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Curs limba engleza - food. eating out

Gramatica



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CURS LIMBA ENGLEZA - FOOD. EATING OUT


SECTION I

FOOD




A.               LEAD IN


1.                Name two or three things that you eat/ drink almost every day. Are they healthy?

2.                Name two or three things that you never eat/ that you eat very rarely. Is it a good choice? Should you eat these things more often?

3.                How often do you eat out? Who accompanies you?

4.                Do you have a favourite restaurant? Which are the reasons why you go there?

5.                Have you ever tried to eat exotic food/ sea food?

6.                Whats the weirdest thing youve ever eaten?


B.                READING OBJECTIVE


EATING IN BRITAIN

A traditional English breakfast is a very big meal sausages, bacon, eggs, tomatoes, mushrooms. But nowadays many people just have cereal with milk and sugar, or toast with marmalade, jam, or honey. Marmalade and jam are not the same! Marmalade is made from oranges and jam is made from other fruit. The traditional breakfast drink is tea, which people have with cold milk. Some people have coffee, often instant coffee, which is made with just hot water. Many visitors to Britain find this coffee disgusting!

For many people lunch is a quick meal. In cities there are a lot of sandwich bars where office workers can choose the kind of bread they want brown, white or a roll and then all sorts of salad and meat or fish to go in the sandwich. Pubs often serve good, cheap food, both hot and cold. School children can have a hot meal at school, but many just take a snack from home a sandwich, a drink, some fruit, and perhaps some crisps.

Tea means two things. It is a drink and a meal. Some people have afternoon tea, with sandwiches, cakes, and, of course, a cup of tea. Cream teas are popular. You can have scones (a kind of cake) with cream and jam.

The evening meal is the main meal of the day for many people. They usually have it quite early, between 6.00 and 8.00 p.m. and often the whole family eat together.

On Sundays many families have a traditional lunch. They have roast meat, either beef, lamb, chicken, or pork, with potatoes, vegetables and a sauce.

The British like food from other countries, too, especially Italian, French, Chinese and Indian. People often get take-away meals you buy the food at the restaurant and then bring it home to eat. Eating in Britain is quite international!


Reading Comprehension

1. Are the following sentences true or false? Correct the false ones.

Many British people skip breakfast.

Marmalade is different from jam.

People drink tea with hot milk.

Many foreign visitors love instant coffee.

Sunday lunch is a special meal.

All British people eat dinner late in the evening.

Pubs are good places to go for lunch.

When you get a take-away meal, you eat it at home.

British people eat dinner late in the evening.

People often have cereal or toast for dinner.


2. Answer the following questions:

Do you happen to know the difference between the British marmalade and the Romanian one?

Have you ever tried to drink tea with milk? How did you find it?

What are the differences between meals in Britain and meals in Romania? Read the text again and for each paragraph comment on what is different from meals in your country.



C. VOCABULARY


1. In the following table write down the new words in the text above as well as their meaning (and translation into Romanian, if necessary). Then use these words in sentences of your own.

NEW WORD

MEANING ( AND TRANSLATION)















2. Together with your desk mate try to write as many examples as you can of:

a) vegetables __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

b) fruit __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ _____ __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

c) domestic animals __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ___ __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

d) poultry __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ___ __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

e) fish __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ __ __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____


3. a) What do we call the meat of the following animals?

Sheep __ ____ ____ ____ ____

Cow __ ____ ____ ____ _____

Deer __ ____ ____ ____ _____

Pig __ ____ ____ ____ ____ __

b) Which of the following are herbs and which are spices: oregano, cinnamon, parsley, curry, vanilla, pepper, rosemary, ginger, dill.

