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DISTRIBUTION IN LABOR BY EDUCATION HUMAN RESOURCES

human-resources

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DISTRIBUTION IN LABOR BY EDUCATION HUMAN RESOURCES




Abstract: Education is an important factor in ensuring the development of local communities. Educational establishments, the main institutions that provide education, who are relatively evenly distributed in the territory but not witnessing and a resemblance to the structure of population depending on the level of education. The distribution of population between the social, rural and urban, depending on the level of education, provides a snapshot of the gap that exists between the two, suggesting the difficulty of rural communities to adapt to changes in the absence of a class of population with a high. This brings attention to the potential of the region and localities to maintain population levels of education as high as a condition to ensure community development.

Key words: education, education, rural, urban employment population, active population, level of education, human resources, social, business groups, economic sectors.

Economic phenomena that occur in the contemporary world show that the ideas and the ability to produce innovation are more valuable than the use of classical production systems. Economic entity such as Microsoft, Toyota, IBM etc. have become cornerstones of modern economic activities due to the ability of human capital to create new technologies based on innovative ideas, which at the time seemed to be only the fruit of an enthusiastic imagination. Initial economic inferiority has not been an impediment to the representatives of these companies, leading to, after some period of time, as most companies to seek services and products of their intellectual. Such examples are numerous and show that through the development of human capital to reduce the distances due to reduced economic resources. Along with economic resources recognized and quantified mathematically a new brings in money, to resource: human resource.

In Gary S. Beker book Human Capital, Edward Denison 'finds that the average worker increased schooling, between 1929 - 1982, explains a quarter of personal income growth during this period. He is not able to explain the remaining growth. I like to think that this is happening, mainly because he can not measure the effects on earnings from improving health, school work and other kinds of human capital.'

The reference illustrates that previous research are limited to explaining one aspect without surprise the extent to which the complex dimensions of the human being interconnect in a harmonious whole. These indicators represent the social 'polish up' human beings are filled by family influence, and economic context of the residential environment in which the human subject.

Table 1. Population depending on the level of education and age groups

Level of education

Age groups

College

Post specialized or technical foremen

High school

Professional, complementary or apprenticeship

Gymnasium

Primary school or unschooled

Total

Source: National Institute of Statistics, Statistical Yearbook 2006

The table above provides an image of the structure of human capital in terms of age. Age group has the largest share of graduates of higher education is that of persons aged 25-34 years, followed by age group 45-54 years. Higher school was completed by those who in 2005 were part of the group 45-54 years in the percentage of 6.3%. Most high school graduates are part of the age groups 35-44 years, which hold 43.6% and 25-34 years who hold 36.5%.

Lower levels of education are seen in patients with older age, and who now are in the group 45-54 years, 30.6% graduates of vocational schools and apprenticeship and those aged between 55-64 years of secondary school graduates at the rate of 33.1%. The same age group has the largest share of primary school graduates or people who were not scolarizate which together comprise a percentage of 23.0%. Age group 15-24 years is a specific apart whereas a large proportion of its components are included in various forms of schooling. The other groups reflect the evolution of school population in recent history of Romania. This structure shows a higher frequency of graduates of higher education in younger age groups, while senior groups have a higher percentage of people without education or with primary or secondary school. It should be noted that the share of the population graduates of higher education works as a conduct for social change and reform society. Communities with a small percentage of graduates of higher education are in difficulty due to a lack of social forces that ensure that local initiative in most cases, which can be a reliable partner for dialogue for local public institutions in the establishment of partnerships between the quality civil society and local authorities. More profitable economic sectors are those that enable the largest possible number of employees with a highly qualified, which turns this segment of the population in a possible indicator of welfare.

The benefits of higher training is observed in searching for a job, as professional mobility allows downward if the person in question is not competitive or labor market does not offer possibility of activities in which a person is ready. It may be candidates for positions involving a lower level of education or offering activities in areas related to basic training.

