't eating much. It usually eats a great deal.
Did you buy many books? Yes, I bought lots.
Much si many se pot combina cu how.
How much did it cost?
How many came?
Some, any, none
some, any si none inlocuiesc substantive la plural sau nenumarabile la singular.
some se foloseste in:
a. propozitii afirmative
b. intrebari cand se asteapta ca raspunsul sa fie afirmativ
c. oferte si cereri
There are deer in the park. We saw some today.
You need some medicine. Did the doctor prescribe you some?
I've just lost all my money. Could you lend me some?
any se foloseste in:
a. propozitii negative
b. propozitii interogative
c. subordonate cu if/whether
d. dupa without
I meant to buy a dozen eggs but they hadn't got any.
Aren't there any in the fridge?
If you see any, let me know.
What about money? He left without any.
none se foloseste in:
a. propozitii afirmative pentru a exprima negatia
b. dupa with
If all friends were like Harry, I'd rather have none.
Sam hates carrying suitcases. He travels with none.
Pronumele somebody, someone, something, anybody, anyone, anything, no one, nobody, nothing urmeaza aceleasi reguli.
Pronumele demonstrative sunt: this, that, these si those
Pronumele demonstrative se acorda in numar cu substantivul pe care il inlocuiesc.
This (umbrella) is mine. That is his.
this, these se refera la obiecte din preajma vorbitorului.
that, those se refera la obiecte aflate mai departe de vorbitor.
This (one) is here, that (one) is there.
this se foloseste pentru a face prezentarile sau la telefon.
Mrs Jones, this is my friend, Alison Hughes.
Each, all, everyone/everybody, everything, both, either, neither
Utilizare: each, all
each inseamna "considerati individual". Urmeaza un verb la singular.
Each chose the colour he preferred.
all inseamna "considerati impreuna". Urmeaza un verb la plural.
All are welcome.
each si all pot fi urmate de OF + substantiv / pronume.
Each of the boys felt ashamed.
All of the trees are dying.
Everyone, everybody, everything
everyone si everybody inseamna "toata lumea"
Everybody in the room applauded.
everything inseamna "toate lucrurile"
Everything ended well.
both inseamna "cei doi/cele doua"
Both refused the invitation.
both poate fi urmat de OF + substantiv / pronume
Both of his grandparents are still living.
All si both se pot folosi pentru a intari subiectul pronominal. In acest caz ele sunt plasate in fata verbului principal.
You have all been very kind to me.
We both came.
either inseamna "unul dintre cei doi".
neither inseamna "nici unul dintre cei doi".
either, neither pot fi urmate de OF + substantiv / pronume
Either of you can go.
Neither of the men wanted to do it.
Forma: subiect complement
toate verbele limbii engleze (cu exceptia imperativelor) trebuie sa aiba un subiect pronominal.
They dislike inefficiency.
complementele pronominale (directe sau indirecte) urmeaza o prepozitie sau verbul (cu functie de complemente directe sau indirecte.)
I spoke to her yesterday.
We saw them on the beach.
De obicei complementul indirect preceda complementul direct.
She sent me a long letter.
Dupa verbe ca: explain, introduce, translate, describe, say, suggest, recommend
Daca ambele complemente sunt pronume:
Complementul direct este primul iar complementul indirect e introdus printr-o prepozitie.
She sent it to me.
I explained it to them.
you si one sunt folosite impersonal cu sensul de everyone, no one sau anyone. One are aspect formal. You este frecvent folosit in engleza vorbita.
You/one should always tell the truth.
they este folosit impersonal cu sensul de "lumea spune", "se zice"
They say he's dishonest. (= People say he's dishonest.)
it + be se foloseste:
pentru lucruri sau fiinte cu genul necunoscut.
Where's my book? It is on the shelf.
Cu un substantiv / complement pronominal pentru a se referi la persoane.
Who's at the door? It's Olivia.
In expresii despre vreme, temperatura, timp, date, distante
It's cold outside.
What time is it? It's nine o'clock.
It's the fourth of July.
far is it to
Cu un adjectiv pentru a introduce o subordonata infinitivala
It is difficult to understand her.
Forma: singular plural
Exista o diferenta intre yourself si yourselves.
Did you enjoy yourself at the party?
Did John and you enjoy yourselves at the party?
Utilizare: Pronumele reflexive se folosesc:
cu verbe reflexive.