Spices: __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ _____

Herbs: __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ _____


4. Translate into English:

a)     Morcovii contin vitamina A iar spanacul contine fier.



b)     Ai mancat vreodata pui cu ananas? Da, saptamana trecuta la restaurantul chinezesc.



c)     Daca vrei sa mancam vanat, caprioara sau iepure de exemplu, stiu eu un restaurant bun.



d)     Maine am musafiri si m-am hotarat sa pregatesc salata de vinete, supa de rosii si curcan cu legume.



e)     Ce preferi la desert, pepene galben sau capsuni cu frisca?



f)      Trebuie sa mergem la piata sa cumparam niste salata, cartofi, castraveti si telina. Daca ne ajung banii poate luam si niste fructe, cirese sau caise de exemplu.



g)     Gaina, rata, gasca si curcanul sunt pasari domestice.



h)     Iti place pestele? Da, in special codul si crapul.



i)       E un fermier instarit, are cateva sute de animale: oi, capre, vaci si cai.



j)      Ti-ar placea sa mergem la circ? E un spectacol cu dresura de maimute, tigri albi , elefanti si ursi polari.




D. GRAMMAR

MODAL VERBS (1)

CAN / COULD, MUST, MAY / MIGHT


1. Compare the following sentences and discover how the modals differ from other verbs. You can work in pairs.

a) To study is a verb and so is Can.


b) He plays tennis very well. / He can play tennis very well.


c) I want to eat something, Im rather hungry. / I can speak French fluently.


d) Do you come here often? / Can you come a little, please?


e) I dont like him at all. / Im sorry I cannot help you, Im quite busy these days.

__ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ___ .

f) Present: They study a lot. / They can come with us. I must leave now.

Past: They studied a lot. / They could come.They were able to come. I had to leave.

Future: They will study a lot. / They will be able to come. I will have to leave.



2. What do the underlined verbs express? Use the following terms in your answers: obligation, ability, permission, certainty, interdiction, lack of obligation, possibility, probability, impossibility.

a) I can speak two foreign languages fluently. __ ____ ____ ____

Can you swim? __ ____ ____ ____

Can I leave now? __ ____ ____ _____

He can be at home, I havent seen him at the faculty. __ ____ ____ ____ __

He cannot have said such a thing, hes a very polite man! __ ____ ____ _____

b) May I come in, sir? __ ____ ____ _____

You may not smoke inside public buildings. __ ____ ____ ____ __

He may be studying as he has a test tomorrow. __ ____ ____ ____ __

c) Students must pass all their exams in order to get a diploma. __ ____ ____ _____

You must be Johns brother as you resemble him very much. __ ____ ____ _____

Must we go to bed so early, mum? No, this time you neednt. Its Sunday tomorrow. __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____


3. As you have already learned from ex. 1, modals do not have all the tenses and moods. Ability CAN is replaced by TO BE ABLE TO, permission MAY is replaced by TO BE ALLOWED TO or TO BE PERMITTED TO and obligation MUST by TO HAVE TO. Use these four expressions in the sentences below:

a) I (can future tense) __ ____ ____ __speak Japanese if I spend one year in Japan.

b) They (must past tense) __ ____ _____ wake up early to catch the plane.

c) The students (may future tense) __ ____ ____ __ to speak during the test.

d) She never (can present perfect tense) __ ____ ____ to understand her daughter.

e) We (must future tense)__ ____ ____ __ finish our project by the end of the month.


4. Which is more formal?

a) May I come in? ___ or : Might I come in? ___

b) Could I smoke here? ___ or: Can I smoke here? ___

c) Can we leave? ___ or: May we leave? ___


5. Translate into English:

a) He (nu se poate sa fie luat - TAKE) for an Englishman; he has a very bad accent. __ ____ ____ ____ _____

b) They (nu se poate sa fie BE) at school today, its Sunday! __ ____ ____ ____ ____

c) He (nu se poate sa fi uitat FORGET) his mothers birthday. __ ____ ____ ____ ___

d) They (nu se poate sa se fi casatorit GET MARRIED) so soon. __ ____ ____ _____

e) Hes so tired, he (se poate sa fi plecat LEAVE) the office earlier. __ ____ ____ ___