The dynamics of the current labor market reveals the existence of changes resulting from economic reforms. Thus, certain occupations have become less linked to the labor market while others have taken a greater magnitude because of the economic development which includes.

Analysis of mutations that have occurred in the labor market in Romania offers significant details on how they have evolved different activities. Thus, the dynamics of current offers niche employment for a large number of applicants and eliminates the economic sectors of a number of items belonging to areas in decline.

According Classification of Occupations in Romania occupational groups which have reduced most dimensions, between 1977-2002 (according to censuses conducted in those years) are technicians and assimilated(-106.7 thousand), skilled workers in agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (-1559.4 thousand), Workers (-1553.9 thousand) and unskilled workers (-403.1 thousand). The highest increases were recorded in the categories professionals with intellectual occupations (222 thousand) and operational workers in services and trade (242.1 thousand). Reporting to the study of these occupational groups shows increasing share of occupations involving higher education and a massive decrease in occupations requiring a minimum level of education. Unequal distribution in the territory of the population with higher education correlated with local economic resources, which also are unevenly distributed leading to a different profile regional and zonal. Depending on the training of human capital and resources that we have can we talk about capacity interiorizare at the regional level, the principles of modern conduct of economic and social activity. Capacity reform is dependent on the ability of social invoare in local communities, within which a decisive role it plays population with a high educational level. Distribution of the population on average, depending on the level of education and age, and highlights the potential existing at this time, allowing the identification of future needs in terms of human capital, but also need investment in certain sectors of activity designed to conserve, numerical and qualitative human resources in each region. Balancing the profile of human resources between the two is hindered by a lack sectors of activity which may include people with a higher level of training. Today, we talk about people with a high in rural areas, agriculture, in education, health and small local businesses, but not offering opportunity maintenance in rural areas a sufficient number of people with a high balance to balance the urban area.

Table 2. The structure of the active population in rural areas depending on age and education

RURAL PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL POPULATION

ACTIVE POPULATION

AGE GROUP

%

EDUCATION LEVEL

TOTAL

College

Graduate long

Graduate short

MIDDLE

Post specialized or technical foremen

High school

Professional, complementary or apprenticeship

Level I high school

Low level

Gymnasium

Primary

Unschooled



Source: National Institute of Statistics, employment in Romania, employment and unemployment in 2005, Bucharest in 2006 – data processing

Distribution by age group shows that the largest share, compared with urban areas, persons with higher education holds a category 55-64 years. The terms currently offered by rural standards are not soliticitate graduates of higher education that the majority residing in urban areas. Rural retain only 10.06% people of working age with higher education. Among these, most are part of the category mentioned above, namely those who have worked for years in rural areas and who do not wish to migrate to urban areas. Comparing the two offers information on the new scale transformations taking place. The next group, as a share compared with urban areas, the population of working age in rural areas, graduated from higher education is the age group 15-24 years, which has a rate of 14.36%. The weights held in relation to urban increase as we take into account lower levels of education. In the case of graduates of secondary education we see that in all age groups held weights are more than 20%. If in the case of education school graduates weights are very small, less than 20%, with the exception of the age group 55-64 years, when high school graduates held weights ranged from 21.03% - age group 45-54 years and 35.09% - age group 15-24 years for graduates of vocational school or apprenticeship to exceed 50% in age categories 55-64 years and 15-24 years.

