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THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD

Gramatica



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THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD

Conjunctivul a disparut aproape complet in engleza. Se mai pastreaza anumite forme - mai ales la trecut - pentru a exprima indoiala, regretul sau situatiile ireale.



Forma

A. Subjonctivul    sintetic prezent

Subjonctivul prezent are aceeasi forma ca Infinitivul fara TO. Are aceeasi forma pentru toate persoanele.

God save the king!

They be damned!

Se foloseste

pentru a exprima dorinte, urari sau exclamatii devenite expresii

Heaven help us all!

Be that as it may!

God forgive/bless you!

Damn you!

God bless you!

in propozitiile conditionale

If this be true, we must inform the authorities.

in propozitiile subordonate introduse de THAT cand in propozitia principala se exprima o dorinta, o cerere, o obligatie, o necesitate

in propozitii completive directe dupa urmatoarele verbe: to suggest, order, demand, urge, recommend, insist, command, propose, arrange, decide, agree, arrange, determine

I insist that he go. (Insist sa se duca)

She urged that he sit down and listen crefully.

in propozitiile subiective dupa urmatoarele constructii impersonale: it is natural, important, advisable, necessary, possible, impossible

It is important that he go.

It is necessary that your friend arrive there first.

B. Subjonctivul sintetic trecut

Subjonctivul trecut are aceeasi forma ca si trecutul simplu. Verbul be are forma were pentru toate persoanele.

It's time we went home.

I wish he were nicer.

C. Subjonctivul sintetic mai mult ca perfect

Subjonctivul mai mult ca perfect are aceeasi forma ca mai mult ca perfectul.

We wished we had had better weather.

Se foloseste:

in propozitiile conditionale pentru a exprima un Conditional prezent sau un Conditional trecut

If I were you, I would try to talk to her.

The children will like this film if they saw it.

I would have bought that book if I had found it.

pentru a exprima irealitatea dupa wish, as if/though, even if/though, would rather/sooner, it's high time, suppose (that)

WISH

Wish + Would + Infinitiv (nu este un subjonctiv!) - exprima o dorinta in viitor

I wish he would write to me.

Wish + Past Tense Simple

pentru a indica o situatie nereala in prezent (regret pentru o actiune sau situatie care se produce sau nu)

I wish they agreed to my proposal.

wish + could

What a pity! I wish you could sing.

cu referire la obiceiuri, stari prezente si actiuni regulate

I wish I got up early in the morning.

wish + past tense continuous cu referire la actiuni care se desfasoara la momentul prezent sau actiuni care continua pe o perioada care include si momentul prezent

I wish he were playing in the park.

wish + was going to pentru referinte in viitor

I wish I was going to do the housework tomorrow.

wish + Past Perfect cu referire la situatii dorite dar care nu se pot realiza sau pentru actiuni in trecut

He wishes he had bought his newspaper.

wished + Past Tense     - cele doua actiuni sunt simultane

She wished she weren't ill.

wished + Past Perfect - cand actiunea dorita se produce sau nu inainte de momentul trecut exprimat de wished

Mary wished she hadn't been ill during her holiday.

Main Clause Subjunctive Form

I wish = as vrea    1. You came = sa vii

I wished = as fi vrut    would come now = ce n-as da sa vii

had come yesterday = sa fi venit

AS IF/THOUGH

As if/thorugh + Past Tense Simple - pentru a indica nesiguranta sau dubiul in prezent (actiuni contrare faptului prezent)

He behaves as if he were a teacher.

As if + Past Tense of Going to - pentru situatii ipotetice in viitor

He talks as if it were going to rain.

As if + Past Perfect - pentru a indica indoiala, incertitudinea in legatura cu o actiune trecuta (actiune contrara faptului trecut)

She talks/ talked as if/ as though she had bought it.

Main Clause Subjunctive Form

He is/was walking as if he did not know - simultan

as though he had already known -anterior

WOULD RATHER / SOONER

Would rather + Infinitiv (persoana care exprima preferinta este aceeasi cu subiectul actiunii care urmeaza)

Bill would rather play tennis than football.

Would rather + Infinitiv perfect (acelasi subiect)

She would rather have travelled by plane.

Would rather + Past Tense Simple (subiectul lui would rather este diferit de subiectul actiunii care urmeaza)

I would rather you got up early.

Would rather + Past Perfect (subiecte diferite)

I would rather they had left on time.

Would rather + would + infinitiv (cu referire la un eveniment dorit in viitor)

I would rather you would come tomorrow.

IF ONLY

If only + Past Tense - pentru dorinte care se refera fie la prezent fie la viitor, in special cu verbe care exprima actiuni obisnuite, obiceiuri sau stari

If only she didn't eat so much!

If only + Past Tense Continuous - pentru a indica o dorinta care se refer la viitor sau prezent

If only I were leaving, too.

If only + Past Perfect - pentru a exprima un regret pentru o actiune care nu s-a produs

If only they had come, this wouldn't have happened.