f) She was at the meeting so she (se poate sa fi auzit - HEAR) about my promotion. __ ____ ____ ____ __

g) They (se poate sa se uite WATCH) the match, their favourite team is playing. __ ____ ____ ____ __

h) He (e posibil sa doarma inca SLEEP)? Last night he went to bed very late. __ ____ ____ ____ ___

i) She (trebuie sa fi fost bolnava BE ILL), she looks very weak. __ ____ ____ ____ __

j) Jane (trebuie sa fi tinut KEEP) a slimming diet, she has lost a lot of weight. __ ____ ____ ____ __

k) They havent called us for more than a week; something (trebuie sa se fi intamplat HAPPEN). __ ____ ____ ____

k)     They (se poate sa fi aflat LEARN/ DISCOVER) the truth. __ ____ ____ ____ ____


4.     a) ask permission to: use somebodys lighter; leave earlier.

b) give or dont give permission (to somebody): to open the window, to smoke in the room.


6. Translate into English:

a) Nu se poate sa fi trecut examenul pentru ca nu a invatat deloc.


b) A promis ca ne asteapta, nu putea sa plece fara noi!


c) S-ar putea sa ai dreptate, trebuie sa fie suparat pentru ca nu l-am invitat la petrecere. __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ __.

d) Se poate sa fi cazut, mi-a spus ca si-a rupt mana.


e) Trebuie sa fi avut un doctor foarte bun, s-a insanatosit foarte repede.


f) Trebuie sa fi fost foarte bolnav, a stat in concediu medical mai mult de doua luni.



7. Rephrase the following sentences using the modal verb in brackets:

a)                It is impossible that he broke her promise again. (CANT)


b)                Im sure the plane was delayed. (MUST)


c)                She is probably working later today. (CAN / MAY)


d)                It is possible that you forgot your keys at the office. (CAN / MAY)


e)                Students are not permitted to smoke in the classroom. (MAY)


f) It is compulsory to attend the English course. (MUST)



8. Having in mind that CAN expresses:

- ability:(be able to, be capable of, know how to) E.g.: He can speak German very well but he cant write it very well.

- permission: (be allowed to, be permitted to) E.g.: Can I smoke in here?

- Possibility E.g. :Anybody can make mistakes

- Request E.g.: Can you do me a favour?

and COULD refers to:

- past ability E.g. : I could never play basketball very well.

- present or future permission E.g.: Could I smoke?

- present or future possibility E.g. :We could go to the cinema.

- polite request E.g. Could you open the window, please?

say whether the following sentences express ability (A) or permission (P).

a)     Jane can speak four languages. __ __

b)     Can I use your phone? __ __

c)     You can drive a car, cant you? __ __

d)     Tom says we can stay here all night. __ __

e)     Can we bring some friends to the party? __ __

f)      The teacher says we can smoke in the lounge if we like. __ __

g)     Can your boyfriend play tennis?__ __

h)     Can we have a break for some coffee? __ __

i)       You can play in the garden. Not in the street. __ __

j)      We are very busy now but we can repair your car in an hour. __ __

k)     My sister can sing very well. __ __

l)       Can I have some orange squash? __ __

m)   My father can hear very well but he cant see. __ __

n)     Excuse me, can I borrow your newspaper? __ __

o)     Can you open this door without a key? __ __


9. Now read the following sentences and say what can / could expresses in each case.

a)     Mary is a very good chess player. She can beat all her friends. __ __

b)     Till the age of 10, I couldnt ride a bicycle. __ __

c)     He cant have left. __ __

d)     Can I talk to you for a minute? __ __

e)     We could try moving the desk to the other side of the room. __ __

f)      Could you help me with this exercise? __ __

g)     David can swim very well. __ __

h)     Can I open the window? Theres a too much smoke in here. __ __

i)       It cant be true. __ __

j)      I cant speak French. __ __


10. Having in mind that CANT expresses impossibility; deduction (E.g. It cant be a mistake.)

make sentences as in the example using cant.