The share of people who have a low level of education, secondary education, primary school or not is absolute with respect to urban areas in all age categories. Possible explanations of the low level of education for all age groups is that of identifying the needs of education in relation to the occupation of basic agriculture. The methods for the agriculture are largely traditional and does not require additional efforts to increase preparedness. It can be assumed that a mentality which is transmitted from generation to generation, on the understanding that success and social trajectory calculation excludes the professional level of schooling. Also, another reason that is often invoked to explain the low level of education is the poverty and inability to support one or more children in the education system. It should be noted that children from rural areas to basic costs are added and the price necessary transport shuttle or accommodation for large distance to the home, whereas schools that offer a higher level of education are located mainly in urban areas. The statistical data mentioned can provide a image of the differences between living conditions and education between the two areas: while urban children are heading to school, those in rural areas are integrated into the household of Rural and participate according to age different activities. If the child urban families, teenagers, and the student represents an investment of parents in the case of rural talk of a member of a production unit. Quality of education suffers from this point of view because of budget limitation of time, and mostly school drop-outs or waiving of the first studies after graduating classes, or mandatory levels, and is caused by this specific rural communities. Know that the statistical data provides a snapshot of the active elderly population is predominantly of rural areas: 96.22% for people with low education and 86.73% for people with a median. Analysis of employment offers in addition to the previous image provided by the stock of human capital at age active.

Tabelul 3. Structura populatiei ocupate din mediul rural in functie de studii si varsta

POPULATION EMPLOYMENT

RURAL PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL POPULATION

AGE GROUP

TOTAL

College

Graduate long

Universitar de scurta durata

MIDDLE

Post specialized or technical foremen

High school

Professional, complementary or apprenticeship

Level I high school

Low level

Gymnasium

Primary

Unschooled

TOTAL

Source: National Institute of Statistics, employment in Romania, employment and unemployment in 2005, Bucharest in 2006 - data processing

Comparison categories of people active and occupied population shows a low attractiveness of rural and reduced capacity for employment, graduated from higher education. If the weights active population in rural areas, compared with the urban, have argued that the urban environment is preferred by those with higher education, employment, according to studies and environmental rural limits highlights. Comparing tables that show the two statistical categories that we see in young age groups there are some differences. Such, the category 15-24 years are an occupancy rate less than the working population in the same category. In the case of the category 25-34 years of age population employed in rural areas than half the total. It should be noted that revenue between the two residence weigh in favor of the urban environment. Thus, those working in urban areas are higher than those in rural areas and regions with a greater degree of urbanity and secondary and tertiary sectors more developed additional opportunities to obtain higher revenue. Employment higher in rural areas do not suggest a standard of living higher. This specific family households in which all those who work do it for subsistence and not to obtain profit. Groups of older age have an employment higher than those young, which corspunde growth demographics body that tends towards an aging population in rural areas. A part of the population employed in rural areas was in 2005 given in various forms of education. In relation to the same category of urban population get the following data:

Tabelul 4. Structura populatiei ocupate din mediul rural cuprinsa in principalele forme de invatamant

POPULATION EMPLOYMENT

RURAL PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL POPULATION

AGE GROUP

FORM OF EDUCATION

TOTAL

University

Pre university

No form of education

Source: National Institute of Statistics, employment in Romania, employment and unemployment in 2005, Bucharest in 2006 - data processing

The percentages in the table above indicates a possible behavioral pattern. Thus, in the pre-university education find people 60.04% (compared with those in urban) completed their studies while working, and 20.49% are university studies. A major gap between the two media is given by the percentage of 59.17% people who do not follow any form of training, although the optimal age (15-24 years) for completing and finalizing studies. Analyzing this table and differences emerged between the employment-population estimate that active population in rural areas there is a tendency to maximize the use of labor and raw neexploatare full human potential with a high level of education. Line of development may come as a dynamic own implusul local actors prepared to manage on their own interests than by the import of ideas, strategies and skilled human capital. The period of education does not exceed the age of 24 years in the case of pre-university education and 34 years in higher education. Those who exceed this age become indifferent to the opportunities that raises the school or even reluctant to continue their studies.