If only + Would + Infinitiv - pentru a exprima o dorinta in legatura cu viitorul dar fara speranta

If only he would buy me a watch!

If only + Present / Future Tense - ca un echivalent pentru propozitiile care incep cu HOPE

I hope she will come in time.

If only she comes in time!

IT'S TIME

It's Time + Past Tense Simple

It's time you finished reading the newspaper.

It's time + Past Tense Continuous - pentru a accentua natura progresiva a actiunii

It's time you were decorating your house.

It's time + For + Infinitiv - a sosit timpul sa faci ceva

It's time for you to have lunch.

It's time + Past Tense - este deja cam tarziu sa mai faci ceva

It's time you had your lunch.

Main Clause Subjunctive Form

I would rather/sooner = as prefera he left now = sa plece

If only = macar daca

Suppose = daca cumva! He had arrived = sa fi sosit

It is high time = e vremea sa

D. Subjonctivul analitic

Subjonctivul analitic este mai des folosit decat cel sintetic si poate aparea atat in subordonata cat si in propozitia principala.

Este format dintr-un verb modal - shall, should, will, would, may, might, can, could si Infinitivul Prezent sau Perfect.

Se foloseste:

Shall + Infinitiv

Shall I help you with your homework?

They have decided that you shall go there. (you must go)

Should + Infinitiv - in main clauses

Why should they come so early?

Should + Infinitiv - dupa urmatoarele constructii: it is/was important, necessary, natural, surprising, advisable

It's necessary that you should be present.

Should + Infinitiv - dupa urmatoarele verbe: to demand, insist, command, propose, request, suggest

They suggested that you should tell them the truth.

Should + Infinitiv - in propozitii subordonate de scop introduse de lest, for fear (that), in case

We left in a hurry lest she should see us there. (= ca sa nu ne vada)

Where would you sleep in case you should miss the train?

Should + Infinitiv - in propozitii subordonate atributive

His desire that no one should enter that room surprised us.

Should + Infinitiv - in propozitii concesive introduse de though, although, whatever

Whatever she should say, don't contradict her.

May/ Might + Infinitiv - in main clauses

May all your dreams come true!

Just imagine, next year we might have a car!

May/ Might + Infinitiv - in propozitii subordonate dupa urmatoarele constructiiit is/was possible, probable, likely

It is probable that our friend might have known you.

It is possible that she may come today.

May/ Might + Infinitiv - in propozitii subordonate de scop introduse de that, in order that, so that

He took a seat in the first row so that he might hear the actors well.

May/ Might + Infinitiv - in propozitii subordonate concesive introduse de though, although, however, whatever, no matter

However painful it may be to you, you must know the truth.

No matter how expensive that car might be she still wants to buy it.

Would + Infinitiv - in propozitii completive directe dupa wish

They wish we would pay them a visit.

Would + Infinitiv - in propozitii subordonate de scop

She learnt all the new words so that she would be able to translate the text.

Could + Infinitiv - pentru a exprima scopul, ca o alternativa la may/might, avand un grad mai mare de certitudine

She studied a lot so that she could pass the difficult exam.

Exercitii

Puneti verbele din paranteze la forma corecta: past tense simple, past perfect sau would + infinitiv:

1. We had lots of fun at the party. I wish you (be) there, too. 2. The plants need a lot of water at this time of the year and it hasn't rained for a long time. I wish it (rain) now. 3. I wish my mother (be) here now to help me. 4. Tom forgot to buy the sports newspaper this morning. He wishes he (buy) it, as he doesn't know the football results. 5. We wish the teacher (explain) the grammar rules again next week. 6. I'd like to go to the concert, but I haven't got a ticket. I wish I (buy) one this morning. 7. The lecturer is already half an hour late. We wish he (come). 8. I didn't like the film yesterday. I wish I (not stay) up to the end. 9. I wish you (pay) more attention to your spelling in the future. 10. I wish I (follow) the doctor's advice. I wouldn't be so ill now. 11. The teacher wishes someone (offer) to bring some coloured chalk to school tomorrow. 12. I wish you (inform) me about this matter several months ago.

Traduceti urmatoarele propozitii in limba romana:

1. I wish you would listen more carefully to your teacher. 2. Do you wish they had sent you a card? 3. I wished she had posted this letter for me. 4. Don't your friends wish you would go on the trip with them? 5. Mother wishes I got better marks at school. 6. The little boys wished they were allowed to swim in the lake. 7. Don't you wish it were summer now? 8. Doesn't your teacher wish you would improve your pronunciation?

Puneti verbele din paranteze la forma corecta:

1. He is speaking as if he (answer) an examination. 2. I always get seasick when I travel by sea. If only I (not take) the boat and (come) by plane! 3. If only you (give) me a chance to try again, Cecily begged. 4. I wish you (stay) with me for a while. I feel very lonely. 5. She went on talking as if she (not hear) what I had said. 6. It's time you (stop) making a nuisance of yourself. 7. It's a pity you left so early. I'd rather you (stay) a little longer. 8. For the first time in his life he felt as if he (be) in a hurry to get where he was going. 9. She acted as though she (be) born an actress.