Im sure he didnt go. He cant have gone.

a)     We dont believe they left the house.


b)     Im sure he didnt see me.


c)     I dont believe she did the exercise herself.


d)     We are sure they didnt run away.


e)     Im sure Thomas didnt steal any money.


f)      Im sure I didnt make any mistakes.


g)     We dont believe he has forgotten us.


h)     We are sure that didnt say that.


i)       Im sure she didnt accept your offer.


j)      We dont believe our son told such a lie.



11. Read the situation and make your own sentences using could have as in the example.

They were stupid to go skiing. They could have broken their legs.

a)     It was very dangerous to leave your gun in the childrens bedroom.


b)     You should have put on your coat before going out in such cold weather.


c)     It was very stupid of him to smoke while filling up his car with petrol.


d)     You were stupid to give your lighter to the baby.


e)     Jane is a very good tennis player. Its a pity she is giving up playing.


f)      They shouldnt have attempted to cross the river. Its pretty rough at this time of the year.


g)     We were foolish to go fishing in our boat. The weather was very bad.


h)     Diana was silly to give that valuable painting away.


i)       We were foolish to go fishing in our boat. The weather was very bad.


j)      You realize it was crazy of you to play a joke on your boss.


k)     We didnt know there was a gas leak in the factory.


l)       I was silly not to buy a lottery ticket.


m)   She shouldnt have left the scissors on Tommys bed. Hes only four years old.



12. As you have already learnt, may / might express

- permission [more formal than can] E.g.: You may borrow my book if you need it. May I open the window? Its too stuffy in here.

- request E.g.: May I have a glass of water, please?

- possibility E.g.: He may come. He might join us later.

- speculations about the present: may / might be ing E.g. They may be listening right now. He might be going out soon.

- Speculations about the past: may / might have E.g.: She might have forgotten all about it. He may have put it somewhere else.

Now read the following sentences and say what may / might expresses in each case.

a)     The weather may get worse.__ __

b)     He may be leaving for England. __ __

c)     You might have left the book at school. __ __

d)     May I use your phone? __ __

e)     David might want to stay longer. __ __

f)      She may come with us if she really wants to. __ __

g)     May I have some more wine, please? __ __


13. Restate the sentences as in the example to show possibility.

Ex. :Perhaps he knows the answer. He may know the answer.

a)     Perhaps John is at home. __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ___

b)     Perhaps they are at a party. __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ___

c)     Perhaps he has some money. __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

d)     Perhaps they sell maps in that shop. __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ___

e)     Perhaps the lights are out. __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ _____

f)      Perhaps his phone number is in the book. __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ___


14. In the beginning of this grammar section you discovered by yourself that must expresses:

- necessity: (strong advice) E.g.:You must study harder. You mustnt forget to take your medicine.

obligation E.g.: You must lock the door when you leave. You mustnt leave the door unlocked.

Prohibition E.g.: You mustnt do that thing again.

Deductions (negative: cant / cantt be ing) E.g.: She must be our new teacher. He must be leaving soon.

conclusions about the past: must have E.g.: He must have come while I was out.

explanation of a present situation: must have been E.g. : That tree has fallen across the road. [the situation]. It must have been blown down by the wind. [the reason why]


Now read the following sentences and say what must expresses in each case.

a)     David must have left during the break. __ ____ ____

b)     She must try harder. __ ____ ____

c)     You mustnt touch that wire! __ ____ ____

d)     That man must be her new husband. __ ____ ____

e)     You must switch off the lights before leaving the office. __ ____ ____

f)      He must have been fired. __ ____ ____

g)     She mustnt go out in this weather. before leaving the office. __ ____ ____

h)     He must have been fired. __ ____ ____

i)       They must be working on the new project. __ ____ ____

j)      You mustnt keep animals in the flat. __ ____ ____

k)     Joan must see a doctor about it. __ ____ ____


15. What do you think these people are doing?

Ex.: John is under his car. He must be repairing it.

a)     Professor Martin is in a classroom.


b)     Jane is in the pub.


c)     Peters sitting at his desk.


d)     Mr. Brown is in the theatre.


e)     Someone is in the telephone booth.


f)      The students are all outside. Theyre not in the classrooms.


g)     John is in the T.V. room.


h)     They are in the supermarket.