Tabelul 5. Structura populatiei ocupate din mediul rural in functie de grupa de varsta si grupa de activitate

RURAL PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL POPULATION



POPULATION EMPLOYMENT

AGE GROUP

GROUP ACTIVITY

TOTAL

Agriculture, hunting, forestry

Fishing and fish farming

Mining

Manufacturing

Electricity, gas and water

Construction

Wholesale and retail

Hotels and restaurants

Transport, storage and communications

Financial intermediation

Real estate, renting and business services provided by enterprises

Public administration and defense, social security in the public

Education

Health and welfare

Other activities of the national economy

Source: National Institute of Statistics, employment in Romania, employment and unemployment in 2005, Bucharest in 2006 - data processing

Scope of activity that offer the most opportunities for employment is agriculture. In relation to the urban environment, this area of activity is the 'monopoly of the employment area. In the other categories of occupations, which involve a higher level of training, rural areas provide opportunities much lower compared to urban areas. Analyzing the relationship between urban and rural areas, we can conclude that explained the difference between urban and rural areas, but also different directions of development which follows the communities of the two.

Employment in agriculture explains the massive multiplication of small family farms that are difficult to counter and integrated into a unified national policy. Mutations in the powerful economic influence of these small family farms that do not possess the strength necessary economic management crisis affecting the markets for agricultural products. In these circumstances we find that there is a vicious circle in which small landowners can not get out on their own. Unequal development of areas of activity between the two can increase migration to urban areas or emigration exit from the vicious circle of poverty. In combination career is evidence of a specific occurrence of every age and occupation favorite. Level of schooling becomes definitive separation and, at every age group, among the most sought. Although rural holder monopoly on agriculture see that the structure of advanced countries do not indicate a substantial increase in employment in agriculture. At present it may be noted that agriculture is at the level at which it is not just an economic activity, but fulfills a function of social protection due to a large mass of the population employed in agriculture that do not work in public security systems (unemployment or other forms of social protection). Level of education and capacity absortie according to the studies represent an indicator of the structure of human resources in rural areas. Areas of industrial activity provides the possibility of employment well prepared. Identifying areas of ACTV that enables people likely to become local leaders who can contribute to increased sociabilitatii in local communities, becoming potential promoters of community development policies, offers the possibility rise type of human capital existing policies and facilitate the election of the community development best. Please note that a policy of community development to achieve their goal of greater efficiency at the time that their implementation is done through local agents.

Data available at the end of 2005 provides information on the capacity of employment in fields depending on the level of education.

Table 6. Population in rural areas according to the studies and work groups

SUPERIOR

MEDIUM

GROUP ACTIVITY

Graduate long

Graduate short

Post specialized or technical foremen

High school

Professional complementary or apprenticeship

Level I high school

TOTAL

Agriculture, hunting, forestry

Fishing and fish farming

Mining

Manufacturing

Electricity, gas and water



Construction

Wholesale and retail

Hotels and restaurants

Transport, storage and communications

Financial intermediation

Real estate, renting and business services provided by enterprises

Public administration and defense, social security in the public

Education

Health and welfare

Other activities of the national economy

Source: National Institute of Statistics, employment in Romania, employment and unemployment in 2005, Bucharest in 2006 - data processing

Note: Differences of up to 100% from 'Total' is due to people who are busy in other economic systems, those who are traveling to study or work in another city or abroad but have links with family and household in rural areas

The possibility of offering employment to graduates of higher education are: agriculture, manufacturing, public administration and defense and education. Other working groups are not represented in the rural level employees with higher education.

Preparing average employment opportunities to graduates of schools post in five categories of activity, adding in addition to those characteristic of higher education with health and social assistance. High school graduates are represented in all groups of assets in rural areas. Those who find the largest share of college graduates are: agriculture, manufacturing and trade. Among those who have graduated from vocational schools, complementary and disciples 50.09% are employed in agriculture, 20.57% in manufacturing and 6.97% in construction. Other categories of activity have reduced representation. Those who were stopped at Level I school (10 classes) are found in a smaller number of working groups. The highest level of employment in agriculture-60.18%. The following groups of activities are manufacturing, construction and trade.