Traduceti urmatoarele propozitii in limba engleza:

1. Ana ar dori sa nu fie atat de ocupata saptamana asta. 2. Va trebui sa asteptam 20 de minute pana la sosirea trenului. Ce pacat ca am plecat de acasa atat de devreme! 3. Baietelul ar dori ca parintii sa-l trimita in tabara de vara de la Sinaia, dar sunt sigura ca ei il vor duce la tara la bunici. 4. Numai de-as putea gasi cuvintele cele mai potrivite! 5. Se lauda ca a rezolvat singur toate problemele de matematica. Numai de l-ai fi auzit! 6. As dori ca ea sa treaca acest examen dificil. 7. Mai degraba m-as duce sa vad un film decat sa-mi pierd timpul asteptandu-te. 8. Luna viitoare e primul examen; e timpul sa te apuci serios de invatat. 9. A trecut o saptamana de cand ai primit scrisoarea de la Angela. E timpul sa-i raspunzi la scrisoare. 10. Numai de nu s-ar opri motorul chiar la mijlocul pantei! 11. Diana vorbeste de parca n-ar sti nimic despre conferinta. 12. As fi preferat ca el sa spuna adevarul. 13. Se comporta de parca el ar fi facut toate pregatirile pentru serbare. 14. Toti prietenii mei joaca handbal pe terenul de sport. Ce pacat ca nu stiu sa joc handbal!

Traduceti urmatoarele propozitii in limba romana:

1. E ciudat ca cheltuieste asa de putini bani cand stie ca scumpul mai mult pagubeste. 2. E de necrezut ca citea cand trebuia sa lucreze la teza de doctorat. 3. E remarcabil ca ei lucrau de doua ore si terminasera treaba cand ai sosit. 4. Nu ti se pare de necrezut sa se strice untul asa de repede? 5. Insist sa treci deoparte, fiindca stai in drum. 6. Copilul acesta e bun la toate jocurile, asa ca va juca orice ii ceri. 7. Zise ca e competent in meseria lui, ca sa avem incredere in el. 8. E incantat de ideea de a merge la mare de parca n-ar sti ca-i prea frig acum acolo. 9. Sa traiesti mult si sa fii fericit! 10. Orice ar fi gatit cand ai sosit tu, trebuia sa-ti dea o portie.

Cheia exercitiilor:

* 1. had been 2. were raining 3. were 4. had bought 5. would explain 6. had bought 7. were coming 8. hadn't stayed 9. would pay 19. had followed 11. would offer 12. had informed

* 1. Ce n-as da sa o asculti mai atent pe profesoara. 2. Ai dori sa-ti fi trimis o ilustrata? 3. As fi dorit sa imi fi pus scrisoarea la posta pentru mine. 4. Nu isi doresc prietenii tai sa mergi cu ei in excursie? 5. Ce n-ar da mama sa iau note mai bune la scoala. 6. Baieteii si-ar fi dorit sa aiba voie sa inoate in lac. 7. Nu ti-ai dori sa fie vara acum? 8. Nu isi doreste profesoara ta sa iti imbunatatesti pronuntia?

*1. were answering 2. hadn't taken, had come 3. would give 4. would stay 5. hadn't heard 6. stopped 7. had stayed 8. was 9. had been

* 1. Ann wishes she weren't /wasn't so busy this week. 2. We'll have to wait for twenty minutes until the train comes in. I wish I hadn't left home so early! 3. The little boy wishes his parents would send him to the Sinaia summer camp, but I'm sure they'll take him to his grandparents in the country. 4. If only I could find the most suitable words! 5. He boasted he had solved all the maths problems by himself. If only you had heard him! 6. I wish she will pass / passes this difficult examination! 7. I'd rather go and see a film than waste my time waiting for you. 8. Your first exam is next Monday, it's time you got down to work. 9. It's a week since you received Angela's letter. It's time you answered her letter. 10. If only the engine wouldn't stop right in the middle of the bend! 11. Diana is talking as if/ as though she didn't know anything about the conference. 12. I'd rather he had told the truth. 13. He behaved as if / though he himself had made all the preparations for the festival. 14. All my friends are playing handball in the sportsground. I wish / if only I could play handball.

* 1. It is strange that he should spend so little when he knows that cheapest is the dearest. 2. It is unbelivable that he should have been reading when he should have been working on his dissertation. 3. It is remarkable that they should have been working for two hours and had finished the job when you arrived. 4. Don't you think it unbelivable that the butter should go bad so soon? 5. I insist that you should go aside because you are in the way. 6. The boy is clever at all games, so he will play anything you ask him to. 7. He said he was competent at his job so that we might trust him. 8. He is delighted with the idea of going to the seaside as though he did not know it was too cold there now. 9. May you live long and be happy! 10. Whatever he may be cooking when you arrived, he ought to have given you a helping.



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