16. Make deductions using must as in the example.

Ex.: The light is on in Johns room. (He) He must be in the house. or He must be studying

a)     David has got three houses, four cars and a yacht! (He)


b)     Susan doesnt do any work. (She)


c)     They are having a party at their house. (They)


d)     You havent eaten anything for three days. (You)


e)     She works in a clinic somewhere near here. (She)


f)      There are some people hiding in that boat. (The police)


g)     Thats not my signature. (It)


h)     There is no light on in Bills room. (He)


i)       Jack says hes bought a house in the North Pole! (He)


j)      Youre got a nasty cough and a temperature. (You)


k)     Shes won three races in the Highland games. (She)


l)       I cant keep my eyes open. (You)



E. LANGUAGE IN USE


Inviting. Accepting / refusing an invitation. Apologising .

Depending on the addressee, an invitation can be more or less formal. Read the following possible invitations and rank them according to their degree of formality.

a)     Were going to the theatre on Sunday evening and we were wondering if youd like to join us. __ ___

b)     If youre free tonight, why not come round for a drink ? __ ___

c)     If you dont have any plans for the weekend Id be happy to show you the old town and some museums. Im sure youll love it. __ ___

d)     Hello, sir. Andreea Popescu speaking, Mr. Howards assistant manager. He would like to invite you to dinner tomorrow evening. Woud that be possible for you ? __ ___

e)     It gives me great pleasure to invite you to the hotels inauguration ceremony , on the 20th next month. __ ____

f)      We would be honoured if you accepted to have supper with the members of our department at the company club on Friday evening. __ ___

g)     How about going to a movie on Saturday ? __ ___


2. Now look at the following thank you expressions. Some of them can be used when accepting, others when declining an invitation. Use them to build your own answers to the invitations above.

It very kind of you to invite me bu Ive already got something planned.

What a pity. I dont think I can come. Ive got some friends coming for dinner.

Thank you very muck, that would be nice.

Sure, why not ? Thank you for the invitation.

Thats very nice of you but unfortunately I m busy this weekend.


3. You are an assistant manager and you have to invite a foreign guest : a) to dinner ; b) to look round the factory ; c) to make a speech at an official dinner ; on behalf of your boss. Together with your desk mate decide what exactly you can say.


SECTION II

EATING OUT


A. LEAD IN

1.                How many meals do you have daily?

2.                Are you a good cook? What can you cook best?

3.                Ask your desk mate about his/ her favourite food/ drink. Then tell him/her what to cook if he/she invites you to have dinner together.

4.                What do you think about being a vegetarian?

5.                In terms of food, what comes to your mind when you think of the following countries: the USA, France, Switzerland, Japan, China, Greece, Turkey, the UK?

6.                Can you add any more countries to the list above? What food/ drink are they famous for?

7.                What Romanian traditional dishes would you recommend a foreigner?


C.                READING OBJECTIVE


LETS HAVE A PARTY!

The characters in the following dialogue have decided to throw a party and they are making arrangements. Read the text and the answer the questions.


Anne: Listen, everyone! Id like to make a suggestion Now, how about having a party soon? Not not this weekend its too soon, but say next Saturday. Well?

Brenda: Why not?

Charlie: Yes, sure.

Anne: Well, what do you think, Brenda?

Brenda: Well yeah, but why do you want to have one?

Anne: Oh, I dont know really how shall I put it? Well, weve been together for quite a long time, havent we? The four of us in the flat. Well, its nearly five years, I think, isnt it?

Charlie: Yeah, about five years, youre right.

Brenda: It must be.

Anne: I think thats worth celebrating Dont you agree, Charlie?