Decrease the level of education is reflected in the reduction of activity in groups that are occupied by elderly people active. Providing rural people who were stopped at this level study the possibility of employment mainly in agriculture, as the statistics indicate by the 82.08% study Education gymnasiums, which are included in construction and trade, followed by categories administatia Public and defense with 1.19% and the categories of activity: education, health and welfare and other activities of the national economy, with smaller percentages of 1.0%. The other two groups of primary-and without education, provides posiblitatea employment in agriculture and only work in manufacturing is an alternative only for graduates of primary school. Lack of opportunities is evident in those deprived of education. Typology of families in this category is restricted to a limited universe that is less open to new and modern but welcoming for expressions flagelurilor modern world: alcoholism, violence, etc. intrafamiliala. From the appearance in the family of their status to increased poverty and social marginalization is a short distance.

Table 7. Population in rural areas according to the studies and work groups

LOW

Secondary

Primary

No school

TOTAL

Agriculture, hunting, forestry

Fishing and fish farming

Mining

Manufacturing

Electricity, gas and water

Construction

Wholesale and retail

Hotels and restaurants

Transport, storage and communications

Financial intermediation

Real estate, renting and business services provided by enterprises

Public administration and defense, social security in the public

Education

Health and welfare

Other activities of the national economy

Source: National Institute of Statistics, employment in Romania, employment and unemployment in 2005, Bucharest in 2006 - data processing

Note: Differences of up to 100% from 'Total' is due to people who are busy in other economic systems, those who are traveling to study or work in another city or abroad but have links with family and household in rural areas

Population has a negative evolution in terms of the demographic future of the rural environment. Decrease the share of young population, with demographic in rural areas, which take into account and reduce the intensity of demographic phenomena that influence body growth demographics (number of marriage, birth, migration, etc.). Or at least a change of generations balanced compete poblems emphasis on the social. The implementation of economic reforms is facing difficulties due to lack of power or reduced the shedding of human agents. Campaign reform is an exterior and is not accepted by the people, which makes participation in social transformations to be low.

Conclusions

Rural areas are still in times of the border. The two production systems face some challenges. Increased productivity and efficiency of the agricultural activity conducted on the actions specific to the market economy are a small number of practicing, while small farms represent the absolute majority of production units in rural areas. The aim of the latter is that of ensuring the survival of family members. Their integration into economic development becomes a non-sense because the different objectives of public policies and strategies which is due to individual particularities of peasant households. Reforms in agriculture, under the sign of social justice and not of economic performance, have created an important class of owners. They are entitled to certain areas of land without the means of production and what they put in difficulty and make them dependent on those who have these facilities. Lack of technical expertise, knowledge of the practice of agriculture quality reinforced the issue of how traditional. An analysis of professional stock in rural areas indicates the existence of a broad categories of people with low education, the age that represents a significant percentage of owners of agricultural land and an important category of the population at age enterprises which are seeking a job, which can be understood as a constant carelessness towards holding its own profitability. If we consider that of those who are in search of work are a big part of the family non-paid workers get a image as close to the truth and peasant farm posibility an estimate close to the future: the difficulties of peasant holdings will increase in direct relation to the depopulation of villages and households of default by reducing the number of workers who are employed in the category of work mentioned. Those who can be agents of development, people with a high level of education, represents a small percentage of the labor force, and the emergence of a class of young people aged at this level indicates a process to compensate for the lack thereof. These people are not, in large part, holding agricultural land. They belong to families or community members and influence on the owners depend on the propensity to new, difficult to achieve if the lack of knowledge and technical assistance reinforced to the present traditional methods of cultivation of land and on the principles of traditional peasant household. Now we find that existing disparities have increased between the regions development. Fields are linked, and the lack of representation or weak link them (in the case of groups of occupations) will slow or even prevent the development of other sectors. Regions or communities that have become unattractive to those areas, and the culture of work and enterprise is located under the sway of regional specificity. In conclusion, the economic structures in the light of that ship categories of activity creates certain profiles of human resources. The share of persons with higher education is a guarantee of success, and lack of opportunities he departs from the under-developed and they headed towards the region that provides opportunities to meet individual needs.

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