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THE SEQUENCE OF TENSES

Gramatica

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THE SEQUENCE OF TENSES

Nota




Concordanta timpurilor in limba engleza se aplica la trei tipuri de propozitii subordonate: subordonata completiva directa, subordonata conditionala si subordonata temporala.

In continuare ne vom referi doar la doua din cele trei tipuri de subordonate, cea conditionala fiind tratata in capitolul XII.

DIRECT OBJECT CLAUSE

(Propozitia Subordonata Completiva Directa)

Main/Regent Clause Subordinate Clause

(Propozitia principala) (Propozitia subordonata)

Prezent Orice timp verbal cerut de

Prezentul Perfect sensul subordonatei

Viitor

Mary explains/has explained/will explain that she goes/will go/has gone/went/had gone to London.

Timpul trecut Trecutul perfect

pentru o actiune anterioara

He said that he had seen the movie.

Timpul trecut

pentru o actiune simultana

I thought that they were at home.

Future-in-the-past

pentru o actiune posterioara

They promised they would write that    exercise again.

Nota

Exista si cateva exceptii:

Verbele to ask, demand, insist, order, recommend, require, urge, in propozitia principala, sunt urmate de Subjonctivul Analitic (British English) si de Subjonctivul Sintetic (American English)

She demands that you should arrive in time.

She demands that you arrive in time.

Pentru adevaruri general valabile si ireversibile

It was proved that water boils at 100 Celsius degrees.

I knew that she is a widow.

TIME CLAUSE

(Propozitia Subordonata Temporala)

Regula de baza: in propozitia temporala nu se poate folosi viitorul.

Main/Regent Clause Subordinate Clause

(Propozitia principala) (Propozitia subordonata)



Viitor Timpul Prezent

pentru actiuni simultane

Mary will tell us the truth when she knows it.

Prezentul Perfect

pentru actiuni anterioare

The boy will translate the lesson after he has learnt the new words.

Timpul Trecut Timpul Trecut

Future-in-the-Past    pentru actiuni simultane

Mary visited us whenever she was free.

I promised mother I would buy that book when I saw it.

Trecutul Perfect

pentru actiuni anterioare

The children went to bed after they had done their lessons.

We understood that they would come home after they had finished their work.

Nota

In alte tipuri de subordonate se folosesc acele timpuri verbale care sunt cerute de sensul subordonatei respective, fara nici o constrangere:

Yesterday I bought a book which is very interesting/I will read this week/I have been looking for since April. (propozitie atributiva)

Jack played tennis that day as he will never be able to play again. (propozitie completiva de mod)

Last year Mary spoke English better than her sister does now. (propozitie completiva de comparatie)

My brother finished his work in the morning because he will go to a party this evening. (propozitie completiva cauzala)

Exercitii

Puneti verbele din paranteze la forma corecta (Prezent, timpul trecut, prezentul perfect, trecutul perfect, viitor):

A. 1. Arnold (to be) born in a village and he (to spend) his childhood there. He (to move) to Leeds when he (to be) fifteen years old and he (to live) there since his sister (to get) married. 2. At present, he (to work) in an office but he (to use) to work at a bank before. 3 .Next year he (to go) to London to study at the University, but only after he (to finish) writing the novel he (to work) at now. 4. I (to write) to him a long letter several days ago and (to ask) him how many chapters he already (to write). 5. Arnold’s daughter hopes that her father (to finish) his book by the end of August. 6. I (to see) her yesterday while she (to cross) the street. 7. When I (to talk) to her, she (to tell) me that she (to be) very tired because she (to type) all the morning.

B. 1. As soon as she (to see) us, she (to stop) singing. 2. The tailor (to promise) me then that my suit (to be) ready in a week’s time. 3. Why didn’t you explain to them when you (to be) able to give them the money back? 4. I wondered where he (to study) and how many years before he (to take) his degree. 5. Before paper (to be) invented, people (to write) their thoughts upon various other materials. 6. History (to be) engraved on stone monuments and our knowledge of what ancient people (to do), (to be) chiefly taken from the stone tables and buildings which they (to erect).

Cheia exercitiilor:

A. 1. Was, spent, moved, was, has been living, got 2. Is working, used to work 3. Will go, has finished, is working 4. Wrote, asked, had already written 5. Will finish 6. Saw, was crossing 7. Talked, told, was had typed

B. 1. See, stops 2. Promised, would be ready 3. Were able 4. Had studied, took 5. Was, had written 6. Is, have done, is, erected






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