Charlie: Yes, I do actually. I think itd be a good idea. But er there are one or two points Id like to make, actually. Um quite strongly. First is: invitation only. Everyone should have no more than two or three guests, otherwise well get crowded. OK? . And the other thing is: everyone brings a bottle, otherwise itll cost a fortune .

Brenda: And another thing: I think we should have food, otherwise its just going to be a drinking party

Charlie: Yeah, yeah, sorry to interrupt. If we are going to have food, the thing is I want to know whos going to prepare it. I mean its all very well saying have food but its again a lot of work and a lot of money

Brenda: If I could just come in here Ive just got a new recipe book and Id kind of like a chance to try out a few things, you know. So

Charlie: Great!

Brenda: Ill do the food.

Charlie: Well, that sounds great. Marvellous. Thats lovely.

Anne: Derek, youre being very quiet. What have you got to say?

Derek: Well you know although it should be a lot of fun I think its going to be a lot of hard work, as well.and the thing is, you see, what worries me is er um

Charlie: What?

Derek: the clearing-up afterwards.

All: Ahh! Aha!

Derek: I really detest clearing up. So if we were to get that sorted out

Anne: Well, lets see now. I think Ive got quite a good idea to solve that one.

Charlie: Mm?

Anne: If we wait till the very end, theres going to be a few people left over and we can ask them to do the clearing-up before they go home.

Charlie: Great!


Reading comprehension

1.     What is the reason why the characters in the text have decided to have a party?

2.     Who is going to cook and who is going to bring the drinks?

3.     Why is Derek worried? How do the others solve his problem?


C.                VOCABULARY


1. In the following table write down the new words in the text above as well as their meaning (and translation into Romanian, if necessary). Then use these words in sentences of your own.

NEW WORD

MEANING ( AND TRANSLATION)















2. Group the following dishes under the right heading. Then try to make up a menu!

Dishes:

Grilled mushrooms, beef steak with beans, prawn cocktail, noodle soup, apple pie, pork chops, mashed potatoes, pate and toast, fresh fruit salad, fillet of cod with rice, ice cream, lamb stew with polenta, peach soufle, pastas, duck in cheese sauce, chicken sour soup, pancakes.

Starters

Main courses

Desserts









a.                    a) If you have decided to eat more dairy products, you can choose from the following:__ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ___ __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ___

5.     if you have decided to cook some potatoes you can make__ ____ ____ ____ __


6.     if you have decided to cook some meat you can __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ __ __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ _____

7.     if you have decided to make a vegetable salad you can use __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ___



3. Food can be salty, sweet, bitter, sour hot or tasteless. How do the following items taste like:

tonic water __ ____ ____ ____, sea water, __ ____ ____ ____, pudding __ ____ ____ _____ , rice with curry __ ____ ____ ____, strong black coffee __ ____ ____ _____, an unripe apple __ ____ ____ ___, crisps __ ____ ____ _____, lemon __ ____ ____ ____ ___ .


4. If you have decided to throw a party you should buy both soft drinks and alcoholic drinks for your guests. Together with your desk mate make a list of what you would buy.

Soft drinks : __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ _____

Spirits : __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____


8.     What objects are we supposed to put on the table if we are expecting guests for dinner?




6. Even if you are not the best cook in the world (by the way, which is the difference between a cook and a cooker?) you must be good at preparing some dish or another. Tell your mates the recipe. Use the following verbs when explaining: pour, add, mix, bake, boil, fry, stir, cut, slice. In the following lines you can write down an interesting recipe told by somebody else in the class.







D. GRAMMAR


THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE

1. Why do the following indefinite articles differ from each other: a house, a student / an idea, an ocean? __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ .

2. Read the following sentences and find out when you can use the Indefinite Article:

a) A person has called and asked for you.


b) Im a student and I will become an economist.


c) I have a brother and two sisters.


d) I have few/ a few friends. I have managed to save little/ a little money.


e) What a pity! Hes such a good man. He works as an accountant.


f) You have to take this medicine twice a day. How much are the apples?0.99 a kilo.


g) Why did you keep it a secret? It will be difficult to keep a slimming diet as I have a sweet tooth. Take a seat, please!