Cele mai frecvente verbe reflexive sunt:
To enjoy oneself, to amuse oneself, to help oneself, to hurt oneself, to trouble oneself, to cut oneself, to wash oneself
The little boy hurt himself during the game.
Multe verbe care sunt in mod normal reflexive in alte limbi NU sunt reflexive in engleza. Astfel de verbe sunt: to wash, dress, comb, shave, meet, etc.
Sue and Brian met last year.
cu functie de complemente prepozitionale
She looked at herself in the mirror.
Why are you so angry with yourself?
The president himself attended the meeting.
By + pronume reflexiv inseamna singur
Un pronume reflexiv folosit cu un verb nereflexiv inseamna "fara ajutorul nimanui".
I live by myself. = I live alone.
I fixed it myself. = I fixed it without any help.
Each other inseamna reciprocitate intre doua persoane.
Folositi it sau there, acolo unde e necesar:
1. . is time to go to bed. 2. . is three miles to the Zoo. 3. . is a long time since I gave up smoking. 4. . is so much work to do that I haven't time to think about my own problems. 5. . is time to finish the cleaning before we go. 6. . is very strange that they should have arrived at the same time. 7. . is no place like home. 8. . is two years since they married. 9. . is only a short way now. 10. Don't eat that . is a poisonous mushroom. . are many of them in these parts. 11. . is a shame that even today . are so many unkempt gardens around. 12. . is no time to stop and talk. . is a bus to catch, . is a fair distance to the stop.
Completati spatiile cu much, many, (a) little, (a) few:
1. The people involved are only as . as half a dozen. 2. Ask . to have . . 3. . have no record at all. 4. The workers were quite upset; . threatened to down tools; . chose to go on working. 5. They don't give you . for this kind of work, do they? 6. . is being done to lay their suspicions. 7. What about buses? . are broken down, . are in good repair. 8. Some go for crisps but quite . go for popcorn in a big way. 9. A: 'Anything to drink? The pineapple squash is very nice indeed.' B: 'Yes, please, I'll have .'. 10. It was quite a shock for all of them, but . were seriously injured.
Folositi either, neither sau none:
1. a. I like . of the two. b. I don't like . of the two, they are both too fanciful for my taste. 2. . was worth mentioning. 3. A: 'Which of the two paintings did you buy?' B:'.'. 4. It doesn't matter which you choose. a. I don't like . b. I like . 5. A: 'Which of her friends do you like best?' B: 'I like . of them.' 6. A: 'Have you seen my husband or my son?' B: 'I've seen . of them.' 8. A: 'Have you read the English of the Romanian version?' B: 'I haven't read . of them.'
Completati spatiile goale cu who, whose, whom, which, that:
1. The girl . umbrella you took is raging against you. 2. The apples . he saw on the table were not big at all. 3. The play . we saw last week was rather dull. 4. The girl with . you saw me yesterday studies Spanish. 5. The student to . you were talking looked very clever. 6. The boys . are playing football under your windows are brothers. 7. The raft on . he was standing was caught in a whirl. 8. They have cut down the tree . used to stand here. 9. The only opponent . can defeat him is Joe Bugner. 10. The only opponent . he is afraid of is Joe Bugner. 11. The most unusual book . has appeared this winter is a book on caterpillars. 12. Frank is no the man . he was. 13. Here's the man . car was stolen. 14. Is this the box . you took it out of? 15. It's library . object is to serve the neighbouring villages. 16. Everybody . one asks says he is innocent. 17. This is the funniest story . he has written. 18. She is the sort of girl . will do her best to persuade him. 19. All . they can do is pacify him. 20. You're the only man . I've ever met . can really play bridge.
1. It 2. It 3. It 4. There 5. There 6. It 7. There 8. It 9. It 10. It, there 11. It, there 12. There, there, it
1. Few 2. Much, a little 3. Many 4. Many, few 5. Much 6. Little 7. Few, many 8. Few 9. A little 10. Few
1. Neither, either 2. None 3. Neither 4. Either, neither 5. None 6. Neither 7. None 8. Either
1. Whose 2. That/which 3. Which/that 4. Whom 5. Whom 6. Who 7. Which 8. That 9. Who 10. Whom/that 11. That 12. That 13. Whose 14. Which/that 15. Whose 16. (That) 17. (That) 18. That 19. (That) 20. (That), who
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