Other expressions containing the indefinite article: __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ _____ __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ .


THE ZERO ARTICLE

There are cases when no article is necessary in front of a noun. Language scientists have called this situation the Zero Article.

4. The following examples will help you understand when you should use the Zero Article. Together with your desk mate write down the rules as well as some examples of your own.

a) Children like sweets. Sometimes students cut classes.


b) Love and happiness are what everybody wants.


c) Romania lies in the South-East of Europe. Adina is the author of this book. BUT: The Argentine, the Sudan, the Congo, the Hague, the United Kingdom, the USA.


d) Is English a difficult language? Maths and Economics were my favourite subjects in school and tennis was my favourite sport.


e) Im going to the dentists on Monday. My birthday is in October.


f) We usually have dinner at about 8 p.m. / The dinner you prepared was delicious.


g) They were walking arm in arm. She looked at me from head to foot. Things were getting better day by day. I dont know all my students by name. He is in debt.


Other expressions containing the Zero Article:__ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ __ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ .


5. Fill in the gaps using definite or indefinite articles where necessary.

a)     Is __ ____ __ English easy?

b)     __ ____ __ games I like are football and cricket.

c)     Will you have __ ____ __ cup of tea?

d)     __ ____ __ book you are reading is mine.

e)     We never go to __ ____ __ school on __ ____ __ Sundays.

f)      __ ____ __ student must work hard.

g)     __ ____ __exercise is good for our health.

h)     Do you want __ ____ __ coffee or __ ____ __ tea?

i)       He goes to __ ____ __ bed late at __ ____ __ night.

j)      I am from England but I live in __ ____ __ Romania now.

k)     He is not at __ ____ __ home now.

l)       Romanians like __ ____ __ coffee.

m)   The teacher said that __ ____ __ English language is difficult.

n)     __ ____ __ school I go to is near __ _____ park.

o)     He is going to have __ ____ __ lunch now.

p)     Mr. West is __ ____ __ teacher.

q)     He was taken to __ ____ __ hospital in __ ____ __ ambulance.

r)      He lives in __ ____ __ big house.

s)     __ ____ __ house with __ ____ __ green door is mine.

t)      I went to __ ____ __ hospital to see how he was.

u)     John is __ ____ ___ student.

v)     __ ____ __ good students work hard.

w)   __ ____ __ exercise you are doing now is difficult.

x)     Do you have __ ____ __ dinner early?

y)     __ ____ __ house has __ ____ __ garden.


6. Supply the, a or some, where necessary.

a)     He smokes __ ____ __ cigarette only after __ ____ __ dinner.

b)     __ ____ __ girl in __ ____ __ front row is drawing __ ____ __ cat.

c)     They have been on __ ____ __ Greek islands for __ ____ __ month now.

d)     In __ ____ __ event of my hearing from him Ill let you know.

e)     He broke __ ____ __vase again. Hes so careless!

f)      Do you drink __ ____ __ beer or __ ____ __ wine?

g)     John is eating __ _____ cake.

h)     What have you got in __ ____ __ mind?

i)       There are __ ____ __ books on __ ____ __ desk.

j)      He has __ ____ __ knowledge to do it.

k)     __ ____ __ room has __ ____ __ door and __ ____ __ window.

l)       __ ____ __ window is open and __ ____ ___ door is shut.

m)   There is __ ____ __ garden with __ ____ __ trees around __ ____ __ house.

n)     John is having __ ____ __ breakfast.

o)     He has __ ____ __ milk and __ ____ __ cake for __ ____ __ breakfast.

p)     Peters gone to __ ____ ___ Hague on __ ____ ___ business.

q)     Just take __ ____ __ note of his phone number.

r)      Mary is drawing __ ____ __ picture of __ ____ __ dog.

s)     I was in __ ____ __ garden when I heard __ ____ __ phone ringing.

t)      Youll get __ ____ __ home at 6.35 at __ ____ __ latest.

u)     In __ ____ __ clothes shops, customers want to try on __ ____ __ clothes before they decide to buy them.

v)     Could you tell me __ ____ ___ time, please?

w)   She is in __ ____ __ hospital now with __ ____ __broken arm.

x)     Please try to be __ ____ ___little more polite.

y)     She cant make __ ____ ___ dress you want, unless she knows your measurements.


7. Fill in the gaps with the or a in the following dialogue.

Mrs. Parker: Look, Brian, theres __ ____ __ man across entrance of __ ____ ___National Bank.

Mr. Parker: Oh yes, now I can see him. Its Arthur Bridges. We were in __ ____ __ army together. Hello, Arthur!

Mr. Bridges: Hello, Frank! Why dont you come in? Everybody in __ ____ ___ street is looking at us.

Mr. Parker: I cant see very well. Do you mean __ ____ __ one in __ _____ grey suit?

Mrs. Parker: No, its __ ____ __ man sitting at __ ____ __the bistro of __ ____ __ Bank for __ ____ __ cup of tea?

Mrs. Parker: Into __ ____ __ Bank? Are you sure he is __ ____ ___ friend of yours?

Mr. Parker: Come on dear! Hes __ ____ __ Manager of this Bank.


8. Fill in the gaps with a(n) or the where necessary.

a)     He visits England twice __ ____ ___ year.

b)     __ ____ __ bicycle is __ ____ ___ excellent means of __ ____ __ transport.

c)     They cost 2 pounds __ ____ __ kilo.

d)     __ _____ more they come to the party, __ ____ __ better it will be.

e)     Im sure hell do __ ____ __ best he can.

f)      As __ ____ __ matter of fact, Im going to buy that car.

g)     I agree with you on __ ____ __ whole.

h)     To __ ____ __ certain extent, he is right.

i)       Why on __ ____ __ earth didnt you wait for __ ____ ___ 8 oclock train?

j)      What __ ____ __ shame! He was put in __ ____ __ prison for __ ____ __ theft again.

k)     What __ ____ __ nuisance! Weve missed the bus!

l)       What __ ____ __ wonderful day today!

E. LANGUAGE IN USE


Ordering food. Talking to the waiter.

If you go abroad you may want to eat out, so it would be useful to know a few words coonected to ordering food. Read the following short dialogues between a guest and a waiter and then build your own dialogues.

a)     A : Hello, sir !

B : Hello. Can I have a have sandwich, please ?

A : Yes, of course. Here you are. Anything else ?

B : No, thanks.

A : Fifty nine cents, please.

B : Thanks. Keep the change.

A : Thank you, sir.


b)     A : Hello, Im John Howard. I have booked a table for six for 9p.m. tonight.

B : Hello, sir. Just a moment to check your booking. Youre right, table for six, near the window, 9 p.m.. The waiter will see you off at your table.

C : Hello, ladies and gentlemen, follow me. This way, please this is your table and here are the menus. Enjoy your evening.


c)     A : Are you ready to order, madam ?

B : Yes, Id like two tuna salads, two chocolate icecreams and a white coffe for my friend.

A : Sure, madam. Anything else ?

B : A glass of still water for me, please.

A : OK, madam.

B. Thank you.


d)     A : Yes, sir ?

B : A coffee, please.

A : Black or white ?

B : Sorry ?

A : Black or white ? Milk ?

B : Ah ! Black please. No milk.

A : Sixty pence, sir.

B : Thanks.



Now imagine you are hungry and you go to a nice restaurant in London. How do you order your food ? You can also think of a menu. Work in pairs.



F. WRITING. DISCUSSION


Before accepting an invitation to the restaurant, a foreigner asks you to describe Romanian traditional food to him. What would you include in your presentation ?



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